The medium is the person who serves as the link between the material and spiritual world. This practice is in demand in spiritualism and other esoteric traditions. The history of mediums goes back to antiquity. Even in the Bible there is mention of the Endor sorceress who called upon the spirit of the prophet Samuel.
Since 1760, books on the subject of communication between people and the dead begin to appear. In the middle of 1848, in the United States and Europe, spiritualism was widely spread, as a form of religious movement. The best mediums have gained wide popularity.
However, when scientists began to study the phenomenon, it turned out that there was massive fraud. Nevertheless, there are mediums today, despite the denial of their capabilities. The fact of the existence of the soul is questioned, accordingly, and the establishment of contact with them. However, people believe in this, as they trusted and most famous mediums.
Daniel Douglas Hume (1833-1886).
This person is considered by many to be the most famous medium-spiritualist. He had unusual abilities in levitation, clairvoyance and demonstration of psychic phenomena. Hume had many high-profile admirers – Queen Victoria, Napoleon III, Alexander II, Kaiser Wilhelm I, rulers of Bavaria and Württemberg. Charles Dickens and Conan Doyle appeared at the sessions of Hume. The medium was born in Scotland. His father claimed to be the illegitimate son of Earl Hume. Mother Elizabeth Maknil was a hereditary psychic. However, in the country it was considered a family curse, so its talent to the ancestors of the medium had to be hidden. As a child, Hume was given up to her aunt, who moved to the United States in the late 1830s. There, Daniel went to school, but instead of active games, he preferred to walk with a friend in the woods. The boys read each other the Bible and agreed to establish contact if one of them leaves this world. Hume, from childhood, showed his unusual abilities – at home next to him began to move furniture. To expel the demons from the boy was not possible, because the priest declared this dao of God. But my aunt drove out a strange pupil. Hume began traveling around the country, conducting spiritualistic sessions. Even the learned men were amazed at the unusual abilities of the young man. Attempts to bring him to clean water failed – the researchers recognized the talents of the medium. In addition, he began to demonstrate the miracles of levitation. At age 22, Hume returned to England. His sessions in the daylight immediately become popular. Surprised people said that this questioned the latest achievements of science. The tour of the medium across Europe was a success, and in Russia he was even found a bride. Hand Hume Napoleon from the afterlife wrote his name, handwriting recognized his grandson, Napoleon III. Spirits made sounds, played on invisible musical instruments, knocked. Objects moved even in enclosed rooms. From most of the colleagues, Hume was distinguished by his unselfishness, and by his desire to work in the light. He himself said that he was trying to prove to people their immortality. The sensational glory in London was won by the medium with its sessions with levitation. He flew out of one window and flew into another. At 38, Hume’s health deteriorated so much that he stopped giving sessions. In total, Daniel spent about 1,500 sessions in his life. The great medium died at 53, his grave was inscribed “Until the next meeting with the spirits.” Florence Cook (1856-1904).
This woman is one of the most famous figures of the heyday of interest in spiritualism. Researchers note that Cook was able to materialize the spirit of Cathy King, who admitted that he was the daughter of pirate Henry Morgan. Florence was born in the family of an ordinary worker. Already from childhood she felt the presence of certain spirits nearby. The gift of the medium was manifested in the girl at the age of 14. Friends at the tea party offered to conduct an experiment with stoloveration. However, the round massive object suddenly became uncontrollable, rising from Miss Cook into the air.After this, the mother forbade her daughter to conduct sessions in public places, limiting herself to her own home. Around Florence formed a circle, which included her family and maid. “Hackney Circle” became famous in London. Miss Cook herself began to demonstrate the talents of automatic writing. Messages appeared from under her arm that could be read in the mirror. Following the instructions of the spirits, Florence met other spiritualists. The girl entered their circle and began to conduct sessions for the general public. In 1872, at the session of the medium, a white figure suddenly appeared, a woman who named herself Cathy King. The guests touched the figure, attesting to its incorporeality. Cathy has promised that she will communicate with people through Florence for three years. Surprisingly, the spirit appeared during the daylight hours, allowing even to photograph itself. The very same medium at that time was bound in the next room, completely unconscious. Attempts to expose Florence and prove that it is she who is in the image of the spirit, failed. Thus, the public even more believed in the medium phenomenon. Professor Crookes conducted a series of experiments with Florence, who clearly demonstrated that she and Cathy can not be one person. In 1874, Cathy left our world forever, saying goodbye to the medium in front of Crookes. Florence herself married and for a time left a spiritistic practice. Her return after 6 years was unsuccessful, single sessions failed to regain her former reputation. A woman died of pneumonia. The very spirit of Cathy King has repeatedly appeared to mediums around the world already after the death of Florence Cook. Madame d’Esperance (1855-1919).
