Earth is the home of humanity. So can be considered the solar system. After all, we have already visited the Moon, our spacecraft have reached other planets. It would seem that we must know everything about the surroundings of the Earth.
In fact, mankind has been trying to solve such close and mysterious phenomena for decades. We will tell below about the ten main riddles of the solar system.
The main question about this object is whether it exists at all? This, perhaps, is the main mystery of our solar system. Scientists have suggested the existence of the cloud only hypothetically, but this area of the universe has never been seen. By theories here comets are formed with a long period of circulation. Scientists can only assume that the Oort cloud is at a distance of 50-100 thousand au. from the sun. The boundaries of this object lie on the outskirts of the solar system. In this case, billions of bodies from the cloud are tied to the sun by gravity.
Abnormal behavior of the Pioneer probes.
People can not explain the behavior of spacecraft, which suddenly begin to deviate from the course. In 1972 and 1973, the probes Pioneer-10 and Pioneer-11 were launched. The purpose of their flight was to study the outer boundaries of our solar system. However, over time, experts from NASA noticed that the devices noticeably changed their initial course. Perhaps this is how the gravity of the Sun acted? But a more detailed study of the probe speeds revealed that they were acted upon by some unknown weak force. Around this phenomenon, several theories were constructed. One of them explained the behavior of devices with infrared radiation around their bodies. This could entail the release of photons from some one side of the objects. Such a flow could become a small push in the direction of the Sun. Other theories are even more fantastic. So this mystery still remains unclear. Kuiper Belt.
This astronomical object has been studied for a long time. Only here scientists do not give rest, why it so suddenly ends? The Kuiper Belt is a large cluster of asteroids located in the Solar System beyond Neptune. They form a kind of ring around our star. The belt includes millions of stone and metal asteroids. The average of them is 200 times larger than those that fly in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It was in the Kuiper belt that the dwarf planet Pluto was found in its time. This part of the cosmos has not been practically studied by people. Only in 2015, a NASA probe “New Horizons” will arrive here to investigate Pluto. Therefore, it remains unclear why the belt has a number of objects at a distance of 50 AU. unexpectedly decreases. This is rather strange, because by all signs with the distance from the Sun the number of objects should only increase. Among the theories there is also a rather curious, according to which such behavior explains the existence of some unknown large planet. It is she who attracts objects to her. The planet was even given the name of Nibiru or Planet X.
Cosmic dust in comets.
The mystery is, like cosmic dust, born at high temperatures, suddenly falls into the ice of comets. These cosmic bodies consist of a frozen liquid and solid particles. In the system, they appear from a hypothetical Oort cloud or from the Kuiper belt. At one time, NASA was able to take samples of matter from the comet Wilde-2 with the help of the apparatus “Stardust-2004”. It turned out that in the frozen body of the comet there are particles that formed at very high temperatures. However, where did they come from here, after all, for their formation a temperature of over 1000 Kelvin is needed? After all, in the Kuiper belt this can not be! Our solar system originated from the nebula about 4.6 billion years ago. When cooling, a disk of enormous sizes was formed. Those samples that were found in comets could form in the central sections, near the emerging Sun.But how did they end up on the very backyard of the system? This mechanism remains a mystery for scientists.
Temperature of the Sun’s crown.
It is known that the temperature near the Sun is greater than on its surface. For decades, scientists can not explain this riddle. The first studies using a spectroscope have shown that in a solar atmosphere, the temperature reaches a million Kelvin. But the photosphere is much colder, there are “only” 6 thousand Kelvin. This is poorly consistent with the laws of physics. For example, in a burning light bulb, the air around the spiral can not be hotter than itself. Scientists only suggest that the corona of the Sun can be heated due to the action of magnetic forces in the atmosphere of the star. This mechanism can be generated either by incandescent waves, or by micro flares, or by two of these factors simultaneously.
Atmosphere of Titan.
Of all Saturn’s moons, Titan clearly stands out. After all, this is the only satellite planet in the solar system with an atmosphere. Titan is 1.8 times larger than the Moon, and from all the satellites in the system it is second only to Ganymede, which revolves around Jupiter. The basis of the atmosphere of Titan is nitrogen. It itself is one and a half times denser than the terrestrial one. Nitrogen is also in our atmosphere, approximately in the same proportions – 78% against 95%. However, it is unclear where the nitrogen appeared on Titan to create an atmosphere.
The slope of Uranus.
Uranus is a rather strange planet. After all, almost all the planets in our system rotate about their axis in a relatively vertical position. But Uranus is spinning, lying on its side. Its axis is tilted 98 degrees. This situation leads to the fact that for a long period (about 42 years), the poles of Uranus take turns looking at our star. Such an unusual phenomenon can be associated with the collision of this planet once with a large space object, which also saw the axis. Another version says that this is the result of the interaction of the gravitational forces of Saturn and Jupiter.
There are many mysterious bodies in the solar system. One of them collided in 1908 with our planet. We did not learn anything about the nature of the “guest”. However, this meteorite caused a huge explosion in the taiga, near the Tunguska River. Eyewitnesses of those events spoke of a bright radiance, it was observed in different parts of the world. 80 million trees in an area of 2,000 km² were thrown in the blink of an eye by a monstrous force. A huge area was burnt out. But the most interesting is that the crater from the impact of the body was found. Scientists are lost in conjecture, what could it be. Was there a comet, an asteroid, or did an accident of a space ship of another civilization happen?
The mysteries of Mars.
Scientists have found that the hemispheres of Mars are quite different from each other. The northern half is flat, but the southern part consists almost entirely of mountain ridges and craters. Studies were conducted at the Caltech Institute, according to which it could be the result of contact with a huge cosmic body, with a diameter of 1600 to 2700 kilometers. It could and could become the cause of lowlands in the northern hemisphere, erasing the mountains. Another mystery of Mars is the mysterious disappearance of research vehicles sent there. According to statistics, two of three expeditions to this planet suffer an accident. On Mars, robots, probes and other equipment are missing.
Temperature difference at the poles of the Sun.
The fact that the temperature of the Sun is not uniform is already known. However, it turned out that the star also has poles that are not equal. So, the north pole of the Sun is much hotter than the south. This information was obtained thanks to the Ulysses solar probe. He sent us information about the Sun for 17 years. This expedition showed that the north pole is 80 thousand kelvin hotter than the southern one. To measure the temperature of the star, “Ulysses” took samples of oxygen ions from the solar wind at a distance of 300 million kilometers from the luminary. Experiments were conducted alternately over each pole of the Sun.Scientists suggest that this can be explained by the different structure of the poles of the star, which is the reason for the temperature divergence.