These knights of the cloak and dagger are waging their war in peacetime. After all, there are always secrets that countries, corporations and simply powerful people hide. And do not underestimate the spies. Yes, they do not win wars, but essentially change the alignment of forces on the military, political and economic map. Information rules the world, so that secret agents are needed.
Not for nothing about them films are made, books are written. The most famous spy is James Bond. Let the character and turned out to be fictional, he formed the image of an ideal special agent. In real life, little is known about real spies, because their work is to remain in the shadows. Nevertheless, it is worth talking about the most famous secret agents.
Kim Philby (1912-1988).
The story of this person’s life is so dizzying that it will surely become the basis for a script of some spy movie. Kim was born in India in the family of a British official. Philby’s family was quite old. The boy was educated in England, where he graduated cum laude from the Cambridge School. In 1929, Philby went to Cambridge, where he showed sympathy for socialist views. In 1934, Kim enlisted the Soviet intelligence agent Arnold Dane. During the Civil War in Spain, Philby visited there as a correspondent for the Times, along with his first secret assignments. In 1940, a Soviet spy becomes an employee of the British secret service and quickly makes a career there. Formally, Philby fights against Soviet spies, in fact, he regularly delivers to Moscow secret documents. Thanks to this, many British agents and informants were disclosed. In the 1950s Moscow’s high-ranking spies began to unfold in England, and Philby was also suspected. After a short resignation, he again becomes an employee of MI6. Now his field of action is Beirut. As a result, in 1963 Philby was illegally transferred to the USSR, where the spy was showered with state awards, and a pension was granted. Only now the enthusiasm for all the charms of socialism has quickly died away. Philby was not needed by anybody and began to drink. In the USSR, who believed in the justice of a spy, a cruel disappointment awaited.
Nathan Hale (1755-1776).
Hale is considered the first American spy. In his homeland he is revered as a national hero, he became a symbol of the struggle of his people for independence. Nathan was born into the family of a rich farmer. At age 18, he graduated with honors from Yale University. At first he wanted to become a priest, like his brother, but then decided to choose the path of the teacher. The workplace of the young teacher was the school for the offspring of noble families in New London. As soon as the first shots sounded, marking the beginning of the American War of Independence, a young patriot teacher joined the army. Hale’s letters were preserved, in which he told how Washington managed to turn the militia into a regular army. Nathan in battles showed courage and rose to the rank of captain in the detachment of the Rangers. When Washington needed a spy to learn more about the British, Hale volunteered. Even if this was not his responsibility, and there was a great risk of being discovered, the ardent young man decided to serve the cause of his country. In mid-September 1776, he left the camp and in civilian clothes under the guise of a teacher went to New York. For a week Hale got the required information, but on the appointed day he signaled not to his, but to an English boat. The spy was seized, and under the insoles of his shoes found records. Hale named his rank and the purpose of his mission. He was sentenced to death. The last words of the brave spy were: “I very much regret that I have only one life that I can give for my Motherland.” Today Nathan Hale has set a lot of monuments in America, which are decorated with the posthumous phrase of the hero.
Fritz Ducane (1877-1956).