Under this name, the Englishwoman Elizabeth Hope entered the history of spiritualism. About her childhood you can learn from the autobiographical work “The Land of Shadows”. Elizabeth’s family lived in the old house, the girl herself began to notice here strange shadows of strangers. These figures passed through it, not noticing, others bowed and smiled. So the medium had her first friends. As a child, she suffered from hallucinations and somnambulism, her mother scolded and drove to the doctor. Once tired Elizabeth did not complete her homework, leaving a clean sheet on the table. Imagine her surprise, when on the morning she discovered a great essay written by her own hand. The composition was named the best in the class. At 19, the girl got married and moved to Newcastle. Then she heard about the spiritualistic sessions and strange phenomena happening there. Having overcome indecision, the woman went there. In the first session strangeness began. The table began to vibrate violently, and an unknown force knocked on the questions. The medium began to take part in such sessions, producing unexpected effects. When Elizabeth shared her impressions with the shadow people, they offered to teach her automatic writing. In the circle of her respondents was a young student, a philosopher and even a seven-year-old girl. Elizabeth began to show skills and artistic mediumship – she began to draw transparent figures. Traveling through Europe, Madame d’Esperance has learned to materialize spirits. She herself was unconscious at the same time. Medium Elizabeth was disinterested, her fees were for organizational expenses. Instead of the spirit of Walter began to come 15-year-old Arabian Yolanda. She was very curious and she asked many questions, brought plants and flowers from nowhere. The phenomenal popularity and missionary activity of the medium did not bring her happiness. The woman came to depression, tormented by doubts. In addition, observers constantly tried to convict her of fraud, three times causing a woman physical injuries. Before the Second World War, the medium was in Germany, where she was arrested, and papers and manuscripts were destroyed. The life of Madame d’Esperance is a clear example of what a talented medium in Victorian England had to face.
Emma Harding-Britten (1823-1899).
This activist belonged to the first wave of spiritualism.The practitioner of the medium also left many famous books. Emma was born in London, from childhood she showed unusual musical abilities. The young girl showed the ability to clairvoyance and mediumship – she predicted the fate of strangers to her, guided by visions. In 1854, Emma Harding becomes an actress and enters the United States. In February 1856, she received a message from the spirit that the ship Pacific sank. This event was confirmed, it made Emma a convinced spiritualist. The medium became famous, she traveled around the country and read basic lectures. In 1864, she supported Abraham Lincoln in his struggle for re-election as President. In his book The History of Spiritualism, Conan Doyle himself singled out her talents as a medium and a talented speaker. In 1870, the woman published the book “Modern American Spiritualism”, which became a kind of Bible of that movement. Attempts to publish a journal of this subject failed. Yes, and in general sessions and lectures Harding met an unfriendly attitude on the part of the church and public figures. Visitors were subjected to insults and pressure. Not surprisingly, Emma returned to England, where spiritualism took root more deeply. There she founded a weekly, visited her teaching, even in Australia and New Zealand. It is Harding who is credited with the canonical “7 principles of spiritualism”. Conan Doyle recalls that during her lifetime Emma was called “the apostle Paul in female form” for her work.
Andrew Jackson Davis (1826-1910).
This American is considered by many to be the founder of spiritualism, as a science. Particularly notable were the books dictated to him in trance, which alone in the United States sustained 40 reprints. A medium was born in a poor family on the banks of the Hudson River. His mother was very religious. He himself was not educated by the age of 16, and only the “Catechism” was read from books. At the age of 17, Davis was invited to a lecture on mesmerism, which interested him. However, the obtained knowledge could not be applied in practice. It turned out that in a state of trance a young man is capable of much. He read closed books, diagnosed and, without medical knowledge, assigned the right treatment to patients. Under the guidance of the hypnotist, Davis began to develop his abilities. Davis learned a spiritual journey, he described the deposits of minerals, he saw the earth from a height. Soon the medium learned to immerse itself in trance. In 1844, Davis under the influence of some force ran out of the house and was 40 miles from home, in the mountains. Here he began to communicate with the spirits of outstanding philosophers, which gave the medium enlightenment. After that, Davis began to preach about the structure of the world, spirituality, the meaning of life. The professors noted that the texts dictated by the medium were so deep that it is impossible to achieve this even by reading all books in the world. The medium also made predictions, describing the appearance of a typewriter and a car, the number of planets in the solar system. From 1845 to 1885, Davis wrote about 30 books that dealt with different topics – from medicine to cosmology. In 1878, the medium unexpectedly broke with spiritualism, because supporters craved sensations and did not show interest in the philosophy of this phenomenon. At the end of his life, Davis opened his bookstore and traded herbal medicines.
