Even in the Middle Ages, people began to create artificial parks, where there are various rare species of animals. The first mention of the zoo dates back to 1462. If initially such islets of wild nature were the whims of rich people, today they fulfill the nature protection function. Some very rare species of animals can be seen only here, experts take care of animals, are engaged in their reproduction.
There are many large zoos in the world, each has its own characteristics in the form of scales, rare species and history. The oldest zoos survived revolutions and world wars, the collapse of empires. Nevertheless, man managed to keep these museums of wildlife for descendants. Ho Chi Minh City, 1864.
This zoo was built in the XIX century by the French colonialists. They used a territory of 20 hectares to break up the garden with exotic plants. Thus, “Thao Kam Vien Saigon” was originally created as a botanical garden. Just on its territory, the aviaries were marked, which contained animals and birds caught in local tropical forests. Then they waited for their turn to send to the zoos of France. When in 1975 the country finally got rid of colonial rule and reunited, foreign tourists went to Vietnam. Local authorities decided to focus on the development of this zoological park and began to acquire for him exotic even for Vietnam animals. Currently, about half a thousand birds and animals live in the enclosures of this zoo. There is also a botanical garden, where 1800 plant species grow. There are 20 species of orchids, a collection of dwarf trees and cacti are also distinguished. Visiting this zoo is inexpensive – less than a dollar. For this amount you can spend a whole day enjoying the view of unusual plants and well-groomed animals. Pretoria, 1899.
The oldest zoo in South Africa is called the National Zoological Garden of South Africa. This institution was founded by the director of Staatsmuseum Dr. Haagner. This scientist obtained the government’s acquisition of land for the zoo and transported there a collection of birds and several mammals living in the backyard of the museum. Since the organization did not have its own means for acquiring animals, the land was used as a transit point for transporting African animals to America and Europe. Thanks to this approach, the inhabitants of Pretoria could see many exotic animals. Currently, there are mainly African animals here. For example, it was here that the first birth of a white rhinoceros born in captivity was born. The zoo offers unique night tours, thanks to which you can watch the lions, elephants and red pandas. You can also stroll along the territory of the zoo together with the guide and even spend the night right here in the tent, enjoying the sounds of wildlife.
The Smithsonian National Zoo is located in the US capital. It covers an area of 163 acres in the Rock Creek Park area in the District of Columbia. Since the National Park is part of the Smithsonian Institution, the entrance to it, as well as to all the museums of this organization of Washington, is free. In 1889, the zoo was founded specifically for the maintenance and storage of endangered animals in North America. There were individuals of endangered bison, as well as other species. Today in the collection of the zoo a lot of living things – from the ant to the elephant. They represent different habitats – from the rainforest and to the local wooded areas. In total, the zoo contains more than 400 species of animals, the most popular of them are pandas, tigers, bears, lions and giraffes.
Korkeasaari Zoo in the capital of Finland began its work at the end of the XIX century. Located on the same island island. It is not only one of the oldest, but also one of the northernmost zoos in the world.By 2007, it contained more than 200 species of different animals, the number of individuals in general exceeded 2000. Around a thousand species there also existed plants. The zoo collection also contains more than 20 rare and endangered species of animals. Zoo Korkeasaari is a member of various European and world associations for the conservation of nature. The emblem of the zoo is the snow leopard. The institution occupies an area of 22 hectares, it works all year round. This is one of the most popular places in the capital of the country. Here in the summer there is a ferry from the Market Square, and in winter it’s best to get to the zoo by bus or subway. The history of the zoo is connected with the opening of the ferry line to the island of Korkeasaari in 1865. Then there was a popular place of rest for the townspeople. In 1884, the island appeared restaurant “Pukki”, which operates in the warm season and now. In 1889, Lieutenant August Fabricius founded the zoo here, the first inhabitants of which were white and brown bears. The collection began to replenish rapidly, a year later in the institution there were about 90 animals of 40 species. And the famous snow leopards appeared here in the late 19th century. Currently, almost all such animals that live in other zoos in the world. Are their descendants. By 1911, the zoo was already more than 600 individuals, there were 43 species of mammals and 70 species of birds. And in 1919, Helsingin Anniskeluyhtiö transferred the zoo to the city. The collection grew, at the end of the last century there appeared sections devoted to animals and plants from other corners of the Earth. Now the zoo is divided into several thematic parts. So, “Northern rarities” show rare Arctic creatures, “Cat Valley” is dedicated to cats of all sizes, special attention is paid to the Amur leopard. In the “Plateau of Mongolia” you can see steppe animals of Asia, in other sections the inhabitants of Australia, Amazonia, North America and South Asia are represented.