The life of this spy is teeming with adventures that James Bond would envy. Dukeine graduated from the University of London, and then the Royal Military Academy in Brussels.With the beginning of the Anglo-Boer War, the young man travels to South Africa and enters the Boer commandos, where he receives the title of captain. Capture, shoots, captured gold – a plot for an exciting action movie. As a result, through Paris, Ducane enters England, where he joins the army of his recent enemy. And again the officer goes to South Africa. There he unexpectedly learns that the British burned his ancestral estate and destroyed his relatives. Then Fritz declared the personal war of the British and even began to collect his army. Dukeina grabbed and put first in the prison of Cape Town, and then redirected to Bermuda. Attempts to flee fail, but help German smugglers who transport Fritz to America. There Ducane began to work as a journalist, visiting the hottest points. Handsome man, who knows 5 languages, a brilliant storyteller, is a success with women. During the First World War, Dukeine, experiencing a pathological hatred of the British, begins to cooperate with the Germans. Under the guise of a rubber researcher, he goes to Brazil. But the samples collected by him, transported exclusively on British ships, so nowhere and do not reach – the ship disappeared without a trace. In 1916, Dukein, in the guise of a Russian prince, got on board a heavy cruiser Hampshire. On the way, the spy transmits the signal to the German submarine, and he himself is rescued on the fuselage. This operation brought the Iron Cross to the scout. Despite the spread rumors about the death of Ducane (from the hands of the savages of the Amazon!) He was arrested in 1917. Interest in the tricks Fritz has, and Americans, and the British. A paralyzed spy is transferred to the hospital, where he lies without moving for 2 years. But then he manages to escape, having cut through the sieve and disguised himself as a woman. Only in 1932 a spy was caught, but his next mistress handed over him. Despite the demands of extradition from the British, the court decides that, after the prescription of the years, the case must be closed. In 1941, Duquesne again comes across. It turns out that over the past 10 years he managed to organize the largest German spy network in the country. At the trial, Ducane argues that in this way he was all the time avenging the British for their crimes in the Anglo-Boer War. Despite the fact that the spy is already 64, he is sentenced to 20 years in prison. Ducane spent 14 of them and went to freedom weakened and exhausted, other prisoners constantly beat him. After 2 years, the famous spy died in poverty in the city hospital.
Sidney Reilly (1873-1925).
This British intelligence officer was nicknamed “The King of Espionage.” He was born under the name of George Rosenblum in the south of Russia – either in Odessa, or in Kherson. At the age of 19, a young student was arrested for taking part in a revolutionary circle. Learning the truth about his real parents, the young man realized that he does not have anything in his homeland. On an English ship he departed for South America, where he took the name of Pedro. Raleigh was engaged in the most rough work, but was marked by British intelligence officers and redirected to the UK. There the name of the future spy developed. Raleigh enlisted in the British intelligence service and went to Russia. Under the guise of a wood merchant, the spy traveled to Port Arthur, where he managed to obtain military cards and sell them to the Japanese. Until the First World War, Reilly lived under the guise of an antiquary in St. Petersburg, acting as an assistant to the naval attache of Great Britain. In 1918, a spy represents his country in an allied mission, trying to recruit Red officers. In May 1918 he was already on the Don and was able to take them to Russia Kerensky. The rebellion of the Socialist-Revolutionaries on July 6, 1918 in Moscow was coordinated by Reilly. In post-revolutionary Moscow, the spy recruited Soviet employees at ease, he even had a pass to the Kremlin. He pretended to be a criminal investigation officer, a Turk, an antiquarian. Authorities began to hunt for an English spy, which appeared in different cities of the country, then in London. Raleigh also infiltrated the ranks of anti-Soviet emigrants. In 1925, after another border crossing, the spy was finally captured. Reilly told me that he knew and was shot.The superagent, who organized many conspiracies, became very popular in the film industry, both in the USSR and in the West. It is believed that it was with him written by James Bond.
Richard Sorge (1895-1944).
