Woodpeckers belong to the detachment of woodpeckers and form which unites about thirty genera and two hundred and twenty species. Almost all woodpeckers lead either sedentary or roaming.
Flights, as a rule, make only for insignificant distances, and fly reluctantly. Woodpeckers do not form colonies, but almost always live alone.
Woodpeckers are small or medium sized birds. The length of their body varies from eight to fifty centimeters, and weight from seven to four hundred fifty grams. Weight of seven grams has a woodpecker, who lives in South America – a golden-haired giraffe (his body length is only eight centimeters).
The largest representative of the family lives in Southeast Asia. This is a big muller woodpecker. The length of his body exceeds sixty centimeters, and weight – six hundred grams.
The distribution of woodpeckers covers the forest zones. This feature of their life was reflected in particular on the structure of the feet of these birds. The legs of woodpeckers are short. Long fingers (two of which are directed forward, and two back) are endowed with sharp claws.
Basically individuals of all kinds of woodpeckers climb trees have a support in the form of tail tail feathers, which they have very well developed. The exception are the djatelki that form the subfamily.
Beak is strong and thin in woodpeckers. It serves to chop wood or bark in search of food or in settling the nest. For these purposes, the beak is not suitable for the twigs. It is too weak and not intended for chipping wood.
Woodpeckers have a rough long tongue. It serves to extract the detected insect from the moves in the wood. The diet of some woodpeckers includes termites, ants and even berries, and in winter – seeds of plants.
The laying of woodpeckers, as a rule, contains from three to seven eggs of white color with a shiny surface. The incubation period varies from ten to twelve days. Both female and male participate in hatching. Chicks are born helpless and naked.
The distribution of woodpeckers is huge.
These birds are widespread almost everywhere. They can not be found except in the circumpolar regions, Madagascar, New Guinea, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland and some oceanic islands. In Russia, you can meet representatives of fourteen species of the family of woodpeckers. Of these, the most common are small variegated, large variegated, three-toed gray-haired, green woodpeckers, as well as a twig and yellow. Woodpeckers inhabit wooded areas. Often these birds are tied to the forests. Here they live, building their home on trees, here they also eat. Biological diversity is provided, among other things, by climatic conditions – for example, high relative air humidity contributes to the abundance. The fact is that in the moist air there are more trees that are prone to putrefaction and fungal infection. Thus, ideal conditions for the existence of insects are created. And the latter are included in the diet of woodpeckers. There are some kinds of woodpeckers who could adapt to living in desert conditions. This, for example, is found on the territory of South America, the Andean awlak woodpecker and the South African earthy woodpecker that is found on the territory of Africa. Almost on the ground the green woodpecker finds its livelihood.
Woodpeckers nest in hollows.
This applies to all members of the family. Interestingly, some individuals themselves hollow hollows (they belong to most species of the family), and some do not. For example, vertices are simply not able to hollow out a hollow. However, these birds are able to deepen or expand the existing hollow. Typically, the construction and arrangement of a hollow requires about two weeks. But a cockade in the southeast of the United States can build one hollow for several years.
The white-cheeked woodpecker is an inhabitant of North America.
Specimens of the white-beaked woodpecker are found in the southeast of this continent.Representatives of the species have mastered vast areas of marsh forests. Coloring is strict. Black color is the main color of plumage of a white-billed woodpecker. Wide bands of white are on the sides of the neck (start from the back of the neck). These bands connect to each other on the back. Almost all the wing of a white-bearded woodpecker also has a white color. Representatives of this species are endowed with a beautiful tuft. The female has a black color, while the male has a bright red color. The beak of the white-billed woodpecker is gray, so this woodpecker got its name. The white-cheeked woodpecker is large. The length of his body exceeds half a meter. These woodpeckers live in pairs. Perhaps, the established couples are preserved throughout their lives. In the diet of white-billed woodpeckers, as a rule, include pupae, larvae and adults of beetles; At the end of summer and in the autumn they diversify it with fruits and berries of wild trees.
The period of breeding of white-needled woodpeckers is in March.
These birds are extremely cautious. In nesting period they find the most secluded corners of the forest. The hollow is built only in the trunk of a living tree. As a rule, they are oak. The hollow is settled at a significant height. Often, the entrance to the hollow is under a branch or a large bough. This is necessary in order to protect the hollow from the ingress of water into it in rainy weather. A hollow is chopped both male and female. The number of eggs in the masonry varies from five to seven. They have a pure white surface. Eggs are placed directly on the bottom of the hollow. In the south of the range of distribution of white-billed woodpeckers, the chicks are bred twice a season. In the northern regions of the distribution range, only one masonry is observed in the woodpeckers during the season.
