Lakes are one of the natural wonders. Once in the natural depressions formed reservoirs, which now store in themselves two thirds of the entire fresh water reserve of the planet. Some of the lakes are so huge that they are even called seas. And the depth of these water bodies is such that many seas can only envy. Therefore, we will talk about the deepest lakes in the world.
This lake has a tectonic origin and is located in Indonesia, in South Sulawesi. For this area, Matano is an important source of fresh water. This is also the deepest lake in the country, the maximum depth here is 590 meters. From Matano flows the river Patea, which through the waterfall passes into the lake of Mahalon. Matano is known for its extremely pure water and rare species of fish that originated from a single ancestor. Also on the shore of the lake are deposits of nickel.
This lake is considered the deepest among those that are located above sea level. It is located in the volcanic crater of the National Park in Oregon, USA. This place itself has unthinkable beauty. The nearest rocks rise 500 meters, inside the lake there are two small islets, and the water here amazes with its blue. It’s no wonder that photographers from all over the world are eager to come here. This lake is also the deepest in the US, the maximum depth here is 594 meters. The size of Lake 8 is 9.6 kilometers, the average depth is 50 meters. The water here is extremely clean, thanks to the melting of the snow. The lake also has its own talisman – a huge log “Lake Old Man”, which has been floating in the waters for more than a hundred years in an upright position. Since the water temperature in the lake is low, the tree is well preserved. Crater Lake (Kreiter) was depicted on the commemorative 25th Century Coin of Oregon, released in 2005.
Large slave lake.
The deepest lake in North America is the Great Slave Lake, in the northwest of Canada. Its maximum depth is 614 meters, and it stretches over an area of 11 thousand square miles. The length of the lake is 480 kilometers, and the width is from 19 to 109. Most of the time – 8 months a year the lake is icebound. In some places it is so thick that even a heavy truck can withstand it. Until 1967, until a permanent highway was built around the lake, it was the cars on the ice that delivered food to the coastal settlements. From Europeans for the first time the lake was investigated in 1771 by British Hearn, a fur dealer. In 1930, the town of Yellowknife appeared on the banks, the reason was the gold found here. In 1978, in the lake area, the Soviet Cosmos-954 satellite fell, causing radiation contamination.
This is the largest lake in the country called the pearl of Kyrgyzstan. In translation from Kirghiz “ysyk kel” means “hot lake”, because in winter it does not freeze. The lake is located between the northern ranges of the Tien Shan at an altitude of 1609 meters. The water in Issyk-Kul is brackish, its mineralization is 5.9%. The volume of water in the lake is about 1,700 km3, and the area is 6236 km ². The greatest depth of the lake is 702 meters. The lake is drainage, fed from 80 small tributaries. The first mention of Issyk-Kul is found in the Chinese chronicles in the II century BC, but scientific study began only in the XIX century, Russian scientists. One of them was NM Przhevalsky, who bequeathed to bury himself on the shore of Issyk-Kul. There are many interesting stories and legends connected with the lake. So, in 2006, the archaeological expedition discovered on its bottom traces of an ancient civilization that existed 2,500 years ago. According to one of the legends in the lake, the flooded Armenian monastery with the relics of St. Matthew is kept. Another legend says that it was here that the soldiers of Tamerlane stacked their famous stone pyramids.
Another name for the lake is Nyasa.This is the southernmost lake in the East African rift system of valleys located between Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania. The maximum depth of Malawi is 706 meters, which makes it the second deepest lake in Africa. It runs from south to north, its length is 560 kilometers. But thanks to the tropical waters, it has the greatest species diversity among fish from the lakes on the planet. Also, water has a lower concentration of ions, which is associated with the inflow into the lake of waters with a low concentration of salts. Researchers, having studied the deposits of the main samples of Malawi, have proved that over the last 100 thousand years the water level in the lake has decreased noticeably, new lands have been occupied by forests and semi-deserts. Water losses are associated with surface evaporation (up to 80%) and with the Shire River, flowing from the southern part of Malawi. Lake San Martín, O’Higgins.
