These people dreamed of changing the destiny of the world. However, the stories of most revolutionaries teach that the fire of changes in society often devours those who organized it. And the new reality often does not correspond to plans and dreams. Among the most famous revolutionaries, we deliberately do not refer to Spartacus. After all, he was, rather, a rebel. The revolution is connected with the change of the state system, its transition to a new stage.
The very word “revolution” appeared in the 16th century to refer to those new processes that were taking place in Holland and Germany. It is interesting that the first revolutionaries did not call for a bright future, but rather, in the near golden age, for the return of simple values. At the end of the eighteenth century, the revolution was already frightening the crowned people.
The most fanatical activists claimed that the world can only be renewed through blood. And although history has shown the dubiousness of revolutions, even today the society in the Middle East is being shaken by radical changes. Unfortunately, the experience of the most famous revolutionaries is not taken into account. But their lives are real fascinating, cognitive and often tragic stories.
This is a rather contradictory personality in history. Some considered him a hero and dedicated poems to him, while others directly call him a villain who spilled blood of the English. The famous revolutionary was born in 1599. He knows little about his youth – he dropped out of school to provide for his family. Until 1640 Cromwell was an ordinary world judge and fought with the government for the rights of communities, with the clergy for the right to freely interpret the Bible. No one even assumed that the “village nobleman” was destined to lead the struggle against the despotism of the king. In 1640, the contradictions between King Charles I and the Parliament escalated. Two years later, the monarch declared war on his legislative body. Then Cromwell began to form his own cavalry, because without it the parliament could not win. In this army ordinary commoners could become officers. Cavalry became the basis of a new army, and Cromwell himself became a lieutenant-general. Parliament defeated the royalists, and Charles I was captured. With the active participation of Cromwell, the revolutionary court recognized the monarch as a tyrant and executed him in 1645. In subsequent years, Cromwell usurped power in the country, severely suppressing the uprisings in Ireland and Scotland. Having dispersed in 1653, the revolutionary turned into a dictator, the protector’s lord of all England. Tired of the revolutions of the population did not support Cromwell’s reforms, he himself remained alone, rejected by his friends. Passion and boldness gave way to irritability and suspicion. The great revolutionary died in 1658.
The end of the 18th century was a very stormy and decisive era for America. After all, the history of the new country began. The most outstanding personality of those years for the United States was George Washington. It is interesting that his ancestors in the course of the English Revolution left precisely for their adherence to the monarchs. The revolutionary was born in 1732, having received a modest education. Even the efforts of the parents were not enough to make George really enlightened. So he did not master the spelling and did not know any foreign languages. By the age of 17, Washington had become a land surveyor and started working in this position in Culpeper County. And in 20 years after the death of his brother George inherited, becoming a rich landowner. But in the mid-1750s a war broke out between the English and French colonies. Washington took an active part in it. In 1754 he was already commander of the Virginia militia. George showed himself to be a strict and disciplined commander. At the same time, he began a political career, choosing the district meetings. After the “Boston Tea Party” Washington showed activity, declaring its solidarity with colleagues. Soon the politician was already speaking at the continental congress. It was he who was entrusted with leading the militia of the colonies to protect American liberties. Washington received a disparate and indiscipline army.I had to put things in order there. In 1776-1781 the American army quite successfully opposed the British, having achieved their surrender. Washington appeared as the savior of the nation, the country was immensely grateful to him. After the end of hostilities and the dissolution of the army, Washington returned to its name. However, the general was upset by the visitors, he wrote a lot, not leaving alone. And in 1787 at the first meeting of the convention his president was elected – he became Washington. In February 1789, presidential elections were held in the country, but no one doubted who should lead the state. And although the revolutionary himself aspired not to power, but to rest, he became the President. In this post, Washington stayed two terms, traveled a lot around the country and laid a new capital. On March 4, 1797, the general resigned the powers of the head of the country, especially since by that time he was heavily criticized by the press. He did not have the time to enjoy a quiet life, having died in 1799. In his will, Washington also ordered the release of all his slaves after the death of his wife.
