It has been more than 60 years since the first man ascended into space. Since then, there have been more than 500 people, of them more than 50 women. Representatives of 36 countries visited our planet on orbit. Unfortunately, there were sacrifices on this glorious path of humanity.
In Russia and the United States, the first cosmonauts were recruited from among the military pilots. But it soon became clear that other professions were in demand in space. There were doctors, engineers, biologists. Every cosmonaut, without a doubt, is a hero. However, in this detachment there are the most famous people, whose fame, truly, the world.
Yuri Gagarin (1934-1968).
April 12, 1961 from Baikonur started the spacecraft Vostok-1 with the first ever astronaut on board. In orbit, Gagarin did the simplest experiments – eating, drinking, making notes. The control of the ship was almost completely automatic – no one knew how the man behaves in the new conditions. The cosmonaut performed 1 revolution around the Earth, which took 108 minutes. The landing occurred in the Saratov region. Thanks to this flight, Gagarin gained worldwide fame. He was awarded an extraordinary title of major, as well as the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. The day of historical flight began to be celebrated as the Day of Astronautics. April 12, 1961 forever changed the life of mankind and Gagarin himself. He became a living symbol. The first cosmonaut visited about 30 countries, received many awards and awards. Public activity affected the flight practice. In 1968, Gagarin began to make up for lost time, but on March 27 his plane lost contact and crashed into the ground. Together with the first cosmonaut, the instructor Seregin also died. Valentina Tereshkova (b. 1937).
The first successful flights of Soviet cosmonauts conceived the thought of the chief designer Sergei Korolev launching into space and a woman. Since 1962 throughout the country selected candidates. Out of five prepared candidates Tereshkova was chosen, including thanks to her working background. The woman-cosmonaut made her first flight on June 16, 1963, on Vostok-6. Stay in space took three days. But in the air there were problems with the orientation of the ship. It turned out that Tereshkova did not feel the best way, because in space, female physiology makes itself felt. This was known to scientists, placing because of this in the list of candidates Valentine is only in 5th place. However, Khrushchev and Korolev did not listen to the medical commission. East-6 landed in the Altai Territory. Until 1997 Valentina Tereshkova served as an instructor-cosmonaut. Then she moved to the Cosmonaut Training Center. The first woman cosmonaut led a rich public and state activity, being a people’s deputy in the highest bodies of various convocations. Tereshkova manages to remain the only woman who made a space flight alone.
Alexei Leonov (born 1934).
He has number 11 in the list of Soviet cosmonauts. Glory Leonov brought his flight into space in the status of a co-pilot on the spaceship Voskhod-2 on March 18-19, 1965. The cosmonaut made the first ever spacewalk, which lasted 12 minutes 9 seconds. During those historical moments, Leonov showed exceptional composure – after all, his suit was swollen, which prevented him from going into space. The ship landed in the remote taiga, the cosmonauts spent two days in the cold. From 1965 to 1969, Leonov was a member of a group of astronauts preparing to fly around the moon and sit on it. It was this astronaut planned to become the one who will first step on the surface of the satellite of the Earth. But that race the USSR lost, and the project was rolled up. In 1971, Leonov was supposed to fly into space on the Soyuz-11, but the crew was replaced because of health problems with one of its members. The flight of doublers – Dobrovolsky, Volkov and Patsaev ended in their death. But in 1975, Leonov again visited space, he led the docking of the ships of the two countries (the project “Soyuz-Apollo”).In 1970-1991 Leonov worked in the Cosmonaut Training Center. This man was also famous for his talent as an artist. He created a whole series of stamps on the space theme. Leonov became twice Hero of the Soviet Union, several documentary films were shot about him. The name of the cosmonaut is the crater on the Moon.
Neil Armstrong (born 1930).
By the time of enrollment in the astronaut group, Armstrong had already managed to fight in the Korean War, having won military awards. In March 1968, Armstrong first landed in space, as the commander of the ship Gemini-8. During that flight, for the first time, a dock was made with another space ship – the Adenna missile. In July 1969, was launched “Apollo 11” and a historic mission – landing on the moon. On July 20, Neil Armstrong and pilot Edwin Aldrin planted their lunar module in the Sea of Tranquility area. On the orbit, they were waiting for the main module with Michael Collins. Staying on the surface of the moon took 21.5 hours. The astronauts also made an exit to the lunar surface, lasting 2.5 hours. The first person to set foot there, it was Nil Armstrong. Standing on the surface, the cosmonaut said the historical phrase: “This is only one small step for man, but a huge leap for all of humanity.” The UST flag was installed on the Moon, soil samples were collected and scientific instruments were installed. The second person to step on the moon was Aldrin. Upon returning to Earth, astronauts were waiting for world glory. Sam Armstrong served in NASA until 1971, after which he taught at the university and was a member of the National Committee on Astronautics.
Vladimir Komarov (1927-1967).
