The ability to manage a country is quite rare. Someone achieves goals, pouring blood on the whole country, and someone is carrying out smart reforms. In the history there were many people who, through their activities, managed to significantly change the face of the country in the time allotted to them. As a result, they are remembered by contemporaries, honored, studied on the basis of their activities.
Any actions of great politicians affected millions of people, changing the fate and appearance of the state. In addition, often it was necessary to fight not only with internal enemies, but also with external enemies. One thing is certain – a politician must be charismatic in order to lead.
Yes, and in order to influence society, it is not necessary to be at the very top of power. Sometimes even being in opposition, the politician did a lot for the country. The most famous politicians in the history of civilization will be discussed below. At the same time it will be useful to remember the most famous phrases. Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi (1869-1948)
Largely thanks to this man, India was able to get rid of the centuries-old rule of Great Britain. His philosophy of nonviolence, or satyagraha, was the basis of Gandhi’s activity. The politician refused to fight, as many others would have done in his place, in favor of a peaceful one. As a result, a powerful movement of supporters of changes by non-violent means arose in the country. The struggle for independence was conducted through peaceful resistance. Gandhi urged the Indians to boycott the English institutions and goods, the citizens of the country even defiantly violated certain laws. Caste inequality, which has become a scourge of Indian society, has become the subject of Gandhi’s struggle. He talked about the need to get rid of untouchability not only from temples, but also from other spheres of life. Today the name of this politician is revered in India by at least some saints. Gandhi became the spiritual leader of the nation, he dedicated his whole life to reconcile the religious rivalries that are tearing the country apart. Sadly, it was the violence against which the politician fought, and caused his death. Gandhi is credited with the following words: “The world is big enough to meet the needs of any person, but too small to satisfy human greed” and “If you want a change in the future – be this change in the present.”
Alexander the Great (356-323 BC).
This king of Macedonia and the creator of the great empire is better known as one of the most fortunate commanders in world history. But his political activities are often forgotten. And it was he who created the new great state, which is located on three continents, occupying an area of more than two million square miles. The empire stretches from Greece in the West to the Danube in the north, the southern border was in Egypt, and the eastern border in the Indian Punjab. The whole country was united by a single trade and transport network. At the same time the emperor was able to found more than 70 new cities. In his empire, Alexander introduced a common and common for all Greek culture and language, he himself did not hesitate to study the customs and customs of other peoples in order to manage them more easily. For his own army, the emperor was an unsurpassed genius and strategist. He was an example of behavior for soldiers, inspiring them with an invincible spirit. Even in its time, in antiquity, no one doubted that Alexander the Great was the greatest commander. Even then he was nicknamed the Great. But Napoleon Bonaparte bowed more to the emperor’s state talents, rather than to his military exploits. For example, in Egypt, Alexander paid a visit to the sacred in the country of the oracle Amon, which placed the inhabitants there. In addition, he left the country to govern the country of former governors, expelling the hated Persians and arranging celebrations. Alexander, in fact, the invader of Egypt, could become an idol there.The following phrases are attributed to the great politician and commander: “There can not be two suns in heaven and two lords on earth”, “Wars depend on glory, and often the lie that is believed becomes truth”, “There is nothing more slavish than luxury and negativity , and nothing more regal than labor. ” Mao Zedong (1893-1976).
This Chinese politician of the last century became also the main theoretician of Maoism. Mao joined the Communist Party of China as a young man, and in the 1930s he headed one of the districts in Jiangxi Province. During the Great March, Mao managed to become one of the leaders of the country’s party. In 1949, the People’s Republic of China was proclaimed, Mao Zedong became its actual leader until the very end of his life. The leadership of the leader is considered to be contradictory. On the one hand, he was able to industrialize the country, raising the standard of living of the poorest sections of the population. Mao managed to unite China, including in it Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Eastern Turkestan. But these lands had the right to self-determination even after the collapse of the Qing Empire. But we must not forget about the numerous repressions that were condemned not only in the capitalist countries, but also in the socialist countries. In the country there was even a personality cult of the leader. The hardest legacy of government politics should be considered the crippled destinies of millions of people who suffered from cruel and sometimes meaningless campaigns. Only the “Cultural Revolution” claimed the lives of up to 20 million Chinese, and another 100 million were affected by it. In 1949, Mao came to power in a fragmented, underdeveloped and corrupt country. And he left China a powerful independent and possessing atomic weapons. Illiteracy in the country has decreased from 80% to 7%, twice the population and life expectancy. The most famous phrases of Mao Zedong are: “The enemy will not perish by itself”, “It is necessary to work with exceptional painstakingness. Negligence is unacceptable, it often leads to mistakes, “” What is conceivable, then feasible, “” A man who felt the wind of change, should build not a shield from the wind, but a windmill. ”
Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965).