Born in 1743, the revolutionary was elected one of the leaders of the Great French Revolution. In many ways it was Marat who laid the foundations of revolutionary terror. And Jean Paul appeared in the family of a former priest, who became an artist in the textile industry. The father saw in the firstborn of the scientist, his mother brought up character and instilled idealistic variants. The boy loved to read and just dreamed of fame, the desire for her devoured his soul. At the age of 16 Marat left the house, and in 1762 moved to Paris. There, he spent all his spare time on self-education, carried away by philosophy, social and economic issues. In 1765, not wishing to study medicine for a long time, Marat moved to London. There he showed himself as a good doctor and even received a doctorate in medicine in 1775. In England, Marat joined clitoris and politics, realizing that with the help of the newspaper an active person can achieve fame. In 1776, the Frenchman returned to his homeland, but here he was met with a cool. Marat had to get down to business – he treated both commoners and aristocrats. The events of 1789 forced the doctor to drop his studies and dive into politics. Marat began to publish his own newspaper “Friend of the People”, becoming his editor. Soon the name of the newspaper passed to the doctor himself. In 1791 the situation in France was aggravated – the European countries were preparing an intervention, and the king was preparing for an escape. Then Marat demanded the deposition of Louis XVI, as earlier through his newspaper called on the people to continue the revolution. And after the overthrow of the monarchy and the proclamation of the republic, Marat became a deputy of the Convention. He continued to call for decisive action, insisting on the execution of the king. The authority of Marat became so high that the Jacobins elected him their president. In the spring of 1793 the revolutionary became seriously ill. But even lying in bed, he wrote to the newspaper, criticizing too soft measures against the enemies of the revolution. Marat demanded to execute first 20 thousand, and then 270 thousand noblemen. The republican idealist Charlotte Corday, who appeared in his house, killed a revolutionary right in his bathroom. With the death of Marat, a wave of unprecedented terror began, which killed not only the enemies of the new system, but also many of the revolutionaries themselves.
One of the most vivid and bloody revolutions in history was the Great French. But if Marat prepared the ground for mass terror, then Robespierre implemented it. The memory of him is so bloody that this person was never put up monuments, his name was not called streets and cities. But at the age of 27 he passionately agitated for the abolition of the death penalty, and eight years later he claimed that execution was the duty of any revolutionary government. At the beginning of his career, Robespierre defended the rights of the people, and at the end of his life he separated from him. A strict lawyer finally discredited the proceedings. The revolutionary-patriot turned into a tyrant as a result. And Maximilien de Robespierre was born in 1758.His family was not poor, at the Arasco College the boy showed himself to be a diligent student, having received the impetus for training in Paris. There Robespierre continued his excellent training and was carried away by Rousseau’s ideas, especially his political theory. In 1781, a young man became a lawyer in the Paris Parliament, but because of poverty he was forced to leave the capital. In the province, he was able to establish a calm and well-groomed life. Guided by the principles of freedom and the right to life, the lawyer defended even the poor in court, doing this for free. And in 1789 Robespierre became a member of the General Staffs from the third convict, who soon became the National and Constituent Assembly. At the very beginning of the revolution, at the time of the capture of Paris and the Bastille, the provincial lawyer waited. But when political clubs began to form, Robespierre proved himself with might and main. He became a regular at the Jacobin Club, which demanded the continuation of the revolution, and not the preservation of the monarchy in an updated constitutional form. In 1792, another uprising took place in Paris, which made Robespierre one of the leaders of the revolution, along with Danton and Marat. Soon, former friends began to interfere with an ambitious policy. And then Danton was otovdinut in the background, and Marat was killed. Nothing could prevent the terror that Robespierre deployed. In the prisons of Paris, there were not enough places, those accused of crimes against the state were deprived of the right to defend themselves. The executioners executed 50 people at a time, and after the execution of Marie Antoinette the guillotine stopped working only at night. In the spring of 1794, terror turned against political rivals Robespierre. Even Danton was executed. Robespierre himself imposed a new law on the Convention, which liquidated the court and the inviolability of the deputies. Fear rallied the deputies and on July 27, 1794 Robespierre was accused of tyranny, immediately arrested, and soon executed.
