Today, sport is far from the same as it was in ancient Greece. After all, life has changed a lot. There appeared a lot of technical novelties. Today, the achievements of civilization have become so familiar that we ourselves do not even notice how much they have become an integral part of life.
Sports changed, becoming not just another, but also more spectacular. The inventions of the last century turned sport into an exact science. We began to consider millimeters, milliseconds, more carefully. We will tell below about those technical novelties that changed the sport, giving it modern features.
The first electronic scoreboard appeared at the stadiums in 1964, when it was placed by the English football club “Coventry”. Originally the scoreboard was mechanical. They used special plates, which were manually moved to the right place. Could use wheels and slats with numbers moving along the windows. Another option was the use of flip-flops. For such a display to show the correct information, it is necessary that next to him was a constantly serving person. Such a design had a big minus – a small amount of information being placed. The maximum that could show such a scoreboard is the name of the teams and the current account. Over time, there were electromechanical designs. They had electric motors or special magnets, which allowed to move the mechanical elements at a distance. A new era for sports scoreboards came in 1961. Then the Americans Robert Bayard and Gary Pittman discovered and then received a patent for infrared LED technology. But in the stadiums, along with the diodes, long-standing incandescent lamps were used for a long time. For example, at the Olympics-80 in Moscow, such a scoreboard with incandescent lamps even showed broadcasts from the competition, although the picture was then black and white. How did the sport change with the arrival of the scoreboard? Today it is inconceivable without this invention to present any major stadium. Huge video screens allow you to display a television picture. This is especially important for sports such as skiing or racing. After all, there, in principle, the spectators can not observe the entire route right away. And today the scoreboard gives not only information about the current account, but also a lot of statistical information about the teams or players. The video screens even show information or a picture of the progress of other matches. Of course, you can not do without advertising. Modern screens are so versatile that the methods of using them are mass.
For the first time people began to measure time in seconds at sporting events in 1731. It happened in England. However, almost a hundred years have passed before the first chronograph, suitable for use in sports, was created. It was made in 1820 by the Swiss watchmaker Abraham-Louis Breguet. The invention was distinguished by the fact that it was immediately two seconds hands, which allowed to record the results of just two athletes. Over time, watchmakers made all new and improved products. In 1862, the result could already be measured to within 0.2 seconds. Speeds grew, this accuracy was already lacking. Since 1902, the results could already be measured with an accuracy of up to 0.1 seconds. In 1930, timekeeping began to record the results with an accuracy of 0.01. But even on this watch companies did not dwell on this. In Mexico, at the Olympics-68, accuracy reached 0.001 seconds, and three years later, the first electronic stopwatch appeared. This allowed since 1973 to record sports records in track and field athletics with an accuracy of ten thousandths of a second. In this case, the radio signal synchronizes the official chronograph and the quartz oscilloscope. Similar developments began to appear in other sports. Today the company Rado has learned to measure the speed of flight of a tennis ball when filed. In 1967, Omega specifically developed a touch panel for swimmers.They react only to the hands of the athlete, not distracted by the waves of the pool. The exact timing allowed at the Olympics-72 to determine the winner. Swede Gunnar Larsson outstripped the American athlete Tim McKees by just 0.0025 seconds in the course of the 400m freestyle race. Thus, only through technical means it was possible to identify the winner.
For the first time, the cameras for determining the winner were used in 1890. Then a relevant snapshot helped identify the horse, the first crossed the finish line. In competitions of the same people photofinish officially appeared in 1912, at the Olympics in Stockholm. Today it is impossible to imagine without this invention competitions in track and field athletics, bicycle and motor sport, auto racing and competitions with a massive finish. In 1926 the photo finish survived a second birth. In Denmark, the local federation of athletics showed a device that allowed to shoot in an accelerated mode. Five years later Kirby’s camera appeared. This high-speed device could combine photo finishes with auto-timing. She had two lenses at once. One looked at the finish line, and the other – on the chronometer, starting with a shot of the starting pistol. Inside the camera, the film was reeled at a record speed of 128 frames per second. In 1949, the first serial photofinishing system called Racend OMEGA Timer was introduced, later it was called Photosprint. In 1952, it was applied at the Winter Olympics in Oslo. Thanks to this novelty, the term “photo finish” appeared. By the beginning of this century photofinish has turned into digital. After all, the system Photosprint, despite its constant improvements, and remained with a number of congenital deficiencies. The most important of these was the rapid termination of the film. In addition, she could tear or hesitate. Digital photographic finish appeared in 1990, working initially in parallel with film technologies. However, the novelty quickly got rid of its shortcomings – low memory and the speed of information transfer. As a result, it was digital photofinish that reigned in all the stadiums, sending its film predecessor to the museum.