The father of the famous intelligence officer was a German oil producer, whose fate was brought to Baku. In 1898 the family moved to Germany. In his youth, Richard participated in the battles in the fields of the First World War, was wounded, rewarded and commissioned. In the hospital Sorge met with the socialists, began to study the works of Marx. In 1919, Richard joined the Communist Party of Germany and began to conduct agitation work. In 1924, Zorge moved to the Soviet Union and obtained citizenship. Since 1926, a former German has served in intelligence. Since 1930, Zorge has been working in China, where he organizes an agent network. Soon the Soviet spy moves to Japan, where he portrays a correspondent of influential German newspapers. During the wave of repression of 1937-1938, the Soviet leadership insistently called on its agent to the Motherland. But he apparently guessed why, and refused to return, as this could hurt the work. Despite the refusal to submit to the Center, Zorge still supplied Moscow with data. The most important period is considered to be the work of 1939-1941. The Scout was able to warn that Germany is preparing an attack on the USSR. However, Stalin did not believe this report. The second time, “Ramzai” handed over the most important data in the fall of 1941. He was able to learn that the Japanese in the near future do not intend to attack the Soviet Union. This allowed the transfer of 26 fresh divisions from the Far East in the heat of battle near Moscow, which predetermined the victory of the Red Army. In October 1941, Zorge was arrested by the Japanese and sentenced to death. Hitler personally demanded the extradition of a traitor. In 1944, the spy was executed. It is interesting that the USSR for 20 years did not recognize that Zorge was a scout. Only in 1964 he was declassified, and he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
Aldrich Ames (gen..1941).
If the majority of spies work for ideological or political reasons, there will always be those who are only interested in money. Ames was a hereditary scout, his father worked with the CIA. The peak of Aldrich’s career was in 1985, when he was appointed head of the department, who controls the counterintelligence of the CIA in the USSR. The agent was his wife. The scandal broke out in 1994. The couple was arrested, it turned out that for the last 9 years they had been cooperating with the KGB. Thanks to Ames, from 12 to 25 CIA agents were arrested, in the midst of the Cold War, the US was left without valuable sources. When the security services began to seek shelter inside their organization, they were alarmed by the luxurious life of the couple Ames. The couple bought a house, a luxury car, shares and a couple of apartments, telling stories about his wife’s legacy. Suppose that the high salary of a high-ranking official did not have such a high salary. During his cooperation with the KGB, Ames received about $ 2.5 million. The capture of the spy caused a scandal. The head of the CIA, James Woolwi, resigned. It turned out that no one even could approximately estimate the volumes of information sold by the spy. The press laughed at the CIA, because it turned out that Ames freely took secret documents to his house, went to the Soviet embassy, scattered floppy disks with collected information. And the authorities were looking for a classic spy on detective standards, not seeing him in an innocuous employee. As a result, Ames is serving a life sentence, but his wife, with some of the money, managed to remain at large.
Klaus Fuchs (1911-1988).
A German physicist joined the ranks of the Communist Party at the age of 22, disenchanted with the Social Democrats. But political views forced Fuchs to flee to Britain. The Communists went underground, and Fuchs himself was sentenced to death in absentia. In Bristol University, the German received a doctorate in physics. Since 1941, under the guidance of Professor Born, Fuchs has been working in a group of nuclear scientists.Realizing the threat of new weapons, he transferred his part of the research in the Manhattan project to the Soviet Union. And this was done unselfishly, from political convictions. The scientist himself found a Soviet resident and passed on the information. Over time, Fuchs reported on the device of the bomb. In 1942, the physicist receives English citizenship, he is trusted with secret materials about the progress of such developments in Germany. As a result, Fuchs managed to even get into Oppenheimer’s team, at the heart of the project. As a result, the USSR was able to create nuclear weapons amazingly quickly. This caused suspicion. Special services began to check all involved, in 1950 Fuchs was arrested. It turned out that his information allowed the Soviet Union to develop new weapons not in 10 years, but in just 3 years. Based on documents from Fuchs in the USSR, information was obtained in a hydrogen bomb, which made it possible to begin work on even earlier than in the United States. The spy was sentenced to 14 years, as England and the USSR were still formally considered allies. Fuchs was released in 1959 and lived to the end of his life in the GDR. Robert Hanssen (b. 1944).