In South America, at the beginning of the 19th century, a wave of national liberation revolutions took place, one of whose leaders was Simon Bolivar. And he appeared in the world in Venezuela, in Caracas in 1783 in a rich family. Remaining an early orphan, Simon received education in Madrid and Paris, traveled to Europe and the United States. In Rome, Bolivar swore to liberate his country from the Spanish domination. In 1810, with the outbreak of the Latin American war against the colonialists, Bolivar returned to his homeland to help the rebels. And for his cooperation with the British, he received the rank of colonel and the title of Governor of Puerto Cabello. After the earthquake in 1812, many revolutionaries were frightened, taking it as a punishment. But Bolivan did not recognize the defeat of his case. He issues appeals, collects an army. In 1813, the general freed from the Spaniards Venezuela, receives the title of “Liberator” and is recognized as a dictator. During the long wars with the Spaniards in 1813-1819, Bolivar was defeated, fled, collected new liberation and again defeated. And in 1819 the general became the president of great Colombia, which joined New Granada, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela. By 1824, Bolivar participated in 472 battles. Finally the Spaniards capitulated on August 11, 1826, the revolutionary himself conceived to create the Southern United States. However, the congress of deputies did not come to unity, and in 1830 the brainchild of Bolivar, his Great Colombia, also disintegrated. The struggle for power, the quarrels and vanity of the local tsars pushed the national idea to the background. In Colombia itself, in 1828, began a civil war, Bolivar lost support in Peru. The authoritarian rule of the revolutionary frightened off his allies. Bolivar himself was accused of exorbitant ambitions and was soon deprived of the presidency. In 1830, nine months after leaving the post of head of state, Bolivar died of tuberculosis.
For many centuries, Italy was scattered. Only thanks to this national hero emerged a single state. Garibaldi was born in 1807 in the family of a hereditary sailor. From a young age he began to sail on merchant ships.And in 1833 the sailor joined the secret society “Young Italy”. Then the revolutionaries only dreamed of creating an independent democratic state. In 1834, Garibaldt tried to prepare a sailors’ uprising in Piéonte, but fled and was sentenced in absentia to death. In his wanderings the Italian got even to South America, where he took part in the national liberation wars. In the detachment of a brave revolutionary there were some Italians who chose red huts as their form. In 1848, with the beginning of the revolution in his native Italy, Garibaldi headed rational battalions, fighting with Austria. With the help of an experienced revolutionary, the power of Pope Pius IX is overthrown. However, the Roman Republic quickly fell, Garibaldi himself was caught trying to help the insurgent Venice. The authorities did not dare to execute the popular hero and he was deported from the country. And again Garibaldi wandered around the world – he worked in the USA, sailed across the Pacific Ocean. And in 1859 Garibaldi was in demand Piedmont in the struggle against the Austrians. Together with a thousand brave men like himself, on May 11, 1860, the revolutionaries landed in Sicily. Gradually the Red Shirts liberated not only the island, but also the south of Italy. Garibaldi was always met as a national hero. He himself transferred the liberated land to the King of Piedmont. In 1861, he proclaimed the creation of the Italian kingdom. In the late 1860’s, the revolutionary constantly participated in the wars, becoming even a deputy of the French National Assembly. In 1871, Garibaldi wrote his political testament and prakticheski departs from the affairs. The famous nationalist died in 1882, bequeathing to burn his corpse in a red shirt and bury the ashes. And on the gravestone, only the red star flaunts without words.