This statesman and politician defined the life of Britain and much of the world in a difficult time. Churchill was the premier of this country in 1940-1945 and 1951-1955. He is also known as a journalist and writer. The Englishman entered the “Big Three”, which determined the fate of the world after the end of the Second World War. It was he who in many ways made the world as such, as we know it today. Churchill became the most brilliant British politician of the last century, he managed to be in power with six monarchs – from Queen Victoria to her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II. Churchill’s achievements in life simply do not make sense – he managed to become talented in everything. For his political activities he was made an honorary citizen of the United States, and literary works were awarded the Nobel Prize. The political career of Churchill began even before the First World War. The Englishman already had time to fight by that time. And at the end of his career, Churchill had time to visit the tests of the atomic bomb, the weapons of the New World. The shape of the policy was unchanged – a bowler, a cane and a cigar. He was also a fine diplomat, an artist and even a gardener in his own estate. A survey conducted by the BBC in 2002 showed that the British called Churchill the greatest British in history. In 1955, he left the big politics, living the rest of the days in tranquility. The basis of the political portrait of Churchill was his commitment to democracy and total hatred of the dictatorship. It is no coincidence that he said that “Democracy is the most terrible form of government, but nothing better than mankind has come up with.” That is why Churchill’s attitude towards the USSR was extremely restrained, this politician coined the term “Iron Curtain” and stood at the origins of the “cold war”.Other great phrases of Churchill are: “If truth is multifaceted, it is a lie of many voices”, “Every medal not only glitters, but casts a shadow”, “A man has expanded his power to all but himself”, “First you need to be honest, and then – noble “,” To improve is to change, to be perfect is to change often “. Nelson Mandela (1918-2013).
This person went down in history as the first black president of South Africa. In this position he was from 1994 to 1999. Mandela was one of the most famous activists fighting for human rights during apartheid in the country. His political activities for the equality of white and black people, he began in college. In 1944, Mandela became one of the founders of the youth league of the African National Congress (ANC). In South Africa, the politician pursued his line by organizing acts of sabotage and armed resistance to the authorities. For this, Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment. At the trial, he said a brilliant speech, where he stated that he was being tried for striving to build a democratic state in South Africa with equal rights for all citizens. World fame Mandela received, while in solitary confinement prison. Throughout the world, a campaign was held in defense of democratic politics, demands for its liberation turned into a struggle against the whole policy of apartheid. After the legalization of the ANC in 1990, Mandela was released. In 1993 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Today the elder is no longer engaged in active affairs. Mandela was able to peacefully, simply by his irreconcilable position, to destroy one of the most monstrous regimes on the planet. At the same time, it was not necessary to use revolutions, wars, or social upheavals. Everything happened by honest parliamentary elections. The birthday of the politician is celebrated all over the world, as the International day of Nelson Mandela. The period of Mandela’s rule was short, but bright. He introduced free medical care for children, 2 million people received electricity, 3 million – access to water, he increased spending on education, social needs. Mandela belongs to such well-known phrases: “Being free means not just throwing off the fetters, but living respecting and multiplying the freedom of others”, “When you climb a high mountain, you are faced with a huge number of mountains, which have yet to climb,” ” One of the highest achievements for a person is to fulfill one’s duty without paying attention to the consequences. ”
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865).
