If it were not for these people, the criminal world would not stop anything. The adventures of famous detectives are written bestsellers, millions of people admire their intellect, courage and cunning. After all, in order to catch a clever criminal, one must be on the step above him. The names of Sherlock Holmes, Hercule Poirot, Mrs. Marple are known to any fan of detectives, and simply to the ordinary reader.
Only now the characters are all fictional. But this does not mean that there are no class detectives in nature. It’s just that they are not written about so often, but from this their life does not become less dangerous and exciting. A vivid biography of some detectives served as an excuse for creating literary heroes.
Eugene François Widock (1775-1857).
This person had time to visit crime on both sides of the war with the law. Vidoc was born in French Arras in the family of a baker. At the age of 14, the teenager committed his first crime – they accidentally killed a fencing master. As a result, the Whole decided to flee from his native city in America. But the journey did not take place – Eugene was in the army, where he turned out to be a very bad soldier. Vidoc participated in numerous duels, was punished, but eventually deserted. His youth, Eugene spent in criminal gangs, where he constantly robbed and killed. For numerous escapes from prison he was nicknamed “werewolf” and “king of risk”. As a result, former criminal friends so complicated the life of the Frenchman that he decided to take an unusual step – Widoc offered his services to the prefecture of Paris. In 1811, he created a special brigade, which consisted of former criminals. Vidoc thought that only criminals could understand and catch criminals. About the group called “Security” there were bad rumors. At the head of his brigade, Widoc spent 20 years, after which he resigned. In 1833, he opened his own bureau of investigations, “private police”. Thus, it was Vidoc who became one of the first professional detectives. The top of his career was the post of head of the office of the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the government of Lamartine. Vidok is considered the father of the world’s private investigation and detective work, he is revered as the founder of criminal investigation. The sleuth served as a prototype for several literary and cinematic characters. It was Vidok who began using ballistic expertise. Once, during the investigation, he decided to investigate the size of the bullet, proving that it could not be released from the weapon of the accused.
Alan Pinkerton (1819-1884).
Pinkerton was born in Scottish Glasgow. In 1842 he emigrated to America, where he took place, as a detective. In 1846 the young Pinkerton was elected sheriff of his town. In 4 years he left the civil service and founded his own detective agency. The services of this office were in demand, because it specialized in railroad thefts. The famous motto of the agency was the phrase “We never sleep.” Among the main successes of this organization are the prevention of the assassination of President Lincoln in Baltimore in 1861, as well as the arrest of the organizers of the abduction of 700 thousand dollars in the railway company Adams Express. Pinkerton’s agency first introduced photographs of criminals and their detailed description. Such large portraits were sent to large cities of the country, which greatly accelerated the capture of bandits. It is believed that Pinkerton founded, and his sons developed a classification of criminals. The detective started a file of known swindlers with the indication of their specialization. The famous detective died in 1884, the cause was developed due to the occasional biting of the tongue of gangrene. The detective himself became the prototype for the literary character Nata Pinkerton, known as the “king of detectives”. The Pinkerton Agency exists to this day, owned by the Swedish company Securitas AB.
Duane Chapman (born 1953).
This detective is atypical, however he knows his business. The activities of the American bounty hunter Chapman is constantly covered by television.Chapman, who received his nickname “The Dog” for his hunting passion, is constantly present as a star on a talk show. And in this case, the detective was a former criminal. At the age of 24, Duane was convicted of armed robbery. He himself denies his involvement in the crime, nevertheless he spent a year and a half behind bars. In the family detective business of Chapman, his sons and relatives take part. The activities of these detectives are distinguished by their relentlessness toward criminals, the fugitives seek to catch alive or dead. As a result, the law constantly has claims to the famous Bounty Hunter. Chapman himself is distinguished by fearlessness, he has repeatedly confronted dangerous criminals, kidnappers, rapists, drug dealers. The detective’s person is constantly in sight – he is arrested for illegal actions, then he shows racial prejudice. Stepan Sheshkovsky (1727-1794).
Stepan learned to read and write from a young age. He began to serve in the Siberian Order uncomfortably, and in 1740 got on a business trip to the Secret Chancellery. There he liked Sheshkovsky, he managed to transfer to the state office of search cases. The earliest able employee was noticed by Count Shuvalov, which served as the basis for a quick career. At the age of 30 Sheshkovsky, on presentation of his guardian, by the Empress Elizabeth herself, is appointed secretary of the Secret Chancery. The dissolution of this organization did not destroy the detective’s career. The new empress, Catherine, needed such people. Sheshkovsky was entrusted with the most important search cases. It was Stepan engaged in Pugachev’s interrogation, having written down in detail his testimony. Sheshkovsky, in the duty of the service, investigated not only political affairs, but personal imperial ones. The detective entered the history of a tough and principled policeman, he was able to develop his own method of interrogation. The ordinary people were afraid of him, but the nobles feared. The detective himself did not disdain to use torture in interrogations, although he was often caught and beaten by brave daredevils-avengers.
Arkady Koshko (1867-1928).