Nothing foreshadowed a career as a spy in this typically American career. Hanssen graduated from college, where, by the way, he studied Russian. Robert planned to become a dentist, but then received an MBA. In 1972 Hanssen became a policeman working in internal security. Since 1976, a promising officer works for the FBI. In 1978, he already went to the main office in New York, where he was engaged in counterintelligence. Since 1983, the American has been working in the Soviet analytical department. Approximately since 1985 Hanssen’s cooperation with the Soviet Union began. Moscow received a lot of information about the electronic intelligence of its opponent, that the FBI had dug a tunnel under the embassy building, and also issued several double agents. In 1991, the USSR collapsed, and there was no one to cooperate with. But the Russian special services did not forget the useful agent, the cooperation resumed in 1999. In 2001, Hanssen was still arrested – he was turned over by defectors from Russia. The investigation could prove 13 episodes of espionage, which led to a life imprisonment for a spy without the right to pardon. Hanssen handed over 6 thousand classified documents. And in this case the spies were driven by greed. But he did not litter money, and even demanded payment of diamonds. Hanssen left the bags in secluded places and took money there. Nobody knew the special agent in person, he himself sent to the KGB tart and ironic letters, criticizing for slowness and unprofessionalism. Even the spy’s wife did not know anything about his second life. During the transaction, Hanssen told all the authorities, and they left his wife all the property and a pension of her husband from the FBI. Rudolf Abel (1903-1971).
In 1901, in Newcastle, William Fisher was born to a family of revolutionaries who had been expelled from Russia. The Russified German began his studies at the University of London. But in 1920, the Fishers moved to Russia, without giving up English citizenship. William in 1924 enters the Institute of Oriental Studies, begins to study India. But then he was drafted into the army, where he became a brilliant radio operator. These talents were marked by intelligence, where the young man was in 1927. In 1931, Fisher, together with his wife and daughter, went on a special mission to England. The Scout was responsible for installing a whole network of secret radio channels. From 1935 to 1936, the spy worked in Belgium and France. In 1936, Fischer returned to the USSR, where because of the flight of a large resident is unnecessary. During the Great Patriotic War, Fisher is engaged in radio equipment, receiving several awards. The failure of Soviet agents in America in 1945-1946 led to the fact that Fisher was again in demand. So the artist Emil Goldfuss came to America from Germany. Abel had to resume agent relations in the USSR and obtain information on atomic research. The active work of the scout quickly brought fruit and in 1949 he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.In 1957, the defector-radio operator Heihanen issued a Soviet spy. Abel categorically refused to cooperate with the authorities and denied his belonging to intelligence. The court sentenced him to 32 years in prison, but served only 5 of them. Abel in prison continued to pursue his hobby – to draw. In 1962, the famous spy was exchanged in Germany for the downed American pilot Francis Powers. Fisher returned to work in intelligence, teaching young employees. On the basis of his biography, the book “Shield and Sword” was written, the tape “Dead Season” was filmed.
Conon the Young (1922-1970).
Konon’s parents were scientists. When the boy was 7 years old, his father died, and at 10 he moved to live with his aunt in the United States. In 1938, Young returned to the USSR and continued his studies. During the war, Konon served in the front intelligence, showing courage and reward. After the end of the battles, Young entered the Foreign Trade Institute, where he studied Chinese. Since 1951, Young has served in foreign intelligence. In 1954 he went to Canada on fake documents. There he was able to turn into Gordon Lonsdale. Young visited the United States and Great Britain for the purpose of introducing into the military circles and collecting secret information. Sociable character allowed the scout to become a successful businessman. Lonsdale even managed to become a millionaire. The queen even granted the businessman the title of knight for his contribution to the development of entrepreneurial activities in the country. In London, Lonsdale became a regular hero of social life, he makes a useful acquaintance. The most useful friend of the Young was Harry Houghton, who had access to secret documents of the naval base. For several years the Englishman was selling the secrets of his country, which in the end allowed the USSR to save several billion dollars. Until the last moment Houghton believed that he was cooperating with the Americans. The failure occurred in 1961 because of the betrayal of the Polish intelligence officer who betrayed the traitor. Already through him was arrested and Young. Three years the spy spent in an English prison, and then was exchanged for an English spy.