January 7, 1876 in London, an important event took place – the world’s first artificial ice rink was opened. The first closed ice rink appeared in Canada only in 1912. The hosts, the brothers Lester and Joe Patrick, thoroughly spent on this innovation. They spent as much as 110 thousand dollars on a skating rink, accommodating 4,000 people. Later, the second arena was also created. For her engineers have created the largest refrigeration system in the world. This time the project cost 210 thousand dollars, but could already accommodate 10 thousand people. Many bankers looked critically at such an investment, predicting an early bankruptcy for the brothers. However, it turned out that the closed skating rinks were very popular. Soon the Patrick could open hundreds of ice arenas in the US and Canada. The very technology of ice cold was also gradually improved. At first it was rolled manually. This process was rather difficult and time-consuming. Water was poured from hoses, then the workers leveled the ice with special shovels, knives and towels. In the 40s of the last century Canadian Frank Zamboni invented the world’s first ice harvester. At first the army jeeps were the basis for it. Today, many ice arenas have already been built in the world, so it was logical to organize the serial production of such necessary machines. Today, the skating rink is leveled with the help of two combines, this usually takes three minutes. Today, ice rink with artificial ice is gradually changing synthetic. The new coating consists of polyolefin based thermo plates. You can ride it on ordinary skates with metal blades. Practice has shown that such skates are cheaper than those where artificial ice lies. After all, their operation is simpler, and reliability is higher. Therefore, synthetic ice rinks are becoming increasingly common in Europe, the US and Canada.
The world’s first football match using artificial light was held in England in 1878. While electricity was not invented, all competitions were held at stadiums exclusively during the daytime. Appeared gas lights could not give enough light for a large sports ground. A novelty, an electric lamp, quickly gained recognition not only in everyday life, but also in sports. In 1878, the historic match took place, in which two teams from Sheffield met at the Bremell Lane stadium. Then the light was given by lamps installed on nine-meter wooden posts. From them there were wires to dynamos. But the light was not enough. In 1892, the Scottish club Celtic decided to perfect the idea by hanging several dozen powerful lamps right over the field. But the idea quickly died – the ball sometimes touched the wires and smashed the bulbs. The penetration of electricity into sports facilities went slowly, there was no special need for this for a long time. Mass equipment of stadiums with artificial light sources only began in the second half of the 20th century. TV burst into life, and broadcasts from competitions demanded high-quality lighting. Today, many people call sports lighting a full-fledged industry, which has its own rules and regulations. For football fields, tennis courts and other areas have their own norms. When designing new stadiums, consider such an important indicator as the uniformity of lighting. For this, the projectors have ceased to be placed on freestanding masts, the light sources are now placed in the upper part of the stadium structures.
The world’s first indoor playground was created for hockey in Montreal in 1899. Hide stadiums from the weather was required in those places where the weather does not allow for a long time to be in the stands. Not every fan can withstand the cold, rain and wind. In football, indoor stadiums appeared massively only in 1950-1960. Today, the largest indoor stadium is in New Orleans. “Superdom” accommodates almost 73 thousand spectators. Such a scale implies multimillion-dollar costs. But smaller sizes and are much cheaper. Therefore, basketball, volleyball, hockey and handball, like many others, have long since moved under the roof. However, there are directly opposite situations. So, in those countries where the hot sun shines all year round, modern technologies allow creating ski slopes. For example, in 1987 in the southern Australian Adelaide was created the first such a complex – Thebarton. Then it was a curiosity, today it is one of the most modest of its kind. Recently, in the middle of the Arabian desert, the world’s largest indoor stadium was built. She decided to erect in an unusual place the head of the Emirates of Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum. Ski stadium called Ski Dubai contains five tracks at once, the length of the longest of them is 400 meters. At the stadium you can also engage in bobsleigh and snowboarding, there is a track for toboggan. Children can shoot snowballs in a special dash here and stroll along the ice cave. Today, indoor stadiums are an indispensable attribute of modern sports. This is recognized by all. Therefore, if necessary, a new sports facility is made either immediately covered or equipped with a sliding roof. The latest example of this kind – a new sliding roof, erected over the main court of Wimbledon. The English are tired of being dependent on capricious nature, carrying matches due to rain.
