More than 150 years ago, Sir Francis Galton came up with the phrase “nature versus education.” At that time, the scientist researched what more influences the psychological development of a person – whether his heredity or the environment in which he is. It was about behavior, habits, intelligence, personality, sexuality, aggression and so on.
Those who believe in upbringing believe that people become so because of everything that happens directly around them, the way they are taught. Opponents say that we are all children of nature and act according to the genetic predisposition inherent in us and the animal instinct (according to Freud).
And what do you think about this? Are we products of our environment, genes, or both? In this complex discussion, wild children are an important aspect. The term “wild children” is understood to mean a young man who was abandoned or was in a situation when he was deprived of all sorts of interaction with civilization.
As a result, such children are usually among animals. They often lack social skills, even such simple skills as speaking, they do not always acquire. Wild children are trained on the basis of what they see around them, but the conditions, like the ways of knowing, differ markedly from normal conditions.
History knows several rather revealing stories of “wild children”. And these cases are much more complicated and interesting than the classical story of Mowgli. These are quite real people, who can already be called by their names, and not by the nicknames given by the mass media, who are eager for sensations. Bello from Nigeria.
This boy in the press was nicknamed a Nigerian chimp boy. He was found in 1996 in the jungles of this country. No one can definitely identify the age of Bello with certainty, suggest that at the time of the find he was about 2 years old. The boy found in the forest was physically and mentally defective. This is due to the rejection of his parents at six months of age. This practice is very common in the Fulani tribe. At such a young age, the boy, of course, could not stand up for himself. But some chimpanzees living in the forest took him to their tribe. As a result, the boy adopted many features of the behavior of monkeys, in particular their walking. When Bello was found in the forest of Falgor, this discovery was not widely reported. But in 2002, one of the popular newspapers found a boy in a boarding school for abandoned children in Kano, South Africa. The news of Bello quickly became sensational. He often fought with other children, threw objects, and at night jumped and ran. Six years later, the boy had already become much calmer, although he retained many of the chimpanzee’s manners. As a result, Bello still could not learn to speak, despite constant communication with other children and people in his house. In 2005, the boy completely died for unknown reasons.
Vanya Yudin became one of the recent cases of a wild child. News agencies called him “Russian boy-bird.” When social workers of Volgograd found him in 2008, he was 6 years old, and he could not speak. The mother of the child abandoned him. The boy could do practically nothing, he just chattered and folded his arms like wings. This he learned from his friends-parrots. Although physically Vanya did not suffer in any way, he was not capable of human contact. His manner of behavior became like a bird’s, he expressed emotions, waving his hands. Vanya was a long time in a two-room apartment, in which cells contained dozens of birds of his mother. One of the social workers who discovered Vanya, Galina Volskaya, said that the boy lived with his mother, but she never spoke to him, referring to her as a regular feathered pet. When people tried to talk with Vanya, he only chirped in response. Now the boy is transferred to the center of psychological help, where with the help of specialists they try to bring him back to normal life. The lack of human relationships led the child to another world.
One of the most famous oldest cases of a wild child is Dean, nicknamed “Indian Wolf Boy”. When the hunters found him in 1867, the boy was supposedly 6 years old. People noticed a pack of wolves, which entered the cave, and with it a man who fled on four legs. The men smoked the wolves out of the shelter, entering there, they found Dean. The boy was found in the jungles of Bulandahra, an attempt was made to treat him. True, at that time, there were simply no effective tools and techniques. Nevertheless, people tried to communicate with him to rid Dean of his animal behavior. After all, he ate raw meat, ripped off his clothes and fed from the ground. And not from the dishes. After a while, Dean was taught to eat cooked meat, but he never learned to speak.
When this girl was 8 years old, she and her sister grazed a buffalo in the Cambodian jungle and were lost. Parents were completely left the hope to see their daughters. It was 18 years, on January 23, 2007, a naked girl came out of the jungle in the province of Ratanakiri. She secretly stole food from one of the peasants. He, discovering the loss, went hunting for a thief and found a wild man in the woods. Then the police was called. One of the families in the village recognized in the girl her missing daughter Roch Pienggen. After all, on her back was a distinctive scar. But the girl’s sister was never found. She herself miraculously survived in a dense jungle. After getting into people with Roch, they worked hard to try to get back to normal living conditions. Soon she was able to say some words: “mother,” “father,” “pain in the stomach.” The psychologist told that the girl tried to speak and other words, however, they could not be understood. When Roch wanted to eat, she just pointed at her mouth. The girl crawled more often on the ground, refusing clothes. As a result, she was never able to adapt to human culture, fled back to the forest in May 2010. Since then, the location of the wild girl is not known. Sometimes there are conflicting rumors. They say, for example, that she was seen in the cesspool of one of the village toilets. Traian Caldarar.