The ways of a white-billed woodpecker are special.
These birds have an unusually beautiful wavy flight, and during the flight from one tree to another, the white-cheeked woodpecker first rises to the very top of the tree and then plans down. At the same time he describes a smooth arc (does not wave his wings). The white-cheeked woodpecker rarely makes long distances. To a much greater degree, he prefers climbing along branches of trees and trunk. He often jumps from one tree to another.
The voice of a white-billed woodpecker can be heard within a radius of one kilometer.
Three-syllable, clean, pleasant and sonorous scream “pat-pet-pat”, white-tailed woodpeckers publish so often that it is sometimes difficult to answer the question whether these birds are silent for at least a minute throughout the day.
A thorough examination by woodpeckers of trunks is important for finding food.
Finding food these birds begin with the bottom of the tree. The woodpecker moves upward along a spiral, examining not only the trunk, but also large branches. Woodpeckens chop slits and cracks in the bark, where they find insects. Woodpeckers are very strong birds. A chip with a length of twenty centimeters can be repelled with just one blow of the beak. When woodpeckers look for a shrunken tree, then they shoot down a couple of square meters of the surface of its trunk in just a couple of hours.
The beauty of the white-cheeked woodpeckers is the reason for their destruction.
People kill these birds for their unusual head. Travelers often crave for the memory of the head of this woodpecker. For them, this is a kind of souvenir, reminiscent of the places where the white-billed woodpecker lives on boggy soils. Nowadays, the white-cheeked woodpecker has become a rare bird. Moreover, on a significant part of the range of its distribution, it has already disappeared.
Acorn woodpecker is notable for stockiness.
His reserves are huge. In the autumn time acorn woodpeckers hollow out thousands of small potholes in trunks and branches of pine, eucalyptus, and oak trees. They serve as a place for acorns. Sometimes such cells are made by woodpeckers even in telegraph poles. And the size of woodpeckers are amazing. For example, in one California California forest, about twenty thousand acorns were found, which were driven by an acorn-colored woodpecker in the bark of sycamore. Moreover, approximately fifty thousand acorns were found in the bark of one pine.
Acorn woodpeckers live in separate groups.
Each group includes from three to twelve woodpeckers and occupies a rather large territory. Extraneous individuals are expelled from the occupied territory, each member of the group participating in the defense. The whole group collects acorns together and also uses harvested stocks when necessary. With the onset of spring, the folded group is not divided into separate pairs. One common nest is equipped, and all the females lay eggs in it. Nasizhivanie masonry also occurs collectively, as well as feeding the offspring born. Monogamous way of life in acorns of woodpeckers is a rare phenomenon and almost always temporary. These are instincts.
The green woodpecker is notable for its beauty.
Yellowish color has wings and a dorsal side of the body, feathery feathers are marked with brown color, brilliant-yellow – tadpole. The tail is brownish-black. It is adorned with transverse bands of grayish color. The back of the head and the top of the head have a reddish hue, and the cheeks and the area around the eyes are black. The ventral side of the body of the green woodpecker is pale green. This color is colored by dark pestrinami. The shape of the body of a green woodpecker is somewhat similar to the shape of the body of a large variegated woodpecker. However, the size of the green woodpecker is somewhat larger. The length of the body of a green woodpecker varies from thirty-five to thirty-seven centimeters, and the weight reaches two hundred and fifty grams.
Green woodpecker is the inhabitant of mixed and deciduous European forests.
It occurs east of the Volga, as well as in the Caucasus and in the front of Asia. The green woodpecker prefers to develop territories on which forests are replaced by open spaces, and open spaces by forests. The best place to settle is in the woods, which are rich in different-aged trees. The diet of these birds includes a variety of insects, but the most preferred food is ants. The last woodpecker is ready to eat in huge quantities. Insects green woodpeckers, like other woodpeckers, look for tree trunks, but for the catch of ants a green woodpecker is forced to descend to the ground (which in principle is not without hunting). Inside the discovered anthills woodpeckers make deep passages. Similarly, green woodpeckers find pupae of these insects.
Green woodpeckers are cautious birds.
Educated pairs of individuals arrange hollows in a distance from each other. In this regard, to meet representatives of this species is not an easy task. Green woodpeckers, however, give their location in the nesting period, when they start to make loud cries. Moreover, both male and female scream throughout the day in the next order. Dozly green woodpeckers hollow out mainly in old and rotting trees. It can be willows, pine trees, aspens. Eggs are deposited in May. One masonry consists of five to nine shiny white eggs. Both parents participate in hatching eggs and then feeding the chicks.