The oldest and most famous zoo in the country is located in the capital, Tokyo. The Japanese spirit is felt here, thanks at least to the pagoda and the house for tea ceremonies. The territory of the Ueno Zoo has become a good home for many animals, among them are a giant salamander, rare pheasants, wallaby kangaroo. Faced with the largest beasts, you can literally nose to nose, though, through the glass in the Tigris Forest and the Forest of Gorillas. In 1972, the house of the panda bears was built in the zoo, which China presented in honor of establishing diplomatic relations between the countries. But before all these bears were declared the national property of China. In 2008, the last couple of pandas died, but since 2011, amazing creatures have reappeared in the zoo, they were rented from a neighboring state. Especially for guests with children there is a children’s zoo, where you can ride on a monorail. On the territory of the zoo there is also the National Museum of Nature and Science. This is a multi-storey building, where hundreds of exhibits are exhibited. In front of the entrance there is a copy of a huge blue whale in full size, and inside it was not without numerous dinosaurs. An adult ticket to the zoo costs about 7 dollars, children are free.
The inhabitants of the city call their zoo simply – Zolli. This is a very popular institution, every year here comes about a million visitors. As a result, the zoo of Basel in terms of the number of tourists is inferior only to the castle of Chillon. Discovered this natural park back in 1874. July 3 of that year came here a lot of curious. They saw a pond with different swamp and waterfowl birds, wild boars, deer, bison and moose. Even then there was a place for big cats. In the first year, the zoo was visited by about 62 thousand guests, although the population of Basel itself was about 50 thousand. In 1884 there was a significant expansion of the garden. An arena was built for predators and real villages for the natives.There Moroccans, Nubians or Singaporeans lived weeks, demonstrating their military skills, dances and art of snake charm. And in 1890 the first lions appeared in the zoo, special cells were built specially for them. As early as 1891, the first offspring of these cats also appeared. In 1900, the first monkey appeared in the zoo. The institution received a solid financial basis in 1901 as an inheritance from Basel resident John Beck. He donated 750 thousand francs. Today in Zolli is celebrated the day of his name with the right of free entrance. During the war, the zoo fell into disrepair, besides in 1937 a wave of foot-and-mouth disease destroyed many valuable animals. However, after the end of hostilities Zolli quickly recovered, in addition, the possibility of importing valuable animals did its job. Giraffes, okapi, rhinoceroses appeared, and in 1952 elephants also appeared. Today the zoo is inhabited by more than 6 thousand living beings, representing 600 species. Particular attention should be paid to the vivarium, which clearly shows how life on the planet evolved.
The Zoo in the Russian capital is one of the oldest in the world. January 31, 1864 in Moscow was opened zoo, compared to which by age can only 4 institutions. The initiative of organizing a zoo in Russia came from the Russian Imperial Society for the Acclimatization of Animals and Plants. Members of the organization decided to open a menagerie at Presnensky ponds. There were green hills, flowering gardens, which attracted Muscovites, including the poor. At the time of opening the zoo, there were 134 domestic animals and 153 wild animals, and there was also a place for seven reptiles. The main emphasis, of course, was on the Russian fauna. Organizers sought to show the diversity of their native nature, although there were places for exotic lions, jaguars, tigers, leopards, rhinoceroses and crocodiles. For the zoo, many animals were given rich people. So, the Indian elephant appeared thanks to Alexander II, the rhinoceros was presented by Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, zebra – the Egyptian Khedive Izmail-Pasha. The Zoological Garden was under the auspices of members of the imperial family. After the revolution, in 1919, the zoo was nationalized. In 1927 a new territory was opened, where the animals were already kept not in cages, but in large enclosures. The zoo finally turned into a zoo. Active educational work was conducted here, hundreds of people came to the lecture, a circle of young biologists worked. The zoo survived the Great Patriotic War, hosting guests. The staff at times heroically tried to ease the adversity of their wards. In the 1970s and 1980s, the zoo began to deteriorate, and it experienced financial difficulties. Only thanks to Yuri Luzhkov in the 1990s, the biological object was reconstructed and updated. There were new expositions, animals and birds. In 2003, a new pavilion for elephants appeared. Currently, the Moscow Zoo contains more than 8,000 animals that represent a thousand species. Some species appeared in captivity for the first time in the world. The zoo is a member of the World and European Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA, EAZA), the Eurasian Regional Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EARAZA). He cooperates with international organizations and programs for the protection of rare animals.