Koshko was born in Minsk, in a wealthy family. He chose a career as a military man, but the service weighed heavily on him. After all, as a child, Arkady was read into detective novels. As a result, he realized that his vocation was criminology and resigned. The service in the police Koshko began in Riga as a simple inspector. The application of the most advanced European methods, as well as the personal courage of the detective led to rapid promotion and rewards. After only 6 years, Koshko became the head of the Riga police, and in 1908 he became the chief of police in Moscow. The detective managed to develop a new system of identity recognition based on the collection and classification of anthropometric and fingerprint data. This allowed the Moscow investigation to collect a large file of criminals. Such a system was even borrowed by Scotland Yard. The period of service in Moscow brought Koshko real fame, he was appointed head of the entire criminal investigation in the country. In 1913, at a seminar in Switzerland, the Russian detective police was recognized as the best in the world in the detection of crimes. After the 1917 revolution, General Koshko emigrated to France. There he was unable to apply his talents while working in the store. Koshko was repeatedly invited to serve in Scotland Yard, but for this it was necessary to accept British citizenship. Ivan Osipov (1718-1756).
A man named Vanka-Cain managed to become not only a legendary detective, but also a legendary robber. He was born into a peasant family in the Yaroslavl province. Ivan managed to steal his master, and then bring it to him. As a reward for this, he was given freedom. Osipov’s new home became a thief’s thief. After a series of high-profile adventures in Moscow, the robber went to the Volga, where he joined a gang of Ataman Zori. In 1741, Vanka-Kain unexpectedly came to the Moscow detective order, offering his services in capturing other thieves and robbers. So Osipov was admitted to the civil service, got a military command at his disposal.Only now catching and giving out small thieves, Vanka-Cain led his game – extorting money, opening a gambling house, covering up big bandits, and even openly robbed. The outrages that were being committed in Moscow led investigative commissions there. Osipov’s activity gradually unfolded, and in the most detective order the whole personnel was replaced. The two-faced detective was sentenced to death, replacing the verdict with Siberian hard labor.
Osip Shor (1891-1978).
The activity of this man marked the beginning of the most famous literary character. True, Ostap Bender was not a detective, but in stealth, resourcefulness, persistence in achieving the goal, he can not refuse. Ostap Ben Shamin was born in Nikopol, but spent his childhood in Odessa. His studies in Petersburg were interrupted by the revolution. Trying to return to Odessa, Osip on the way home seemed to be a grandmaster, then a groom, then a representative of an underground organization. And he even spent one winter in the status of a groom of a fat aunt. In Odessa, Shor began working in the criminal investigation department, in particular, fighting with the gang Mishki Japonchik. Detective bandits spared, but resisted mercilessly destroyed. Not surprisingly, the criminals quickly surrendered their accomplices. After the jailbrothers Japonka mistakenly instead of the inspector killed his brother, Osip resigned and moved to Moscow. There he talked a lot about his adventurous adventures, which was heard by the writer Kataev. It was he who prompted the story of Ilf and Petrov. Shore was a cheerful and sociable person, who threw himself through life.
Yakov Vagin (1926-2010).
This person is considered one of the founders of the Soviet school of investigation. Yakov was born in Kharkov in 1926. In the Ministry of Internal Affairs, he worked for 65 years. With the outbreak of war, Vagin and his family were evacuated to Perm. From there, on a Komsomol ticket, he was sent to the police. A serious school of life was held in Yakutia, in the department for combating banditry. Then Vagin returned to Perm, where at the age of 27 he headed the first district police department. In 1969 the detective became the head of the criminal investigation department of the Perm region. There he was able to fully demonstrate his best qualities. According to the disclosure level Perm was second only to Moscow and Leningrad. Vagin was able to uncover the loud case of the Vedernikov gang, to catch the Kungur maniac. The militarist was distinguished by extreme humanity, he stood up for his subordinates. This allowed them to work quietly and make non-standard decisions. The talented organizer Vagin introduced the most advanced means for crime detection, including night vision devices. In the investigation groups he recruited specialists of various profiles, each of which, as an element of the clock, took its place.
Ivan Putilin (1830-1889).
Ivan Dmitrievich Putilin belonged to the family of an ordinary collegiate registrar from Novy Oskol. At 23, a young man goes to serve in the police, where he receives the post of assistant assistant to the quarter warder in the market. But Putilin immediately showed his talents and showed courage in catching dangerous criminals. At the age of 27 he already has an order and a medal. His career begins to develop at breakneck speed. This is facilitated by a huge number of cases disclosed. Putilina is called the Russian Pinkerton. In 1866, the detective was placed at the head of the detective police created by the capital of the Russian Empire. In those years there were no such high-profile cases in St. Petersburg, which would have been left without attention by Putilin. He was noted by observation, strictness and love for his work. At 45, Putilin is already a general, he resigns for health reasons. However, his active nature can not tolerate a measured life, soon the detective returns to his post to continue the fight against crime. The final resignation occurred in 1889. Putilin went to his estate, where he finished writing his memoirs “40 years among robbers and murderers.”
Charles Field (1805-1874).
Scotland Yard is a large organization, but it was brought to fame by people like Charles Field.Initially, he dreamed of being an actor, but poverty pushed him into the civil service. Field began the service as a simple sergeant, soon after rising to the inspector at the shipyards. In 1845, Charles joined the detective department, where he left in 7 years as chief. The development of the police in those years was very captivating to Charles Dickens. He repeatedly accompanied the constables in the night hikes. The writer became very friendly with the detective. In the novel “The Cold House” it was from Field that the image of the detective Bucket was written off. After retiring, the detective continued his activity as a private detective, although his actions were not welcomed by the authorities. For excessive interference in the investigation of the principal Englishman even deprived for the time of retirement. For him, the search was a kind of game, Field liked to disguise himself, doing this even when it should not.