Ground woodpecker is a medium sized bird.
The length of the body of an earthen woodpecker is about twenty-five centimeters. The earthen woodpecker has a rather modest color of plumage – olive-brown color is predominant for it. The head of the earthen woodpecker is gray.
Earth woodpecker is an inhabitant of the South American territories.
He prefers to adhere to treeless territories. Earthen woodpecker often inhabits the slopes of ravines, high banks of rivers or outcrops of mountain slopes. This kind of terrain is unusual for most members of the family. The earthen woodpecker was able to adapt as much as possible to similar living conditions. Representatives of this species occasionally can be seen in thickets of thick bush. On the ground, earthen woodpeckers move by jumping, this is where the name of the species began – these woodpeckers do not cut the bark and the wood of the trees, but they are able to make passes on the slopes of the hills, etc. The moves are necessary for them both to arrange the dwelling and in search sustenance.The length of an earthen woodpecker’s dwelling (where the offspring is born) reaches about one meter – in appearance it looks like a burrow, which in the end forms a small cave. In the bottom of this cave, earthen woodpeckers, as a rule, are covered with tufts of animal fur. The masonry of earthen woodpeckers contains from three to five eggs. Eggs are pure white. A significant part of life representatives of this species are digging in the ground in order to find food. Earthen woodpeckers can find food on the surface of the earth. In the diet of their nutrition include larvae of insects and adults, in addition, diversify the diet of spiders and worms.
The golden woodpecker is vividly colored.
The color of this woodpecker is quite bright and beautiful. The dorsal side of the body of this small bird (the length of the body of the earthen woodpecker is approximately equal to twenty-seven centimeters) has a clayey-brown color, which is differentiated by transverse black patches and white overtail. The ventral side of the body of the golden woodpecker has a white color, against which black spots are particularly prominent. A red strip traces the gray head of a golden woodpecker. Golden colors have trunks of steering and fly feathers. When flying, representatives of this species wiggle their wings quite often. The distribution area of the golden woodpecker covers the plains of the North American continent. The meat of a golden woodpecker is highly appreciated by hunters.
A redwooded woodpecker is a typical inhabitant of the North American continent.
The redwood woodpecker has a relatively small size – its body length is only twenty-three centimeters. This woodpecker has a dense physique. His neck is short, and his head is large. In North America, redwooded woodpeckers try to adhere to sparse forests. To feed these birds often fly out to the edge. Sometimes these woodpeckers fly into settlements. In the spring, red-headed woodpeckers rarely build a new hollow. Basically, these birds find already existing hollows, clear, “reconstruct” and use them. If several hollows are hollowed out in one tree, then only one of them is again occupied. Red-headed woodpeckers hollow out hollows only in old shrunken trees, while in healthy trees they can not build a nest.
The red-headed woodpecker has a mischievous temperament.
These birds are very inhospitable. They can, for example, tap their beaks on the roofs of apartment buildings and climb on their windows. Red-headed woodpeckers often hide when a person approaches, and then they find themselves drumming in the place where they sit. Thus, they seem to be chuckling at a man who did not immediately notice their presence. Red-headed woodpeckers can also bring troubles to a person’s economic life. Huge flocks of these woodpeckers devastate orchards, eat berries, and so on. These birds are very interesting to deal with apples – with all their might, stabbing a beak into a fruit they tear it. With this inconvenient burden, the red-headed woodpecker flies to the nearest fence, where, after tearing it to pieces, it eats it. The red woodpeckers inflict great damage on the grain fields. These birds not only eat grain, they, in addition, trample the ears into the ground or simply break them.
Red-headed woodpeckers are capable of predation.
These birds do not mind drinking eggs found in the nests of small birds. After satisfying the hunger, individuals of this species gather in small flocks. At this time, they begin to hunt for insects. Sitting on the branches, they look out for flying insects, and then with the help of bends and pirouettes seize them. Observe this scene is very interesting. The diet of these woodpeckers includes insects, berries and fruits, as well as grains and seeds of a variety of plants.
Copper woodpecker is the inhabitant of the territories of North America.