This American statesman was the 16th president of the United States. He held this post from 1861 until his death. Lincoln became the first president of the Republican Party. He is considered to be a national hero in America, because this person entered the history of the country as a liberator of slaves. Lincoln occupies an important place in the minds of Americans. He was able to prevent the disintegration of the United States, with him the formation of the American nation began. And slavery – like a crutch, hindering the further normal development of the United States, was canceled. Lincoln laid the foundation for the modernization of the southern states of the country, formerly backward and agricultural. With him began the emancipation of slaves. Lincoln has the basic formulation of democratic goals: “To create a government by the people, from the people and for the people.” Lincoln was able to build a railway across the whole continent, connecting the coasts of two oceans. He expanded the state infrastructure, created a new banking system, was able to solve the agrarian problem. At the end of the Civil War, the government faced many problems. It was necessary to rally the nation and equalize the rights of the population. Lincoln began to deal with this, but some problems have remained up to now. The president was able to lay the foundation for the future of America, even after his death, the United States became the fastest growing country in the world. This determined her current world domination, lasting for a century.Strict moral principles of Lincoln allowed him to mobilize all the forces of a disjointed country and reunite it. Lincoln’s most famous phrases: “Whoever denies the freedom of another, does not deserve freedom himself”, “People who do not have shortcomings, have very few virtues”, “You can fool all the people for a while, you can fool a part of the people all the time, but you can not deceive all the time “,” Sheep and wolf differently understand the word “freedom”. This is the essence of the disagreements that prevail in human society “,” The politician reminds me of the man who killed the father and mother, and then, when he is sentenced, asks him to spare on the grounds that he is an orphan “,” The character is like a tree, and reputation is its shadow. We care about the shadow, but in fact we must think about the tree. ” Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945).
This is the only president in the history of the United States, who was elected to this high post four times. Roosevelt became the 32nd ruler of the country, being at the peak of power from 1933 to 1945. The main phrase of the politician: “we have nothing to fear, except the very fear.” These words were repeated often by Roosevelt when it came to the Great Depression and its consequences. The politician was not afraid to launch experiments at that difficult time, constantly looking for new methods of solving problems. These were public works, social security, codes of fair competition, assistance to the unemployed and farmers, control over prices. It was Roosevelt who was at the heart of the creation of the UN. The president greatly influenced world history by his activity, because with him, the US relatively successfully passed through World War II. The politician had a very big influence on the socio-economic life of the country, because he had to deal with the consequences of the Great Depression that hit the US in the 1930s. Biographers of politics recalled that he was a rather secretive nature, which was difficult to understand. On his face walked a mask of complacency and mystery, to which Roosevelt was content. The most famous words of the president were: “I ask you to judge me about the enemies I have acquired,” “I’m not the smartest guy in the world, but I know how to select smart employees,” “Rules are not always holy, unlike principles,” ” Hungry unemployed people are the cadres for dictatorship “,” Do not go into politics if your skin is a little thinner than a rhinoceros “.
Akbar the Great (1542-1605).
This padishah belonged to the Great Mogul dynasty, Tamerlane was his distant ancestor. Akbar was nicknamed “the Indian Solomon by its wisdom.” This padishah was able to significantly expand the borders of his country. He conquered the north of Hindustan, including Gujarat, Kashmir and the lands of the Indus. As a commander, he was a successful and valiant warrior, distinguished by generosity towards the vanquished. But Akbar went down in history also as a wise politician. He avoided unnecessary bloodshed, often achieving his goals through peaceful negotiations, the conclusion of dynastic marriages and alliances. Akbar went down in history as a connoisseur of science and art, with him there were always the best poets, musicians, scientists and artists in the palace. The ruler was able to create a school of painting and a valuable library, which contained 24 thousand volumes. Akbar introduced a unified system of taxation, and in the event of a crop failure, no funds were raised. The tax on non-Muslims was also abolished. In the Empire there was a unified system of measures and weights, a single calendar, much attention was paid to trade. The main task of Akbar the Great was the reconciliation of all the numerous peoples who inhabited his overgrown state. Padishah stayed in power for almost 50 years, becoming ruler at the age of 14years. With him, a huge empire under the care and care of his padishah reached its heyday, which neither before nor after it was gone. Akbar went down in history as the Great. This wise ruler was able to unite different nations. His ideas of the unity of all religions are still relevant today.
Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013).
This woman is the most famous among politicians.She was the only one who was Prime Minister of Great Britain. On this post, she stayed from 1979 to 1990. All this time she was the most powerful woman in the world. As a politician, Thatcher was a strong person, but honest. She was not afraid to be stubborn, but could enter into the position of her rival. This woman was ambitious, her distinguished equanimity and composure in any situation. In the political elite, focused on men, Thatcher was able to achieve the very top of power. For this, she devoted her entire life to fighting and striving for this goal. Career Margaret was a small step, because it came from a poor class. It seemed impossible for a person from that environment, and even a woman, to achieve high goals. Thatcher accomplished the impossible – the daughter of the owner of a small store that grew up in a house without running water, was able to break into men’s politics and take up the post of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Thatcher came to power when the country was in dire need of reforms. During the period of its rule, GDP grew by 23%, employment by 33%, and law and order expenses by 53%. It reduced unemployment and carried out tax reforms. Thatcher’s foreign policy was oriented toward the United States. The prime minister supported Reagan’s initiatives with regard to the USSR. The woman was not afraid to start a war for the Falklands, defending the position and prestige of Britain. It is no coincidence that Thatcher was nicknamed the “Iron Lady” for firmness and integrity. She is credited with the following words: “Any woman who understands the problems that arise in the management of the house can understand the problems that arise in the governance of the country”, “I am exceptionally patient, provided that in the end it comes out in my opinion”, “Women are much better than men are able to say “no”, “It is not necessary to agree with the interlocutor to find a common language with him,” “Free cheese is only in a mousetrap.”
Qin Shihuandi (259-210 BC).
This great ruler of the Qin kingdom. The dignity of Shihuandi is called his activity to end the centuries-old history of the belligerent Chinese kingdoms. In the year 221 BC. he was able to create a centralized state in Inner China, becoming his sole ruler. During the large-scale campaign to unite the country, important reforms were implemented to consolidate the achieved results. The emperor proclaimed that all the chariots should be with an axis of uniform length, and all the hieroglyphs should be written in the standard way. As a result of such positions, a unified system of roads was created in the country, and the scattered system of writing was replaced by a single one. The emperor also introduced a single monetary system, a system of measures and weights. To suppress the tendencies on the ground to sovereignty, Qin Shihuandi divided his empire into 36 military districts. The walls surrounding the former kingdoms were demolished. Only the northern part of them remained, strengthening them, the Great Wall of China was built, which protected the country from the raids of nomads. Shihuandi rarely visited the capital, constantly traveling around the country. The emperor’s authority was so great that in his honor a huge funeral complex was built during his lifetime. It was built 700 thousand people, and the perimeter of the burial was 6 kilometers. Curiously, unlike his predecessors, the emperor refused human sacrifice. The tomb was found only in 1974, it is still being studied. There was a whole terracotta army of 8,099 soldiers. Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970).
This French general managed to turn from a brilliant military into an equally talented politician. Charles de Gaulle founded the Fifth Republic, becoming its first president in 1959. Glory to the general was brought by his leadership of the French Resistance during the Second World War. During his lifetime, he managed to become a true symbol of French freedom, as was once Jeanne d’Arc. In fact, Charles de Gaulle twice took over the administration of the country.Every time she was on the brink of disaster, and the politician returned her international prestige and put the economy in order. In foreign policy, France has become an independent player, sharply escaping the influence of the United States. Much is said not only about de Gaulle’s services-politics, but also his mistakes. Surprisingly, this talented military theorist did not participate in any historically important battle. Nevertheless, he managed to protect France from defeat. The military, not familiar with the economy, was able to effectively manage the country within two presidential terms and bring it out of the crisis. The thing is that de Gaulle was able to effectively manage the affairs entrusted to him – be it a rebel committee or the government of a large country. De Gaulle’s most famous words were: “Politics is too serious a matter to trust its politicians”, “Always choose the most difficult path – there you will not meet competitors”, “The deep motivation behind the activity of the best and strongest people is their desire for power” .