Becoming famous can not only be through politics or show business. Today, television is constantly being told about famous terrorists. Their fame is based on blood and murder. The notion of “terror” arose a long time ago. Translated from Latin, this word means fear or horror. Physical violence could scare your political opponents or the common people.
Terrorism has many forms – collective and individual, religious, nationalistic, state and international. The first terrorists operated in Judea in the I century. Then the members of the sect of the Sicarii killed those noble Jews who were advocated for peace with the Romans. This was regarded as a betrayal of national interests.
In the Middle Ages, the assassins, who acted on the territory of present-day Iran, became famous. These faceless murderers killed sinners on the orders of their leader. Today, terrorists have become no longer faceless, they do not hide, exposing their dark affairs for show. The most famous of such criminals will be discussed below.
This is the first person who managed to go down in history not with his creative or political abilities, but with destructive activity. A Greek from Ephesus in 356 BC. in his hometown burned the temple of Artemis, considered one of the wonders of the world. During the torture, Herostrat admitted that he did it on purpose to perpetuate his name. After the execution, the order was issued to completely forget the name of Herostratus. To this end, even the inhabitants of Ephesus hired special criers who traveled the country and announced that the name of the ambitious must be forgotten. However, this crime was expounded in the works of the ancient Greek historian Theopomp. From there information about Gerostrat migrated to the works of later scientists. The story of the arson of the famous church was invariably accompanied by the name of the criminal. So Herostratus achieved her goal. Legends say that the night when the temple of Artemis was blazing, Alexander the Great was born. The terrorist Herostratus can be considered a stretch, but he showed how you can achieve glory in a criminal way. There was a phrase “Gerostratova glory” or “laurels of Herostratus”, which means fame, equivalent to shame.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, terrorist methods became very popular in Russia – attempts were made on major officials and even on the tsar. Revolutionary Boris Savinkov supported such methods of fighting the regime. He himself was born into a family of nobles, but all his closest relatives in one way or another opposed the authorities. For example, an elder brother, a Social Democrat, committed suicide in Siberian exile. Sam Savinkov in 1899 was expelled from St. Petersburg University for participating in student riots. In 1903, the young revolutionary was only 24 years old, and he had already been arrested and exiled. In Geneva, Savinkov joins the fighting organization of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. Until 1917, he organized numerous terrorist acts in Russia. The most noisy cases were the murder of Interior Minister Plehve (1904), Moscow Governor-General Prince Sergey Alexandrovich (1905), an attempt on the Interior Minister Durnovo and General Dubasov. After the arrest of terrorist leader Azev, Savinkov heads the Combat Organization. In 1906, while preparing an attempt on the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Chukhnin, a terrorist was caught in Sevastopol and sentenced to death. But Savinkov was able to escape to Romania at night. Successful attacks were no longer possible to prepare, the Combat Organization disintegrated, and its former leader began to engage in literary activity. After the February Revolution, Savinkov returned to Russia, he became the commissar of the Provisional Government, then an assistant to the War Minister. The October 1917 revolution was not supported by the former terrorist. He tried to fight with the new authorities, then went to Europe, where he found himself in a political vacuum.As a result, Savinkov illegally returned to Russia, where he was captured by the OGPU and was killed in prison (officially – committed suicide).
Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, “Carlos the Jackal”.
The international terrorist was born in 1949 in Venezuela. His name was given in honor of Lenin, because his father was also a convinced communist. In 1968-1969, a young fiery revolutionary was trained in Moscow and the University of Friendship of Peoples. In 1970, Sanchez received the nickname “Carlos”, when he passed an internship in a terrorist camp in Palestine. During the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the terrorist showed himself well, and in 1973 he tried in London to kill the influential Jewish politician and businessman Edward Schiff. In the seventies, Sanchez succeeded in a series of attacks – an attack on the bank, the explosion of French newspaper editions, attacks on airplanes and a restaurant. The most famous action of the “Jackal” was an attack on the Viennese headquarters of OPEC and the hostage-taking in 1975. At the same time terrorists managed to escape unpunished. In the 80’s, Sanchez was credited with a series of explosions in France, 11 people were injured, and more than 100 were injured. The perpetrator is constantly hiding, then in Hungary, then in Syria, then in Algeria. He began to trade arms, moving away from his main activity over time. The terrorist was eventually issued by the Sudanese authorities in 1994. In France in 1997, Sanchez was sentenced to life imprisonment, and in 2011 the second such verdict was pronounced. Now the terrorist is in a prison in Paris and writes autobiographical books.