This famous case of a wild child also occurred recently. Trajan, found in 2002, is often called a Romanian boy dog or “Mowgli” by the name of a literary character. He lived separately from his family for 3 years, starting at the age of four. When Trajan was found at 7 years old, he looked for 3 years. The reason for this is extremely poor nutrition. Trajan’s mother was the victim of a series of violence from her husband. It is believed that the child could not stand such an atmosphere and fled the house. Trajan lived in the wild while he was found near the Romanian Brasov. His boy found his shelter in a large cardboard box, covered with leaves. When the doctors examined Trajan, he had a severe case of rickets, infection of wounds and poor blood circulation. Those who found the boy believe that he was helped by stray dogs. Found it by accident. The shepherd John Manolescu broke the car, and he had to walk through the pastures. There’s a man and found a boy. Not far from it were found the remains of a dog. It is assumed that she was eaten by Trajan to stay alive. When the wild boy was taken into custody, he refused to sleep on the bed, climbing under it. Traian also always wanted to eat. When he was hungry, he became extremely irritable. After eating, the boy almost immediately went to bed. In 2007, it was reported that Troyan adapted well under the supervision of his grandfather and even studied in the 3rd grade of the school. When the boy was asked about his educational institution, he said: “I like it here – there are coloring books, games, you can learn how to read and write.” The school has toys, cars, teddy bears and they are very well fed. ”
This man was nicknamed “A Monkey Boy from Uganda”. He fled the house at the age of three, when he witnessed the murder of his mother by his own father. Under the impression of what he saw, he fled to the Ugandan jungle, where, it is believed, fell into the care of green African monkeys. At that time, the boy was only 3 years old. In 1991, John, who hid on the tree, saw a woman named Milli, his fellow tribesman. After that, she called for help from other villagers. As in other similar cases, John strongly resisted his capture. This helped him and monkeys, who began to throw in people stick, defending their “tribesman.” Nevertheless, John was caught and taken to the village. There he was washed, but his whole body was covered with hair. Such a disease is called hypertrichosis. It manifests itself in the presence of excessive hairiness in those parts of the body where there is no such cover. Living in the wild, John also contracted intestinal worms. It is alleged that some of them were almost half a meter in length, when they were removed from his body. Found was full of injuries, mostly obtained when trying to walk, like a monkey. John was transferred to Molly and Paul Vasva, to their children’s home. The couple taught the boy to even talk, although many say that he already knew how to do this before running away from home. John was also taught to sing. Today he toured with the children’s choir “Pearls of Africa” and almost got rid of his animal behavior.
Kamala and Amala.
The story of these two Indian young girls is one of the most famous cases of wild children. When in 1920 they were found in the lair of wolves in Indian Midnapore, Kamala was 8 years old, and Amale was 1.5 years old. Most of their life, the girls spent outside people. Despite the fact that they were found together, the researchers questioned the fact that they were sisters. After all, they had a rather big age difference. They were just left in about the same place at different times. The girls were found after mystical stories about the figures of two ghost spirits, which were woven together with wolves from the jungle of Bengal, spread throughout the village. The locals were so scared of the spirits that they called the priest to find out the whole truth. Reverend Joseph hid in a tree above the cave and waited for the wolves. When they left, he looked into their lair and saw two hunched people. He wrote down everything he saw. The priest described the children as “an abominable creature from head to foot.” The girls ran on all fours and had no sign of human being. As a result, Joseph took the wild children with him, although he had no experience in adapting them. The girls slept together, curled up, tore off their clothes, did not eat anything but raw meat, howled. Their habits were like animals. They opened their mouths, sticking out their tongues like wolves. Physically, the children were deformed – the tendons and joints on the arms became shorter, not giving the opportunity to walk upright. Kamala and Amala did not have any interest in communicating with people. They say that some of their senses worked flawlessly. This applies not only to hearing and sight, but also to a sharp sense of smell. Like most Mowgli children, this couple did their best to return to their former life, surrounded by people feeling unhappy. Soon Amala died, this event caused a deep mourning for her friend, Kamala even started crying for the first time. Reverend Joseph thought that she too would die and began to work hard on her. As a result, Kamala barely learned to walk straight and even learned a few words. In 1929, this girl also died, this time due to renal insufficiency.
Victor from Aveiron.