The cosmonaut’s profession is quite dangerous. From the beginning of the flights, during preparation, take-offs and landing, 22 cosmonauts were killed. The first of them, Valentin Bondarenko, was burned by fire in the pressure chamber 20 days before Gagarin’s flight. The most shocking death of Challenger in 1986, killing the life of seven American astronauts. However, the first cosmonaut, who died directly during the flight, was Vladimir Komarov. His first flight took place in 1964 with Konstantin Feoktistov and Boris Egorov. For the first time as part of the ship, the crew did without spacesuits, and on board, in addition to the pilot, was an engineer and a doctor. In 1965, Komarov is a member of the Soyuz training group. Doubler was Gagarin himself. Those years were marked by a mad political space race. “Union” became its victim, having many shortcomings. April 23, 1967 “Soyuz-1” with Komarov on board climbed into space. But at the end of the main parachute was not revealed, the descent vehicle crashed into the ground in the Orenburg region at great speed. Even the astronaut’s remains were not recognized right away. The urn with the ashes of Komarov is buried in the Kremlin wall on Red Square.
Toyohiro Akiyama (gen..1942).
There is no doubt that in future the space industry will be on the commercial track. The idea to send non-governmental tourists into space was in the sky for a long time. The first swallow could be an American Krista McAuliffe however during her first and last start she died while on board the Challenger on January 28, 1986. The first space tourist, who paid for his flight, was Dennis Tito in 2001. However, the era of paid travels beyond the Earth began even earlier. On December 2, 1990 Soyuz TM-11, which along with Soviet cosmonauts Afanasyev and Manarov, was also carried by Japanese journalist Toyohiro Akiyama. He became the first representative of his country in space and the first for whose flight a non-governmental organization paid money. Broadcasting TBS thus celebrated its 40th anniversary, paying $ 25- $ 38 million for its employee in orbit. The flight of the Japanese lasted almost 8 days. During this time, he showed the inadequacy of his training, which manifested itself in the disorder of the vestibular apparatus.Akiyama also conducted several reports for Japan, tele-lessons for schoolchildren and biological experiments.
Yan Liwei (born 1965).
In the space race of the USSR and CA, another superpower, China, could not intervene. The first ethnic Chinese who got into space was Taylor Van in 1985. However, Beijing for a long time led its own program, starting it in 1956. At the end of the summer of 2003, three astronauts were selected, who were preparing for the first launch. The public learned the name of the first taikonaut only one day before the flight. On October 15, 2003, the Changzheng (Great Hike) launch vehicle launched the Shenzhou-5 spacecraft into orbit. The next day the cosmonaut landed in the Inner Mongolia area. During this time he made 14 revolutions around the Earth. Yang Liwei immediately became the national hero of China. He received the title “Hero of the cosmos”, and in his honor even called an asteroid. This flight showed the seriousness of China’s plans. So, in 2011 the orbital station was launched, and according to the number of launches of space objects, even the USA left behind. John Glenn (born 1921).
This pilot also took part in the Korean War, even having made three wins in the sky. In 1957, Glenn set a transcontinental flight record. But they do not remember it for that. The glory of the first American astronaut is divided between John Glenn and Alan Shepard. But his flight, became May 5, 1961, although the first, but suborbital. And Glenn July 21, 1961 made the first full-fledged orbital flight for the United States. His “Mercury-6” for 5 hours made three turns around the Earth. On his return, Glenn became the national hero of the United States. In 1964 he left the detachment of astronauts, engaged in business and politics. From 1974 to 1999, Glenn was a senator from Ohio, and in 1984 he even became a presidential candidate. October 29, 1998, the astronaut again ascended into space, performing the role of specialist in payload. At that time John Glenn turned 77 years old. He became not only the oldest astronaut, but also set a record for time between flights – 36 years. The flight of the crew of 7 people took almost 9 days, during this time the Shuttle performed 135 revolutions around the Earth.
Sergei Krikalev (born 1958).
Two people – Jerry Ross and Franklin Chang-Diaz visited space seven times. But the record for the time spent in orbit belongs to the Soviet and Russian cosmonauts. He started in the sky 6 times, having spent in space a total of 803 days. After graduating, Krikalev worked in ground flight control services. In 1985, he was selected for space flights. His first start took place in 1988 as part of an international crew with Alexander Volkov and Frenchman Jean-Louis Chretien. Almost six months they worked at the station “Mir”. The second flight was realized in 1991. Krikalev stayed on the “World” in spite of the original plans, remaining to work with the new crew. As a result, the cosmonaut has already spent more than a year and three months in space for the first two flights. During this time, he also made 7 spacewalks. In February 1994, Krikalev became the first Russian to climb the sky on the American Shuttle. It was our compatriot who was appointed to the first crew of the ISS after visiting there in 1998 on the shuttle Endeavor. Even the new, XXI century, Sergei Krikalev met in orbit. The cosmonaut made his last flight in 2005, having lived on the ISS for six months. Valery Polyakov (born 1942).
Profession Polyakov is a doctor, he became a doctor of medical sciences and a professor. In the history of the USSR and Russia, Polyakov became the cosmonaut No. 66. It is he who holds the record of the longest stay in space. On the Earth’s orbit, Polyakov stayed 437 days 18 hours, during 1994-1995. And the cosmonaut made his first flight back in 1988, being above the Earth from August 29, 1988 to April 27, 1989. That flight lasted 240 days, for which Valery Polyakov was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.The second record was already a record, for which the cosmonaut received the title of Hero of Russia. In total, Polyakov spent 678 days in space, behind only three people – Krikalev, Kalery and Avdeev.