This German journalist comes from an intelligent bourgeois family – her ancestors were pastors, and her parents were art historians. In 1955, at the age of 21, an intelligent girl entered the University of Marburg, where she studied philosophy, pedagogy, sociology. But the foul atmosphere did not match her active character. In 1957, she transferred to the University of Münster, where she heads the student movement against nuclear weapons. In the first half of the 1960s, Meinhof became one of the most famous journalists in Germany, she receives large royalties. At the same time, it actively participates in the anti-fascist movement, opposes the war in Vietnam and adopts anti-democratic laws. When Germany starts to ban and pursue left organizations, Ulrike’s activities become much more radical. In 1970, the journalist organized the armed liberation of the leader of the Red Army Faction (RAF) Andreas Baader. This mission succeeds, albeit at the cost of injuring innocent people. The very same new-born terrorist goes underground. Since then, the RAF has started to conduct active operations. The group visited the training camps of the Palestine Liberation Front. The terrorists needed money and on their return to Germany they began to attack the banks. Ulrich Meinhof was named the queen of terror. RAF attributed 555 terrorist attacks. Among the victims were ordinary people and even associates, who wanted to retire. In 1972 Ulrik Meinhof was finally arrested. In 1975, she died under strange circumstances in prison. Her funeral turned into a mass protest.
Prior to the advent of Osama bin Laden, it was the largest terrorist in the history of America. In his youth, Timothy grew up closed and unsociable. He was more interested in computers, and later also firearms, and not study and communication. In 1988, at the age of 20, McVeigh became a soldier in the US Army. He took part in the war in the Persian Gulf, deserved the award. McVeigh passed special training, studied explosives, tactics of snipers. But the career in the army did not work out because of McVeigh’s poor physical shape. In 1992, he was dismissed to the reserve. The former soldier adhered to right-wing anarchism, he believed that control of arms is a limitation of constitutional freedoms.The authorities ‘actions in Ruby Ridge in 1992 and the siege of the Mount Carmel estate in 1993, when innocent people died as a result of the authorities’ actions, caused McVeigh’s desire to take revenge. On April 19, 1995, the terrorist blew up the Alfred Marr Federal Building in Oklahoma City. For these purposes, a vehicle mined with 5 tons of explosives was used. Then, 168 people died, including 19 children under the age of six. Another 680 people were wounded. Total damage from the explosion amounted to 652 million dollars. Already an hour and a half after the explosion, McVeigh was arrested for illegal possession of firearms. In 1997, a court was held, which sentenced the terrorist to death. In 2001, McVey was injected with a lethal injection. In America itself, the legislation was amended, which tightened the protection of federal buildings.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is conducting a terrorist war against the British. The most famous revolutionary is Patrick Magee. In 1984, he carried out his most famous action. Then a carefully prepared attempt on the English Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was practically successful. When the British Conservative Party held its congress in Brighton, Magee managed to put a bomb in the hotel room of the politician. Thatcher miraculously escaped death, because at the time of the explosion she was in the toilet. But 5 innocent people were killed. Magee himself received the nickname “Brighton Bomber” for his attack. The terrorist knew in advance which hotel the tall guest would be accommodated in. He had booked a room next door to him for six months. And issued him an accidentally left signature in the guest book. The court sentenced the Irishman to 8 life sentences. In prison, Magee studied and even passed the exams, having received a second education. In 15 years he was released. Today Magi continues to actively participate in demonstrations against the authorities.
This person managed to create a whole lethal sect, which under the pretext of a non-religious organization began to kill people. Tizuo Matsumoto grew up in a large family. Unable to enter the university, he started practicing Chinese medicine. Back in 1981, he was arrested for fraud, the sale of energy-laden drugs. In 1987, Asahara carried out a pilgrimage to the Himalayas, where he claims to have been spiritually purified. Earlier he founded an organization called Aum Shinrikyo. Since 1989, the sect has become famous in Japan. She attracted many young Japanese students from elite universities. Active cooperation with the Dalai Lama led to the recognition of this organization on his part. The study of Buddhist texts and meditation was just a bait. Aum Shinrikyo began to act more actively. Rituals included drug use, shock therapy. In 1989, the first murder of a sect member occurred, which he wanted to leave. In 1990, Asahara tried to run for parliament, but failed. The sect began secretly acquiring weapons, including chemical weapons. Zarin and VX gas were previously used for killing or assassinating critics of Aum Shinrikyo. But on June 27, 1994, the gas was launched against civilians. Members of the sect used sarin in the central park of Matsumoto. Then 7 people died, 200 more were injured. The police were preparing to close the sect, but Asahara managed to carry out another loud terrorist attack. On March 20, 1995, a gas attack was conducted in the Tokyo metro. The victims were 12-27 people, the whole action of sarin felt several tens of thousands of people. The trial of Shoko Asahara was the longest in the history of the country. As a result, he was sentenced to death, but the verdict has not yet been carried out. Shamil Basayev.