Distribution area covers the semi-desert western areas of the continent. The way of life of a copper woodpecker is somewhat identical to the way of life of a golden woodpecker (in part, these two species are similar to each other externally).An important distinguishing feature of a copper woodpecker is its ability to store food. This feature is extremely important for those harsh conditions for birds, where a copper woodpecker lives. Lifeless for almost the entire year, the terrain on which the copper woodpecker dwells has a negative effect on any traveler who has come here, for whom a meeting with copper woodpeckers can be very joyful and positive. In dry stems of agaves (in the lower part of the trunk, and then above, small holes are made), representatives of this species create original pantries – here the birds hide acorns. If the stalk of the agave is split down, it will be found that it is full of acorns, for which the woodpecker has to spend a lot of energy. However, the forces and time are needed not only for the construction of such warehouses, but also for finding the acorns themselves. They can be obtained only at the slopes of the nearest mountains, therefore copper woodpeckers are forced to make kilometer flights. Throughout the dry season, copper woodpeckers can be seen in places where agaves form thickets – there are warehouses of these woodpeckers. During the rainy season, copper woodpeckers spread out across valleys – here they find insects, mostly ants.
The winged woodpecker is a small bird.
Its size does not exceed the size of this woodpecker is endowed with variegated coloring of the tail. His color is mottled. A distinctive feature of representatives of this species is the presence of sharp wings. The distribution area of these woodpeckers covers the territories of Sakhalin, the Ussuri region, the Japanese and southern Kuril Islands, the Korean peninsula, and also the northeastern provinces of China. In the nesting period, winged woodpeckers try to adhere to plantings of soft tree species. It can be poplar, lime, velvet, etc. in such trees, woodpeckers can easily hollow out a hollow or find an existing one. Masonry is in May. In the rest of the time representatives of this species can be found in flocks of tits. Together with these birds, winged woodpeckers look for insects, carefully examining the surface of bushes and trees. Three-toed woodpecker is an unusual bird.
She is very beautiful and colorful. Black pestriny decorate the white back of a three-fingered woodpecker. The tail is black and bordered with white stripes. The female three-fingered woodpecker has gray hairs, and the male has yellow hairs. The distinctive feature of individuals of this species is the absence of one finger on the legs. Three-toed woodpeckers have only one finger turned back and two facing forward. Three-toed woodpecker is small in size. The length of the wing of the individual varies from twelve to thirteen centimeters. The range of distribution of these woodpeckers covers the territories of Eastern and Central Europe, Siberia, and North America. Three-fingered woodpeckers prefer to inhabit deaf coniferous forests. In the southern regions of its range of distribution, they live in mountain forests.
The breeding season for three-toed woodpeckers begins early.
It starts in February and lasts until May. At this time, males are actively banging their beaks on dry branches, they are shouting and chirping. Three-fingered woodpeckers are built in spruce and larch (the latter option is preferable for these birds), most often these are scorched or decaying trees. Sometimes you can find a hollow of a three-fingered woodpecker, even in stumps. Representatives of this species, as a rule, build a hollow at a height of one to six meters. Masonry consists of three to six white eggs. Some time after the chicks fly out of the nest, they, along with their parents, wander through the forest. However, soon the brood disintegrates.
Three-toed woodpecker is a gluttonous bird.
And very useful for the forest. During one winter day this bird is able to tear off the bark from that spruce, which is infected by bark beetles, and the number of larvae of the latter reaches about ten thousand pieces! But even if a three-toed woodpecker does not cope with a day with so much food, the larvae of the bark beetle will still die in the cold.
The color of different individuals of the red woodpecker varies.
The main tone of feathering of some individuals of this species is really red or rusty-red. The color of the other individuals may be dark chestnut or brown. The tail and wings of the red woodpecker have transverse bands of black color. The feathering of representatives of this species is covered with a sticky substance – these are the juices of ants, crushed by red woodpeckers. Smell of formic acid impregnated plumage of red woodpeckers. Red-headed woodpecker is a small bird – the length of its body is approximately twenty-five centimeters. Another interesting feature is the underdevelopment of the thumb. Because of this, the paws of the red woodpecker seem at first glance three-fingered.
The red woodpecker is building unique nests.
Or rather, they do not build them at all. Red woodpeckers arrange a nest in an anthill. True, the anthills are also unusual – they are built by large ants directly in the crowns of trees at a height of two to twenty meters from the surface of the earth. But the most surprising is that the ants do not touch the incubating eggs of the female and the eggs themselves, although the female of the redheaded woodpecker easily pinches the pupae of ants. The laying of a red woodpecker consists of three eggs. At first the eggs have a white surface, however, constant contact with formic acid does its job, and the surface of the eggs after a while turns brownish.
The large motley woodpecker has a variegated color of plumage.
It is, indeed, a very beautiful bird. The main colors of the plumage coloration are black and white. A distinctive feature of the female from the male is the absence of a red spot on the crown.