People have always loved to observe the cosmos. In the end, studies of stars and celestial objects and revealed to us the secret of the origin of our planet. Thanks to cosmic discoveries, we were able to test global mathematical theories.
After all, what is hard to test in practice, it became possible to experience on the stars. But the cosmos is so boundless that it contains a lot of unusual, which makes it necessary to recheck calculations and build new hypotheses. About the ten most curious and strange objects in space we will tell below.
The smallest planet.
There is a fine line that separates the planet from the asteroid. Recently, Pluto moved from the first to the second. And in February 2013, the observatory Kepler in 210 light years from us found a star system with three planets. One of them was the smallest one ever found. Kepler’s telescope itself works from space, which allowed him to make many discoveries. The fact is that the ground devices still interfere with the atmosphere. In addition to many other planets, the telescope was also discovered by Kepler 37-b. This small planet is smaller than even Mercury, and its diameter is only 200 kilometers more than the Moon. Perhaps soon her status will also be contested, the notorious side is painfully close. An interesting way to find candidates for exoplanets, used by astronomers. They watch the star and wait for its light to fade slightly. This indicates that a certain body has passed between it and us, that is, that same planet. It is quite logical that with such an approach it is much easier to find larger planets than small ones. Most of the known exoplanets by their size far exceeded our Earth. Usually they were comparable with Jupiter. The shadowing effect that Kepler gave 37-b was extremely difficult to detect, which made this discovery so important and impressive. Bubbles Fermi in the Milky Way.
If you look at our Galaxy, the Milky Way, in a flat image, as it is usually shown, it will seem huge. But when viewed from the side, this object turns out to be thin and shredded. It was not possible to see the Milky Way from this direction until scientists learned to look at the galaxy differently with the help of gamma radiation and X-rays. It turned out that from the disk of our galaxy perpendicularly literally bulge Fermi’s Bubbles. The length of this cosmic formation is about 50,000 light-years or half of the entire diameter of the Milky Way. Where the Fermi Bubbles appeared, even NASA can not yet give an answer. It is likely that this may be residual radiation from supermassive black holes in the very center of the galaxy. After all, large volumes of energy assume the emission of gamma radiation.
Four billion years ago, the solar system was completely different than now. It was a dangerous place in which the planets were just beginning to form. The space was filled with a lot of stones and pieces of ice, which led to numerous collisions. One of them, according to most scientists, led to the appearance of the Moon. The Earth, which was in its infancy, collided with the object of the Tey, its size similar to that of Mars. These two cosmic bodies came together at an acute angle. The splinters of that impact in the Earth’s orbit have merged into our current satellite. But if the clash were more direct, and the blow fell closer to the equator or poles, the results could become much more deplorable for the emerging planet – it would be completely destroyed.
The Great Wall of Sloane.
This space object is incredibly huge. It seems gigantic even in comparison with the large objects known to us, the same Sun, for example. The Great Wall of Sloane is one of the largest formations in the Universe. In fact, this cluster of galaxies, stretching for 1.4 billion light years. The wall represents hundreds of millions of individual galaxies, which in its general structure are joined into clusters.Such clusters became possible due to the zones of different densities that appeared as a result of the Big Bang, and now are noticeable due to microwave background radiation. True, some scientists believe that the Great Wall of Sloan can not be considered a single structure due to the fact that not all galaxies in it are connected by gravity.
The smallest black hole.
The black hole is the most terrible object in space. In computer games, they were even called the “last boss” of the universe. A black hole is a powerful object that absorbs light, even moving at a speed of 300,000 kilometers per second. Scientists have found many such terrible objects, the mass of some billions of times more than the mass of the Sun. But more recently, a tiny black hole was found, the smallest. The previous record holder was still heavier than our star 14 times. By our standards, this hole was still big. The new record holder got the name IGR and he is only three times heavier than the Sun. This mass is minimal for a hole to catch a star after her death. If such an object were even smaller, it would gradually swell, and then began to lose its outer layers and matter.
The smallest galaxy.
Volumes of galaxies are usually amazing. This is a huge number of stars that live thanks to nuclear processes and gravity. The galaxies are so bright and large that some can be seen even with the naked eye, regardless of the distance. But admiration of the dimensions hinders the understanding that galaxies can be quite different. An example of this kind may be Segue2. In this galaxy there are only about a thousand stars. This is extremely small, given the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way. The total energy of the entire galaxy exceeds the energy of the Sun by only 900 times. But our luminary does not stand out on a cosmic scale. New capabilities of telescopes will help science to find other crumbs, like Segue2. This is very useful, because their appearance was scientifically predicted, but it was not possible to see them for a long time.
The largest impact crater.
Since the beginning of the study of Mars, scientists have not given rest to one detail – the two hemispheres of the planet were very different. According to the latest data, this disproportion was the result of a collision-catastrophe, which changed forever the face of the planet. In the northern hemisphere was found the Borealis Crater, which became the largest of the currently found on the solar system. Thanks to this place it became known that Mars had a very turbulent past. And spread the crater to a significant part of the planet, occupying a minimum of 40 percent and an area of 8,500 kilometers in diameter. And the second largest known crater was also found on Mars, but its dimensions are already four times smaller than those of the record holder. To create such a crater on the planet, a collision should happen with something from outside of our system. It is believed that the object met Mars was even larger than Pluto.
The nearest perihelion in the solar system.
Mercury, of course, is the largest of the objects closest to the Sun. But there are also smaller asteroids that rotate closer to our star. Perihelion is the point of the orbit closest to it. In an incredible proximity to the Sun, the asteroid 2000 BD19 flies, its orbit is the smallest. The perihelion of this object is 0.092 astronomical units. It is approximately equal to the distance between our planet and the Sun. There is no doubt that the asteroid HD19 is very hot – the temperature there is such that zinc and other metals would simply melt. And the study of such an object is very important for science. After all, you can understand how different factors can change the orbital orientation of the body in space. One of these factors is the general theory of relativity, known to all, created by Albert Einstein. That is why careful study of the near-Earth object will help mankind to understand how this important theory has practical application.
The oldest quasar.
Some black holes have an impressive mass, which is logical, taking into account the absorption of everything that only comes along the way. When astronomers discovered the object ULAS J1120 + 0641, they were extremely surprised. The mass of this quasar is two billion times larger than that of the Sun. But the interest is not even in the volumes of this black hole that releases energy into space, but its age. ULAS – the oldest quasar in the history of space observation. It appeared already 800 million years after the Big Bang. And this inspires respect, because such an age implies the journey of light from this object to us at 12.9 billion years. Scientists are lost in conjecture, due to what could have developed such a black hole, because at that time there was nothing to absorb.
As soon as the winter clouds dissipated, and spring came, Cassini’s spacecraft was able to perfectly photograph the lakes at the north pole of Titan. Only here water in such unearthly conditions can not exist, but to reach the surface of the satellite of liquid methane and ethane, the temperature is right, as it is impossible by the way. The spacecraft was in Titan’s orbit since 2004. But this is the first time that clouds over the pole have dissipated enough to be seen and photographed. It turned out that the main lakes have a width of hundreds of kilometers. The largest is the Sea of Kraken with its area equal to the Caspian Sea and the Upper Lake together. For the Earth, the existence of a fluid medium has become the basis for the emergence of life on the planet. But the sea of hydrocarbon compounds is another matter. Substances in such liquids can not dissolve as well as in water.