The lake has a fjord-like appearance and is located in Patagonia, between the Aisen region and the province of Santa Cruz. In addition to the Argentine name, there is also the Chilean – O’Higgins. This is the deepest zero of both Americas, the maximum depth here near the O’Higgins glacier is 836 meters. The area of the lake is 1058 km ², and it rises 250 meters above sea level. The water comes here with the help of the Mayer River and small streams from the glacier, and the river Pasqua flows out from here, flowing into the Pacific Ocean. The name of the lake was received in honor of national heroes – fighters for freedom of South America. Argentina was represented by José de San Martino, and Chile by Bernardo O’Higgins. Aretene’s sleeves are all named after the battles won by San Martino.
Under the glaciers of the Earth, more than 140 lakes are hidden, the East is one of them. But it is the largest and the deepest. It is located in Antarctica, near the Russian station “Vostok”. Above the lake there is a thickness of ice of 4 kilometers, it is 250 km long and 50 meters wide. The maximum depth here is 900 meters. Lake Vostok was discovered in 1996. The average temperature of the water on the surface is -3 degrees, but the water does not freeze, because the layer of ice exerts a high pressure on it. In the depths, the temperature reaches +10 degrees. Scientists according to ice samples from the depths believe that the crust can be over 400 thousand years old, so the lake itself could be encroached even 500 thousand years ago. The existence of subglacial lakes in Antarctica was scientifically proved in the middle of the 20th century, while the discovery of the “East” became one of the largest geographical discoveries of the century. People try to reach the lake, having received in particular answers to questions about life in it. Despite the pressure of 300 atmospheres, it is believed that some microorganisms could well adapt to such conditions. At present, less than 200 meters of ice is left to the lake. The experience of the study of the East can give the sea useful information, because the conditions here are similar to those that existed even millions of years ago, besides scientists suggest the presence of such lakes on the satellites of Jupiter.
The largest lake in the world is only on the third place in the list of deep-sea ones. It is located in the south of Russia, adjacent to the north of Iran. This pond is the largest closed on the Earth, besides with salt water (about 1.2%). Once, more than 5 million years ago, the sea turned out to be isolated due to the drift of the continents. The Caspian, like the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea is the ancient remnant of the Tethys ocean. The area of the Caspian Sea is 371 thousand km², and the maximum depth is 1025 meters. The sea is drainless, and 130 rivers flow into it, the largest of which is the Volga. Such a giant lake simply had to become a place of concentration of the rich fauna. There are a lot of sturgeons here that give caviar, the Caspian seal is interesting, and some species of fish are found only here. The sea is a rich source of energy. Today, the total cost of gas and oil here is 12 trillion dollars. The coastline of the Caspian Sea belongs at once to 5 states.Developed here shipping, especially through the Volga and the canals have the opportunity to enter the world ocean.
The deepest lake in Africa is divided between Burundi, DR Congo, Tanzania and Zambia. The maximum depth here is 1470 meters. The lake was discovered accidentally in 1858 by the British Richard Burton and John Speck, who in fact were looking for the source of the Nile. The length of the lake is 650 kilometers, and its width is 40-80 kilometers. The lake feeds from several channels, and one river flows from here – Lukuga. Coastal landscapes are mostly rocky. In the lake there are hippopotamuses, crocodiles, many waterfowl. Below the level of 200 meters deep, life practically ceases, due to a layer of hydrogen sulfide. Recently, the lake became the object of close attention, after the story of Geographic magazine about the cold-blooded crocodile killer, nicknamed Gustav. It was about 9 meters in length and weighed about a ton, causing the death of several dozen people.
This lake of tectonic origin is also called the “blue eye of Siberia”. It is located in South Siberia, near the border with Mongolia. The lake is known for its maximum depth of 1642 meters and the fact that it is the largest natural reservoir of fresh water. It is estimated that if all the water of the lake is divided into all the inhabitants of Russia, then for each it will have about 160 thousand tons. Baikal is a unique ecosystem, there are more than 1700 species of flora and fauna here, most of them live only here. The lake is completely surrounded by dense forests and steep mountains, according to estimates it is 25-30 million years, which automatically makes the lake the oldest in geological history. This fact makes it even more unique, since glacial lakes live usually up to 15 thousand years. Such a huge reservoir of water with an area of 31 thousand km² can be the source of a wide variety of secrets. They say about giant and unusual animals and sturgeon, about the existence of special parasites of a sea serpent, like the Loch Ness Monster.