People sometimes do not stop at nothing to achieve the result. With the development of medicine, she came to a big sport. In 1865, for the first time, a case of doping was recorded, Dutch swimmers entered the history. In fact, the history of doping is much older, it’s the same age as the sport itself.After all, people have always tried to improve the capabilities of their body, studying what substances can contribute to it. Even the ancient sportsmen used dope, however, it was much more harmless than the current one. Then mushrooms, hashish were used, and mutton testes were to increase the level of male testosterone. Both in ancient Egypt and in ancient Rome knew about those products that could stimulate the athlete. Throughout time athletes believed in the power of pounded hoofs, bovine blood, honey and dates. But by the beginning of the 20th century, artificial synthesized preparations began to be used – codeine, strychnine and caffeine. They were simply insecure at that time, repeatedly leading to the death of athletes. Since 1928, a purposeful fight against doping has unfolded. Then the International Amateur Athletic Federation banned the use of any stimulating means in its disciplines. But only since 1963 the opposition to doping has taken a wide scope. Then the Council of Europe set up its commission to combat illegal sports drugs. The IOC adopted the Medical Code the following year. The Olympics in Mexico City in 1968 was the first when they began to take samples for doping. Since then, pharmacists have come up with all the new tools and tricks, on the other hand, norms and a list of banned substances are constantly changing. None of the last Olympics could not do without some kind of doping scandal. Often they led to a change in the owners of medals.
In sport, the use of new materials began in 1932, when synthetic fibers began to be produced in Germany. New materials have become another opportunity to achieve high results, with one doping athletes were not limited. It turned out that you can significantly improve shoes, clothes, and even sporting equipment. New technologies came into the sport with the invention of synthetic materials. In the second half of the XX century, several manufacturers began to actively introduce them into the sport. So, in 1956 Speedo created the first swimming nylon suits. In 1969, American Bob Gore created a membrane GORE-TEX, which allows you to leave the body coming from the body, but does not let moisture in. Such an effect became possible due to the multitude of microscopic pores. The technology then began to be used in the production of top sportswear. The use of new materials in sports equipment has significantly increased the bar of world records. Jumpers in height began to use poles of fiberglass, and the boat for academic rowing is now made of plastic. Today, in sports, natural fabrics are hardly used. There are all new improved materials for sports. They improve and improve the results. So, already become legendary swimsuit Speedo LZR Racer reduces water resistance by 24%. In it, 182 world records on swimming were established. However, the principles of equality in sport must remain unshakable, this was the reason for the tightening by many federations of rules regarding the equipment of athletes. Victory should not be gained only thanks to an expensive costume or an instrument.
Today the whole world has the opportunity to follow sports competitions. The beginning was laid on April 11, 1921, when the first broadcast of sports competition was held. Thousands of listeners watched the course of the boxing match between Johnny Ray and John Dundee. The first broadcasts caused a real boom. A new milestone came in May 1937, when the first test show of fragments of the FA Cup final was held on television. In September of the same year, a live match was shown between the main lineup and the doubles of London’s Arsenal. Then it was just a bold experiment, who could have thought that the television camera was not only very popular in the whole sport, but would also become a compulsory companion of any championship. Over time, a very important role was played by video replay.The rapid development of television has generated a wave of demands to allow arbitrators to address the repetition of disputed situations right during fights. Today, video replay is already present in tennis, hockey, rugby. Football is adamant, however, the authorities repeatedly used a television picture to disqualify players for violations not noticed by the referee during the match. Today, the media is present in the sport not only in the form of television with its innovations in the show of championships. Computer programs and technologies are increasingly being introduced, which are in the service of coaches and athletes. They allow you to improve the technique, plan and organize a training schedule. In the same football, expensive computer programs are used that allow you to count the tactical and technical actions of the players of both teams right during the match. These numbers allow coaches to better adjust the game.
The world’s first simulator appeared accidentally. They became the Swedish wall, which at the beginning of the XIX century helped with the help of gymnastics to heal from paralysis of the hand to the Swedish doctor Henrik Ling. The Doctor’s case was continued by Gustav Zander. Before us, even a few photographs of the second half of the XIX century, which show how his patients are mastering new simulators. At that time, they resembled a mixture of the medieval torture instrument and the modern power simulator. The Swedish doctors called their new method of restorative physical education mechanotherapy. In 1865, the Medico-Mechanical Institute was founded, under the leadership of Gustav Zander. It was he who later became the author of many devices, which became the first simulators. By 1910, there were almost 70 different types of such devices. The doctor came to the conclusion that his simulators fit without exception to all people regardless of their age. Zander noted that gymnastics is best for children, as well as for older people. After all, these groups do not have enough physical strength to do gymnastics in the usual way. Initially the purpose of the simulators was purely medical, they were used to recover from injuries. But in time, these devices have taken their place in the history of sports. After all, simulators allow both amateurs and professionals to maintain their fitness between competitions. Special simulators are designed for racing drivers and skiers, which also allow you to improve your skills. Today, progress has reached the point where smart simulators have appeared that do not require any effort from people at all. As a result, appeared “fitness for the lazy.” In the course of training, the simulators themselves act on the right muscle groups. It seems that progress will bring a lot of new into this area.