Kate Fox (1837-1892), Margaret Fox (1833-1893).
Kate was one of three sisters who were destined to be in the center of important events. Psychic abilities were passed on to the girls by inheritance. The Fox family settled in Guidesville, New York. Their house had a bad reputation – a man disappeared here, and noises and knocking came from his room. The sisters began to assert that someone came to them at night – Cathy touched it with a cold hand, with Margaret pulling a blanket, footsteps were heard. A practical father of the family searched the whole house, but found no source of noise. On the 31st of mat 1848, Kate turned to the invisible spirit, asking him to come on contact with the knocks.This succeeded, the claps indicated the correct age of the children. Then a special alphabet was developed, through which the spirit told that he was killed and buried in the basement by the merchant Charles Rosma. Over time, the skull was found in the basement, and after the death of the sisters and the skeleton. Having left the mysterious house, the sisters found that the spirits continue to communicate with them through knocking. Since 1850, there have been public spiritualistic sessions, which were attended by many celebrities. There was a wave of revelations in the press, albeit with a lot of inconsistencies. But many people around the country found that they are also able to communicate with spirits. There was a powerful movement, which by 1855 had already a million supporters. From 1861 to 1866 Kate Fox conducted for the manager and businessman Charles Livermore about 400 sessions, the course of which was carefully documented. There was even the materialization of the spirit of Livermore’s wife. In 1876, Kate reunited with her sister Margaret in England. Joint tours were more missionary. Constant stress associated with psychological stress, hostile atmosphere, just commercial exploitation of sisters led to addiction to alcohol. In 1888 Margaret for money held a session of self-exposure, showing how she snaps her toes. However, the admirers of spiritualism did not make an impression, because they heard sounds from different parts of the room. As a result, Margaret disowned her statements. The sisters died in poverty. And their old house in Guidesville is now open to tourists. On it there is a tablet with the inscription: “The birthplace of modern spiritualism.”
Ewsalia Palladino (1854-1918).
This woman was born in Naples, her phenomenon was researched by scientists for 40 years. The medium was a very ambiguous personality, because she was repeatedly convicted of deception. Nevertheless, Evsalia demonstrated such phenomena, which somehow could not explain, despite the strict methods of control. But thanks to the noisy glory of Palladino, the phenomenon of spiritual materialization turned out to be the focus of serious research, among which even the Curie couple can be mentioned. Ever since childhood Evsaliya has shown herself to be strange. In her presence there were knocking, she felt the touch of invisible hands. Orphaned girl was in a new family, where she quickly recognized her talent as a medium. The famous Italian researcher of paranormal phenomena Damiani learned from the perfume in London about the existence in Naples of an unusual girl. Under his leadership, Evsalia began to rapidly develop her abilities. At first she was engaged in contactless mediumship, then her transparent hands and figures began to appear on her sessions. Scientists began to conduct scientific research on the phenomenon of Palladino. Wrote about the fact that she attracts objects, makes them fly. Even a woman can go up in the air. Venerable professors stated the reality of what is happening. With all this, Palladino herself manifested herself as an ordinary undeveloped peasant woman. True, he was cunning, which even bordered on lies. The extravagant character led to a breakdown in the study of the talent of a woman in Cambridge. In 1910, Palladino moved to the United States. Her abilities of the medium had decayed to the moment, she was just trying to cheat using her former glory. In 1918, an illiterate woman-psychic died, she did not know what disputes around her personality for decades led the learned men. Conan Doyle wrote that although her phenomenon was peculiar, before her there was no such strong medium in the history of spiritualism. Leonora Piper (1857-1950).