The name of this boy-Mowgli will seem familiar to many. The fact is that his story formed the basis of the film “Wild Child”. Some say that it was Victor who became the first documented case of autism, at least, it is a widely known story of a child left alone with nature.In 1797, several people saw Victor wandering in the forests of Saint Sernin sur Rance, which is in the south of France. A wild boy was caught, but he soon escaped. In 1798 and 1799 he was again seen, but finally caught on January 8, 1800. At that time, Viktor was about 12 years old, his whole body was covered with scars. The boy could not say a word, even his origins remained a mystery. Victor was in the city, where a great interest was shown to him by philosophers and scientists. The news of the found wild man quickly scattered around the country, many wanted to study it, seeking answers to questions about the origin of language and human behavior. Professor of Biology, Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre, decided to observe Victor’s reaction, taking off his clothes and laying it right on the street in the snow. The boy began to run through the snow, not showing any negative consequences of low temperatures on his bare skin. They say that they lived naked in the wild for 7 whole years. Not surprisingly, his body was able to endure such extreme weather conditions. The famous teacher Rosh-Ambroise Auguste Bebian, who worked with the deaf and sign language, decided to try to teach the boy to communicate. But soon the teacher was disappointed in his student because of lack of any signs of progress. After all, Victor, being born with the ability to speak and hear, never correctly did this after he was left to live in the wild. Delays in mental development did not allow Victor to begin to lead a full life. Subsequently, the wild boy was taken to the National Institute for the deaf, where he died at the age of 40.
This story happened in 1991 in Ukraine. Oksana Malaya was abandoned by her bad parents in the kennel, where she grew up from 3 to 8 years old surrounded by other dogs. The girl became wild, she was kept all this time in the backyard of the house. She adopted the common features of the behavior of dogs – barking, growling, movement on all fours. Oksana sniffed her food before eating it. When the authorities came to her aid, other dogs barked and growled at people, trying to protect their fellow tribesmen. Likewise, behaved and a girl. Due to the fact that she was deprived of communication with people, in the dictionary of Oksana there were only two words “yes” and “no.” A wild child underwent an intensive care course to help him acquire the necessary social and verbal skills. Oksana was able to learn to speak, although psychologists say that she has great problems in trying to express herself and communicate emotionally, not speech. Today the girl is twenty years old, she lives in one of the clinics in Odessa. Most of the time Oksana spends with the cows on the farm of her orphanage. But in her own words, she feels best when she is near the dogs.
If you professionally engage in psychology or study the issue of wild children, then the name of Jin will certainly pop up. At the age of 13, she was locked in a room, tied a pot to her chair. Another time, my father tied her up in a sleeping bag and put it in that form in the crib. Her father was extremely abusive of his power – if the girl tried to talk, then he beat her with a stick so that she behaved quietly, he barked and growled at her. The man also forbade his wife and children to talk to her. Because of this, Gene had a very small vocabulary, which was only about 20 words. So, she knew the phrases “Stop,” “No more.” Gene was discovered in 1970, today it is one of the worst cases of known social isolation. At first, she was thought to be autistic, until the doctors found that the 13-year-old girl was a victim of violence. Jin ended up in a children’s hospital in Los Angeles, where she was treated for many years. After several courses she was able to answer monosyllabically for questions, she learned how to dress herself. Nevertheless, she still adhered to the behavior she had learned, including the manner of the “walking bunny”.The girl kept her hands in front of her, as if it were her paws. Jean continued to scratch, leaving deep marks on things. As a result, Gene was sheltered by her therapist David Riegler. He worked with her every day for 4 years. As a result, the doctor and his family were able to teach the girl the language of gestures, the ability to express themselves not only with words, but with drawing. When Jean left the therapist, she left to live with her mother. Soon the girl got to a new foster parent. And with them she was unlucky, they again made Jin become dumb, she began to be afraid to talk. Now the girl lives somewhere in Southern California.
The tragic story of this girl is in many respects similar to the story of Oksana Malaya. Madina grew up with dogs without any communication with people. It was in this state that specialists discovered it. At that time, the girl was only 3 years old. When she was found, she preferred to bark like a dog, although she could say “yes” and “no.” Fortunately, the doctors who examined the girl declared her physically and mentally full. In the end, despite some delay in development, there is a hope for a return to a normal way of life. After Madina is at an age when it is still possible, with the help of doctors and psychologists, to return to the usual path of development.
This child was also nicknamed “a wolf girl from the Devil’s River”. For the first time a mysterious creature was discovered in 1845. Among the wolves, on all fours, ran a girl, attacking along with predators on a herd of goats near the Mexican San Felipe. A year later the information about the wild child was confirmed – the girl was greedily eating a raw dead goat. Residents of the village were alarmed by this neighborhood with an unusual person. They started looking for the girl, soon after catching her. A wild child was named Lobo. She constantly howled at night along the wolf, as if urging flocks of gray predators to save themselves. As a result, the girl escaped from captivity and fled. The next time a wild child was seen after 8 years. She was by the river with two cubs. Frightened of the people, Lobo grabbed the puppies and ran away. Since then, no one has met her.
Not far from the German Hameln in 1724, people discovered a hairy boy. He moved only on all fours. Catch a wild man could only by deception. He could not speak, and he ate only raw food-a bird and vegetables. The boy after his carriage in England was nicknamed Wild Peter. He did not learn how to speak, but he was able to do the simplest work. They say that Peter was able to live to his advanced age.