Basayev after the end of military service came to Moscow. There he never managed to enter the university and was satisfied with low-paid work. After the collapse of the State Emergency Committee, Basayev returned to Chechnya, felt a field for self-realization.He became a member of an armed group established under the National Congress of the Chechen People. In the summer of 1991, Basayev created an armed group “Vedeno”, and in October formed a group of saboteurs. They were supposed to protect the freedom of the Chechen Republic and the interests of the President. On November 9, 1991, as a sign of protest against the imposition of a state of emergency, Basayev steals a passenger plane from Mineralnye Vody to Turkey. There the invaders surrendered and were sent to Chechnya. Then Basayev noted participation in the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. During the First Chechen War, the terrorist gradually moved from active participation to sabotage. On 14-20 June 1995, militants led by Basayev in the city of Budennovsk in the Stavropol Territory seized the hospital. Hostages were 1600 people, 147 of whom died. Prior to the Second Chechen War, Basayev was actively involved in politics. Nevertheless, he continued to organize terrorist attacks on the territory of Russia. This is the capture of hostages on Dubrovka in 2002 (129 dead), a truck explosion near the government in Grozny (72 victims), a series of suicide bombings in 2003, explosions in the underground in 2004, the seizure of a school in Beslan in 2004 ( 330 dead hostages). In 2006, Basayev was killed by Russian special services in the preparation of a new terrorist act.
Osama bin Laden.
This person became the largest organizer of terrorist acts in modern history. He also rather generously sponsored the entire Islamic radical movement. Osama was born in Saudi Arabia and received a good education. He began to participate in the family construction business, but the invasion of Soviet troops in Afghanistan forced bin Laden to join the Afghan jihad. The activities of bin Laden against the Soviet troops (hiring volunteers, active fighting) were under the control of US intelligence. In 1989, Osama returned to his homeland, continuing to sponsor the radicals. But the war in the Persian Gulf and the union of Saudi Arabia with the US outraged Usama, which was the reason for his expulsion to Sudan. In 1996 and 1998, bin Laden issued appeals calling for Muslims to fight Americans. The result was explosions in the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, which occurred on August 7, 1998. It was the eighth anniversary of the entry of American troops into Saudi Arabia. As a result of the terrorist attacks, 290 people were killed, about 5 thousand were injured. Then Osama bin Laden was added to the list of the most wanted terrorists. After the events of September 11, 2001, the name of Osama became known to the whole world. It was he who was declared the main suspect in the series of major terrorist attacks in America. Sam Bin Laden then refused to participate in the attack, then confirmed his involvement in it. The US has deployed troops into Afghanistan, wishing to destroy the Al Qaeda terrorist network. Himself bin Laden for a long time was hiding, until he was killed by special forces in 2011. Andres Behring Breivik.
The recent terrorist attack shocked everyone, because it turned out that the attack could be carried out in quiet, prosperous countries. Norwegian Andres Breivik led an inconspicuous life, but his political activities were active. Since 1997, Breivik participated in the youth wing of the Progress Party. In the 2000s, the views of the Norwegian became more radical. He positioned himself as a nationalist and hated multicultural politics and Muslims. Breivik gradually came to the conclusion that he would not be able to do anything with political methods, so we should use weapons. Before the commission of his terrorist attack, Breivik posted a 12-minute video on the Internet and sent out a 1518-page manifesto. There he urged the Europeans to return to the policy of isolationism and Christian medieval values. Breivik was able to legally acquire weapons in his native Norway, and components for explosives from the seller of fertilizers. July 22, 2011 in the government quarter of Oslo, an explosion occurred. Eight people were killed, another 92 were injured.Suffered nearby buildings, the fire began. An hour and a half later, Breivik came to the ferry across the island of Uteya. There was a summer camp of the ruling Labor Party. There were more than 600 young people in it. Dressed in the uniform of a policeman, Breivik did not arouse suspicion, gathered around him young Social Democrats, he began to aim at them. On the island, a terrorist killed 69 people. After an hour and a half slaughter, he surrendered without resistance to the authorities. The law provides for a maximum term of imprisonment of 21 years, the terrorist himself does not intend to challenge the forthcoming decision of the court.