This woman was destined to play one of the key roles in the spiritualism of the late XIX century. It is believed that it was thanks to this woman and her correspondence with the spirits that clear evidence of the posthumous existence of the human spirit was obtained. Piper allowed to conduct research on her communication with the deceased. Her sessions led to the spiritualism of many influential fans.At the same time, the reputation of the medium was impeccable, unlike many of its colleagues. Leonora said that she received her first spiritualistic experience at the age of 8, playing in the garden. The girl felt a pain in her ear, then she heard a voice. He said that Aunt Sara did not die at all, she is near. What was the surprise of the family, when a few days later came the news of the death of this relative. In addition to this incident and several similar childhoods, it was common. At age 22, Leonora married a Boston spiritualist, Piper. Soon the woman got to see a clairvoyant, who plunged her into a trance. In this state, she wrote on paper a message to Judge Frost from his deceased son. The amazed addressee stated that he had never seen a more convincing message from the other world. Newspapers wrote about this, Mrs. Piper became famous, she was invited to the sessions as a professional medium. Even the skeptic Dr. James was so impressed by what he saw that he became the manager of Leonora, and later the American Society for Psychical Research created the organization for the work. First, Piper spoke in a trance with the voice of a certain Finney, in 1892 George Pelham joined him. He took control by automatic writing, leaving his “colleague” with a message. Since 1897, control over the medium has passed to the group under the leadership of the spirit of the “Emperor”. Capacity for physical mediumship Leonora did not exist, everything was limited to messages. In 1889, the medium arrived in the UK. Scientists believed that in an unfamiliar environment it would be easier to prove her fraud. But already in the first sessions, Piper demonstrated the phenomenon – she described the appearance of the deceased relatives of Dr. Lodge, told the details of his family and the history of generations. Even hired detectives could not shake the reputation of the medium. The studies of 1908-1909 exhausted Piper so much that it postponed the imprint of her entire career. The methods of control were literally torture, and she began to lose her abilities. In 1911 it was announced that the medium ceases to give sessions. An outstanding woman returned to her work only occasionally. Leonora Piper all his life, strength and health gave to the study of the mysterious phenomenon of spiritualism.
George Anderson (born 1952).
The medium remembers that he received his gift in childhood, after suffering varicella. True, initially the manifestation of talent was hampered by religiosity. In the belief system, there was simply no place for such paranormal abilities. Such an adult gift was even perceived as a hallucination. Since the mid-1970s, the medium began to actively apply its abilities. Anderson hears a noise in his head, and then through him souls begin to transmit their messages. At the same time, the accuracy of information reaches 85%. In 1982, George became the first medium to receive his own time on cable TV. Since 1991, Anderson is under the close attention of scientists. Medium successfully passed all the tests, proving his abilities. This brought him international fame. Anderson’s messages were put together, entering the bestseller “We do not die. Conversations of George Anderson with the Otherworld. ” In 1997, the book “Children Are Forever” is published, in which the medium told about his experience with the deceased children. In The Lessons of Truth in 1999, Anderson spoke about the afterlife, told what awaits us after his death, and gave advice on the correct life. “A walk through the garden of the soul”, published in 2001, continued this theme. Since 2004, the medium ceases to appear in the media, giving itself up entirely to work in its non-profit organizations.
Sylvia Brown (born 1936).
This is one of the most respected mediums in our time. An energetic woman is very close to the people. After all, her books are often published and have a wide range of readers. Sylvia was born in Kansas. I must say that since childhood it was surrounded by people with an unusual gift. Her grandmother Ada was also a medium and a healer.The girl showed her talent at the age of three. She says that she loved going to big companies, noting who and what is sick, who has problems in the family. Sylvia has always used her talent for the benefit of people. In 1964, she realizes that she can practically use unusual opportunities. Brown moves to California, where he enters the circle of lovers of the paranormal. In the 1970s, Sylvia became famous as a practitioner-medium. To promote her own experiments, she herself creates the organization “Society of the New Spirit.” It teaches that the soul experiences death, God exists, it is necessary to create a union of loving people, rejecting prejudices. For many years, Brown served as a channel for the transmission of messages from the spirit called Francine. Thanks to him, the medium received answers to many questions, which served as material for books and lectures. In 1989, the first book of the medium was published, in which she told the reader tips on how to independently look into another world. Sylvia likes SMT, she successfully demonstrates her talents on television shows.