Originally it was just a menagerie, discovered by Karl Hagenbeck, the elder on one of the central squares of the city. Since 1870, Karl Hagenbeck, Jr., the famous trainer and circus player, has become the commercial institution. Here he began to arrange shows of various peoples – Laplanders, Nubians, Eskimos, Massai. In 1907, Hagenbeck opened the world’s first zoo, where there were no cells at all. Animals were located in spacious enclosures, which became an innovation and an example for imitation. For over a hundred years, the descendants of the Hagenbeks have made every effort to create one of the most beautiful zoos in the world.He is still the property of the family. To move through the territory is used 7-kilometer railway, there are routes for hiking. Among the guests, pavilions of elephants and orangutans are very popular. Recently, a tropical aquarium with a volume of 8,000 cubes appeared in the zoo. Here live about 13 thousand exotic sea creatures. In total, the collection of the zoo has about 2500 animals, representing 360 species. Not so long ago, the world’s first themed hotel opened at the zoo.
The zoological garden of this German city is located on an area of 13 hectares, it is one of the oldest and largest zoos in the country. And it all started with the appearance in Frankfurt on the initiative of local residents of the Zoological Society in the early 1850s. Soon the city appeared and its zoo, the second in Germany. Funds for its organization were collected by the people of Frankfurt. At first the institution was located on the outskirts of the city, so it was unpopular. The situation changed after moving to a new place in 1874. During the First World War, the zoo turned out to be of no use to anyone, it began to decline. And World War II proved fatal to the institution – on March 18, 1944, Allied bombs destroyed all structures of the park itself and the zoological society. In May 1945, the new director was the famous zoologist Grzhimek, who took up active restoration of the zoo. Since then, Frankfurt has even achieved world fame, thanks to successful attempts at breeding in captivity all four species of anthropoid apes. Since then, more than 100 cubs have appeared in the world from gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans. The zoo is home to the largest primates – flat gorillas. Their enclosure is separated by armored glass, behind which you can safely watch the exotic representatives of the jungle.
This zoo is located on an area of 35 hectares in the metropolitan area of Tiergarten. Animal collection is one of the largest in the country. And as much as the animals gathered here, there is nowhere in the world. The zoo contains about 15 thousand animals, representing 1500 species. There is here and your aquarium, which has allotted three floors. It inhabits not only fish, but also reptiles, amphibians, insects and invertebrates. It is no coincidence that the zoo is one of the main attractions of Berlin, every year the institution is visited by 2.6 million guests. This zoo was the first in Germany and the ninth in the world. The institution was opened on August 1, 1844. In 1869, Dr. Henry Bodinus became the director. With it, an aviary for antelopes appeared, which, thanks to an unusual style, quickly became popular. Over time, there were aviaries for elephants, ostriches and flamingos, as well as the famous gate “Elefantentor.” The zoo placed on its territory and shopping pavilions with restaurants. In 1888, Dr. Ludwig Heck became the new manager of the establishment. He continued to increase the animal fund, catching up with the zoo in London. The aquarium appeared in 1913 thanks to the plans of the animal researcher Oscar Heinroth. Following the example of the Hagenbeck zoo in Hamburg, all the buildings were dismantled during the First World War. And during the Second World War almost the entire zoo was destroyed. Out of 3,715 of its former inhabitants, only 91 survived. From 1945 to 1956, the management of the zoo was carried out by Katarina Heinrot. At that time, it was the only female director of such an institution. Thanks to it the Berlin Zoo was rebuilt anew. The enclosure for elephants and antelopes was repaired, a new aviary was built for hippopotamuses. In 1956, the director was Heinz-Georg Klos, who continued the recovery. He built rooms for birds, monkeys, bears. There was also an aviary for predators, special attention was given to those animals that prefer night hunting. In Berlin, began to breed rare and endangered animals.Klos opened a zoo school in the zoo, sculptures of animals appeared in the park. The director not only reconstructed the old buildings, but also erected new ones. After the reunification of Germany, the zoo in Berlin began to unite with Tierpark in the eastern part of the city, which was considered to be the largest landscape zoo in the continent.
