Vascular crises are acute disorders of local blood flow and systemic hemodynamics. Their second name is angiodystonic crises. The cause of vascular crises are disorders of vascular tone. This may be a hypotension of veins, hypotension or, conversely, hypertension of the arteries, as well as a disruption in the functioning of arteriovenous tissue anastomoses.
Vascular crises can be classified as follows: the prevalence of hemodynamic disorders, they are divided into systemic and regional. Systemic vascular crises manifest themselves in the form of changes that relate to the capacity of peripheral veins or general peripheral resistance to blood flow.
Regional vascular crises lead to impaired blood supply to the organ or tissue (that is, the disorder is localized). To diagnose a vascular crisis, it is necessary to check whether the patient has symptoms of a general hemodynamic disorder or regional hemodynamics, and also to exclude the presence of their connection with other pathologies of the heart or blood vessels.
In most cases, emergency medical care is required. Prevention of vascular crises corresponds to the prevention of the cardiovascular system. Prevention of recurrent vascular crises is based on the selection of an individual first-aid kit, the purpose of which is not to allow a repeated crisis and to provide immediate assistance when it occurs.
Crisis is a pronounced manifestation of the disease.
Crisis development is acute. They can be described as an attack or an attack. As a rule, this type of condition requires the patient to provide emergency medical care. The term “crisis” is used to describe various pathological conditions.
Disorders of vascular tone – this is the main cause of vascular crises.
This is a violation of the humoral and nervous regulation of the vascular tone. The occurrence of vascular crises is possible in many diseases. These include, for example, hypertension, peripheral vascular and central nervous system pathologies. Vascular crises can occur in all diseases during which there is an excessive intake of vasoactive substances in the vascular bed. These include, for example, hormones adrenaline, serotonin, aldosterone and others. The emergence of vascular crises can provoke inflammation of the vessels, frostbite, atherosclerosis – that is all that leads to a change in the receptor apparatus of the vessels and their walls (these changes are pathological in nature). Violation of hemodynamics also refers to the causes of development of vascular crises. In this case, we can talk, for example, about coarctation of the aorta. This means that a narrowing is observed in the aortic isthmus. This disease is congenital.
Systemic and regional vascular crises can be distinguished.
This classification is based on the prevalence of hemodynamic disorders.
Regional vascular crises correspond to a disturbance in the patient’s blood supply to an organ or tissue.
Thus, we are talking about the violation of blood supply in a specific area of the human body (this is a localized violation of blood supply). In this case, arterial hypertension is manifested either by almost complete cessation, or by a significant decrease in blood flow in a particular area. Arterial hypotension manifests itself in an excessive influx of blood. Hypotension of the veins manifests itself in the form of a localized violation of the outflow of blood. In the latter case, the blood stagnates in the capillaries and veins. The course of certain types of diseases, such as migraine, Raynaud’s disease, hypertensive disease, manifests itself periodically repeating regional vascular crises. With migraine attacks of hemicrania are possible (pain attacks are localized in the half of the head). Raynaud’s disease is accompanied by recurring attacks of ischemia of the fingers. The course of hypertension can be associated with cerebral vascular crises.
Systemic vascular crises manifest themselves as changes in the total capacity of peripheral veins or in the general peripheral resistance to blood flow (these changes are pathological).
Systemic vascular crises are expressed in the fall or, conversely, increase in blood pressure. With such crises, there are signs of secondary insolvency of cardiac activity. Vascular crises, which are characterized by an acute drop in blood pressure, are subspecies of vascular collapse (pathogenetic variants). Vascular crises, the course of which is associated with a sharp increase in blood pressure, are called hypertensive. Hypertensive vascular crises often occur in hypertensive disease. In these cases, regional crises are combined with hypertensive crises.
Cerebral vascular crises, as a rule, occur in patients with arterial hypertension.
Cerebral crises can also occur against the background of cerebral artery atherosclerosis. The appearance of headaches can be described as sudden. These pains tend to rapidly increase. They are combined with noise in the head or in the ears. In the cerebral crisis, dizziness, impaired coordination of movements, a feeling of “black spots” before the eyes, nausea and vomiting, high blood pressure are frequent manifestations. In some patients with cerebral vascular crisis, symptoms of focal brain lesions are observed. Such symptoms include impaired sensitivity, transient paralysis of the limbs, uneven tendon reflexes, and others. More rarely, with cerebral vascular crisis, drowsiness, disorientation in time and space, convulsive seizures, transient memory disorders, psychomotor agitation occur.
Diagnosis of vascular crises is based on checking the presence of symptoms of acute disturbance of general hemodynamics or regional hemodynamics.
The diagnosis of a vascular crisis is possible only after excluding the connection of these symptoms with the organic pathology of the heart or vessels. In addition, cerebral cancer should be excluded from hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, with hypertensive cardiac crisis – myocardial infarction (including ECG data), etc.
As a rule, the treatment of vascular crises is urgent.
The choice of medicines is based on the form of a vascular crisis. It is not so rare that a situation arises where emergency hospitalization is necessary. If the appearance of vascular crises of the same type in the patient has a recurrent character, then the specialist selects an individual set of medicines. Their goal is to prevent a possible recurrence of the vascular crisis, as well as to provide emergency care when it occurs.