The name and role of this revolutionary in the history of Russia by Soviet propaganda undeservedly wiped out. But the whole world knows Trotsky as one of the main organizers of the October Revolution, the creator of the Red Army and a fiery revolutionary. Unfortunately, Stalin’s ideological confrontation proved fatal for Trotsky. And he was born one year with his main enemy, in 1879. Already at the age of 9 he left his father’s house and entered a real school in Odessa. There, Leo showed a phenomenal memory, which allowed him to achieve high marks. In the house of his distant relative, where Trotsky lived, he became infected with freedom-loving. In his youth, Leo was ambitious, self-confident, constantly in conflict. Soon he abandoned his studies, starting to play in the revolution and working with the workers. Already in 18 years, together with his mistress Alexandra Sokolovskaya, Trotsky created an underground circle in which there were up to 200 people. At the beginning of the twentieth century, an ardent revolutionary was in exile, where he met Dzerzhinsky and Uritsky. There, Lev Bronstein took the name of his supervisor, as the party nickname. From the link Troika fled, after illegal wanderings around the country, he was sent to Vienna, and from there to London. There, the revolutionary lived in Lenin’s apartment and began to publish in his Iskra. There the union of two great people was born. In 1903, Trotsky supported the Mensheviks, eventually becoming a prominent figure of the emigrated Social Democrats. After active participation in the events of 1905, Trotsky moved to Vienna, where he published books, as well as the newspaper Pravda. With the outbreak of World War I, the revolutionary branded the incinerator-imperialists in the press, for which he was even expelled from France. With the outbreak of the 1917 revolution, Trotsky returned to Russia. Here he acknowledged that the former competitor, Lenin, was the chief leader of the Bolsheviks. In these months, Trotsky not only actively called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government, but also advocated defeat, considering it an opportunity for a world revolution. As a result, in October 1917, it was Trotsky who in effect became the organizer of the coup, leading the uprising. In March 1918, Trotsky became a military commissar, creating the Red Army. The victory in the Civil War strengthened the positions of the fiery figure. Lenin himself saw in him almost his successor.After all, Trotsky was able to establish in the army an iron discipline, to attract tsarist generals and officers, personally to inspire the fighters. Together with this, the revolutionary dreamed of a “world conflagration,” then planning to seize India, then began a failed campaign in Poland. In 1923, the attempts of revolutions in Europe finally failed, and after the death of Lenin, the Politburo formed a dislike for the potential leader. It should be noted that since 1924 Trotsky has greatly changed. If earlier he agitated for terror, revolutionary violence and discipline, now he began to call for self-government in the party, freedom of criticism. Gradually, Trotsky began to move away from the management of the building, and in 1927 he was generally expelled from the party. In 1929, the revolutionary was deported from the country, because he had many supporters. Former associates openly announced a break with him. Until 1937, the Three lives in Turkey and writes a lot, continuing in exile to fight the Stalinist regime. And in 1937 the disgraced politician moved to Mexico, where he was slaughtered by an ice ax of a Soviet agent.
If today appear in public with a portrait of Trotsky or Robespierre, then at least no one will understand you. But the image of the legendary “Comandante Che” is very fashionable and is found on different subjects. What did he deserve such a confession? The famous revolutionary was born in 1928, not in Cuba, but in Argentina. In his childhood, Ernesto led an active lifestyle – played in rugby, football, chess, raced the Amazon rafts, went by bicycles and a moped. At the age of 11, the restless boy escaped from the house to meet his adventures. Strangely enough, but in the years of study at the University of Buenos Aires, Ernesto did not engage in politics and did not participate in student speeches. He was more interested in medicine. After graduation, Guevara decided to become a practicing physician. The young specialist went to Guatemala, from where, for political reasons, he fled to Mexico. It was there that Guevara met Castro, it happened in 1954. The doctor joined the revolutionary-fought glory and, with a hundred rebels, went to conquer Cuba. During the guerrilla war Guevara proved to be a brave, brave and resolute commander, having received his nickname Che. After the victory of the revolution in Cuba in 1958, Che Guevara became the second most important member of the government after Castro. He headed the country’s industry, the national bank, travels around the world with diplomatic missions. However, Che is uncomfortable in a civilian civil position, he dreams of revolutions around the world and even writes scientific works on this issue. In 1965, Che Guevara left all his posts, renounced the title of Comandante and from Cuban citizenship. At first the revolutionary organized anti-imperialist actions in Africa, but the defeat there made him return to Latin America. In 1967, Che Guevara launched a guerrilla war in Bolivia, where, in his opinion, there was a need for a revolution. However, the authorities quickly defeated the rebels, the commandant was captured and shot. In order to prove that Che Guevara really died, his bodies were put on display, a wax mask was taken from his face, and his hands were cut off. They, by the way, were transported to Cuba, where they became the object of worship. And the remains of a fiery revolutionary will be transported to Havana, where they will solemnly be buried.