This zoo is located in the park of Phoenix in the capital of the country. This is one of the most famous local attractions, a year there are up to a million people. The zoo was founded in 1830, and a year later its grand opening for visitors was held. The first exposition consisted of 46 mammals and 70 birds. In 1916 during the Easter uprising, food shortages led to the death of some animals, but eventually the administration restored the population of inhabitants. In 1994, Ireland adopted a state program that provided for the development of an animal park and the creation of different thematic zones on its territory. The first was the exhibition “The World of Primates,” which was a whole island, inhabited by various types of intelligent mammals. Over time, the “Cat World”, “Arctic Ice”, “African Plains” and “Urban Farm” appeared here. The latest in the zoo was a zone dedicated to Africa. For this, the area of the zoo was enlarged by 13 hectares. Now giraffes, elephants, hippos and rhinoceroses live here. Interestingly, the first version of the logo of the MGM film company in 1916-1928 was attended by Leo Leo, who lives in Dublin.
The Zoo in London is considered the oldest scientific in the world. It was founded on April 27, 1828, as a zoological collection for scientific research. Since 1847, visitors were allowed to enter. To date, this is almost the largest zoological meeting in the UK. For 2006, there are about 16,000 animals of 755 species. Administrative zoo is subject to the Zoological Society of London, established in 1826. And this park is located in the northern part of Regent’s Park, between Westminster and Camden, in an area of 36 acres. The territory of the London Zoological Assembly sheltered the world’s first accessible serpentarium (1849), an aquarium (1853), an insectarium (1881), a children’s zoo (1938). In 2001, from the London Zoo large animals such as elephants and rhinoceroses were transferred to the Whipsnade Zoo in Bedfordshire. This institution also operates under the supervision of the Zoological Society of London. It should be noted that it does not receive any official funding at all, relying solely on the contributions of its members, friends and assistants. The budget also includes funds from the sale of entrance tickets and proceeds from charitable funds. The London Zoo is not only a biological monument, but also an architectural monument. For example, the “Round House”, built in 1933 for gorillas designed by architect Berthold Lubetkin, in general became one of the first modernist buildings in the country. The same architect in 1934 built and a pool for penguins.
In the Viergarten Tiergarten park, near the Schönbrunn Palace, is the oldest zoo in the world. It was built in 1752, then it was an imperial menagerie. I must say that the animals in captivity lived here since the 1570’s. But the zoo here was formed only in the XVIII century at the request of Emperor Franz I. In the center of the park built even a breakfast pavilion. Around it were built thirteen cages for animals, which form something similar to pieces of a cut pie. Since 1779, ordinary people were allowed to enter here, and the entrance was free. To replenish the collection of the zoo, Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) even organized special expeditions to Africa and the Americas, they brought new species of animals. In 1828 a giraffe appeared here, which became a significant event. And in 1906 an elephant was born in Schönbrunn, which became the first to appear in captivity.By the beginning of the First World War, the zoo contained 3,500 animals, representing 712 species. But because of the difficulties with food, the number of animals decreased to 900. World War II caused even greater damage to the zoo. Due to the bombing, only 400 animals remained there, and many of the buildings were destroyed. In the 1980s the institution was on the brink of a financial disaster, the situation returned to normal with the transfer of the zoo to private hands in 1992. The glorious institution celebrated its 250th anniversary in 2002, in honor of which even a 5-euro silver coin featuring animals on the background of the main pavilion was produced.