(Thea) is a genus of tropical evergreen perennial plants of the tea family; some taxonomists refer tea to the genus of the camellia. In the genus of the second type of tea, Chinese (T. sinensis), subdivided into Chinese and Japanese varieties, – shrubs up to 3 m high, grows in mountain areas of South-East Asia. Assamian tea (T. assamica) – a tree up to 10-15 m high, lives in the forests of Assam (India); varieties – Assam, Lushai, Hill, Manipuri, Burma, etc. To Assamese tea include a natural hybrid of Chinese tea with Assam – Ceylon tea. Both species are common in culture.
Tea is thermophilic and hygrophilous. It grows well and develops at the sum of average daily temperatures during the vegetative period not less than 4000 ° С. Carries out short-term frosts to -12 ° C without snow cover (some varieties up to -14 ° C). In tropical countries, tea grows all year round. With a yield of 4,000 kg per 1 ha of leaf, the plant takes out 150 kg of N, 23.9 kg of P2O5 and 47.8 kg of K2O from the soil. The best soils are krasnozems and yellow soils that are permeable to water and air.
Propagate tea with seeds and vegetatively. Plantations are planted with 1-2-year-old seedlings grown in nurseries, directly by seeds, semi-aged cuttings and layers. Blooms tea for 4-5-year and annually forms fruit. Cross-pollination – bees, flies and other insects. The plant is fully formed by 7-8 years of age. Tea forms annually from growth buds in leaf axils annual productive shoots, the tops of which (2-3 leaves with a kidney) make up its products – flushes. The duration of growth of productive shoots is 35-65 days. Under favorable conditions, they grow continuously. In Russia, there are two periods of intensive tea growth: spring – in May and summer – in July-August. Tea lives 100 years or more, most productive at the age of 10 to 70 years.
In Russia, a tea drink began to be consumed from 1638, when the Mongolian Altyn-khan sent as a gift to Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich 4 poods of tea leaves. In 1679, China signed an agreement on the constant supply of tea to Russia, in the 18th century. the importation of tea increases, the popularity of tea drink increases. By this time the appearance of Russian samovars also applies.
Russian tea industry produces flavors (loose with twisted leaves) – black and green (kok-tea) and pressed – green brick (lao-cha) and black tile. In other countries (India, China, Japan) also produce yellow and red (oolong) tea. Of the tea leaf waste, caffeine, vitamin preparations, such as vitamin P (in the form of tablets), and other medications are produced. Oil from seeds is used in cosmetics, canning industry (olive substitute), as a lubricant for precision instruments, in soap making. In China and Japan, the leaves are used as a seasoning, in Burma – for salad.
Tea is also called tea substitute from vegetable raw materials (lime, carrot, fruit tea), collections (mixes) of medicinal herbs (diuretic tea, etc.).
Tea is one of the most ancient drinks, the use of which is inextricably linked with the national culture, economy and historical traditions of many peoples. Scientists have been studying tea for a long time, but only recently it has been possible to fully understand its chemical composition. Now it is known that this plant includes about 300 different substances, of which, first of all, six groups of chemical compounds attract attention: tannins, essential oils, alkaloids, amino acids, pigments and vitamins. It would seem that everyone knows about tea now. However, the number of misconceptions related to tea does not decrease.
The tea should brew for a few minutes.
This is one of the most common misconceptions! Teas should not be long insisted, and then diluted with water. On average, tea is brewed no longer than one minute. Green teas – 10-15 seconds, black and red – up to 1 minute, dynamic – until the full opening of the flower.And, without diluting, pour. Green teas after a long tincture bitter, and blacks become too strong, which can badly affect the body.
Green and black tea are different plants.
In fact, both green and black tea is made from the leaves of the same plant. What tea will turn out depends on the method of processing tea leaves, scientifically, the degree of fermentation. All the variety of teas is divided into three main types: black, green, oolong (red and yellow teas). Color is only an external reflection of the differences in the biochemical processes of processing tea leaves, which ultimately affects the chemical composition and the main flavor and aromatic features of each type of tea. In China, traditions of production of more than 1000 varieties of tea are preserved: black, red, turquoise, half-fermented and non-fermented, green, yellow and even white. Many varieties are not at all similar to each other, but, nevertheless, it’s all tea.
Black tea is stronger than green tea.
No, this is a wrong opinion. Fortress tea and a tonic effect gives caffeine, its in green tea is the same as in coffee (from 1% to 4% depending on the grade). In the process of fermentation, when green tea is produced from black, caffeine is destroyed.
To produce packaged tea, low-grade tea, tea remnants or tea dust is used.
In fact, the production of good packaged tea is considered very technological and costly, so large producers use only high-quality tea. In addition, tea bags have three undeniable advantages: it is quickly brewed, it is easy to use, and as it is brewed immediately before consumption – it is always fresh!
Yesterday’s welding becomes a poison for the body.
There is simply less use for it than freshly brewed tea. An hour later, the fragrance disappears, for which the drink is appreciated, bitterness, an unpleasant aftertaste appears. But the antiseptic properties of tea persist.
Leaf tea is a premium tea.
This indicator speaks volumes and, first of all, about the taste of the drink. But those who consider large leaf tea to be of the highest grade may be mistaken. The large leaf tea is fragrant, soft, with a delicate taste. This kind of tea is grown on plantations that are in the lowlands along the flowing rivers, where there is plenty of sun and enough moisture, so the tea leaf grows large. If the tea plantations are located in high-altitude areas, then the climatic conditions are more severe: the wind blows, cold rains, so the tea leaves grow medium or small. The leaf tea is stronger and more fragrant. The best sort of black tea in the world market is Indian Darjeeling tea, it is called “gold in a cup.” In appearance it is a mixture of black tea, white tips and green tea buds. The size of tea leaves is not large.
Tea should be stored in a glass jar.
The tea should be stored in hermetically sealed containers, with a relative humidity of not more than 70% and avoid sunlight. Otherwise, biological processes in the tea leaf can resume and distort the taste of tea.
The older the tea, the better.
Green tea, like most loose tea in general, is better to drink fresh, the latest collection. Black tea is good aged, it is kept in a special way – in a compressed form, flat cakes or blocks.
Chainki can not be swallowed … without chewing.
You can. For example, tea leaves of Longjing in China are even eaten after tea-drinking – it is very useful.
Is tea a drink or a meal?
We are used to brew tea leaves and drink infusion, and this seems to be the natural and only method of using this culture. But this is not so. In the cellulose of tea leaves, there are a lot of proteins, according to their quantity, tea can be equated to legumes. Therefore, for example, in Japan the tea leaf is grinded into powder and brewed, the tea gruel is obtained and it is eaten.From tea also prepare various soups, sauces, sorbets, ice cream.
The used sewage should be well washed with sewage, for example draining the sink.
On the contrary. Welding more than all other products clogs plums. Better brewing is done only by cleaning the carrots.
Kombucha is a special mushroom growing under a tea bush.
Tea mushroom (medusomycete) is a thick layered mucous membrane that forms on the surface of the supercapsulated liquid. The liquid acquires a pleasant sweet and sour taste and turns into a slightly carbonated drink – tea kvass, which, according to some information, has antibiotic properties and contains vitamins.