This great man in the history of China carried out a “cultural” revolution, which is assessed very, very ambiguously. Most researchers come to the conclusion that such a sharp and global change in the country’s life greatly hampered its development. Mao himself repeatedly stressed that only World War III could lead to the victory of the world revolution. It is no coincidence that in the 1960s and 1970s he was the idol of young extremists. The Great Helmsman was born in 1893 in the village of Shaoshan, in Hunan Province. At the age of 8, the son of illiterate peasants began attending school, but after 5 years of study had to leave – it was necessary to help his father.But Mao did not see himself as a small trade and just ran away from home. At the age of 17, a young Chinese student went to school in Dongshan, where he was carried away by adventure books and biographies of great people. In 1911, China established a republic, national ideas impressed Mao. By 1918, the young man became acquainted with Marxism, the works of Kropotkin. In 1921, Mao became a member of the first congress of the Chinese Communist Party. If in the 1920s the revolutionary made a career in his party, the 1930s were marked by the conduct of a full-scale civil war, including the participation of outspoken bandits on his side. Mao became famous for his cruel methods, literally physically destroying dissenters with him. At this time, he is fighting more not against the Japanese aggressors, but with his compatriots for power in the country. In 1934, Mao became chairman of the Chinese Soviet government. In this time began to lay the cult of Mao, which contributed to his excellent acting qualities. The revolutionary showed his closeness to the people in every possible way, creating the appearance of permanent employment. And since 1937 international ideas have been replaced by national ones. The leader did not have any friends, he was surrounded only by his comrades. In the 1940s, Mao cleansed the party and finally formed his cult, placing himself above the party. And in 1957, the leader set a plan for the country to overtake the world’s leading countries for production. The agrarian sector began to be transferred to the communist rails, the intelligentsia began to be massively suppressed. However, the “Great Leap Forward” ended tragically – more than 20 million people died of starvation. Mao took responsibility for himself, and in 1966 announced the beginning of a cultural revolution. Over 100 million people were affected during the mass repressions. The last years the leader spent in the Imperial residence almost without appearing in public and died in 1976. The death of the great Chinese revolutionary allowed the country to get up and leave soon to the leading positions in the world.
Fidel Castro was born in 1926 in the family of a wealthy immigrant from Spain. In 1945, a young Cuban became a student at the University of Havana, where he participated in the student movement and even went to the Dominican Republic, where he tried to overthrow the dictator Trujillo. After graduation in 1950, Castro became a private lawyer, giving free consultations to the poor. At the same time, the lawyer joined the Party of the Cuban people, leading her left wing. After the coup of 1952 and the coming to power of General Baptista Castro immediately accused the dictator of violating the Constitution. But the Supreme Court expectedly rejected the petition. Then Castro, along with his brother Raul and a few dozen like-minded people, went on to armed struggle. But the military quickly arrested the revolutionaries, after serving 15 years from the established term only 2, Castro was amnestied and deported to Mekisku. There, Fidel did not abandon his idea of liberating the island, and formed a new partisan detachment. On November 25, 1956, Castro, together with a hundred rebels, landed in Cuba. The guerrilla war ended in the victory of the revolutionaries. Fidel Castro became prime minister, immediately starting the transformation in the country. Cuba quickly nationalized all enterprises, including foreign ones. In 1961, American mercenaries tried to land in Cuba, but in just three days the enemy was defeated. At this moment, Castro’s rapprochement with the Soviet Union began. He himself constantly mentioned that he was an adherent of the teachings of Marx and Lenin. In Cuba, even housed a Soviet military base. During his tenure as Fidel, he made the country totalitarian. The revolutionary himself has more than a tridat of houses and enjoys all the benefits at the expense of the state. Castro survived many attempts, this is an extraordinary personality with a phenomenal memory. Cuba itself, despite mass emigration in the 1960s and 70s and bad relations with the US, remained faithful to the communist course and the people at least do not starve.