– movement in water, not involving contact with the bottom. Also, swimming is a kind of sport, which means to overcome certain distances by swimming for a minimum amount of time. And under the water, according to the current rules, it is allowed to swim no more than 15 meters. Swimming is not only a sport, but also a component of some multi-battles, triathlon and modern pentathlon.


People from ancient times were engaged in swimming – this is evidenced by some rock paintings, whose age is more than 7000 years. And, judging by the images, most often used a style that somewhat resembles an over-arm (or Russian “sapling”) and swimming “in a frog”.

Written sources mentioning the above-mentioned method of overcoming water barriers are dated 2000 BC. e. There are many references to the art of swimmers in the Iliad, Odyssey, the Bible, as well as in many ancient sagas (Gilgamesh, Beowulf, etc.). The advantages of swimming, allowing warriors to win victories in battles, Herodotus mentions in her writings.

The first book on swimming – “Der Schwimmer oder ein Zwiegespräch über die Schwimmkunst” (“Swimmer or Dialogue on the art of swimming”) was written in 1538 by Professor Nicolaus Wynmann of Germany. In Russian, a book titled “The Teaching and Cunning of the Military Structure of Infantry”, containing advice on swimming training, was published in 1647.

In the days of Peter I all the soldiers of the tsarist army had to master the swimming skills, and in Germany this kind of sport was taught in some schools. In 1842 the first indoor swimming pool was built in Vienna, and in 1843 such structures appeared in Germany, England (where in 1867 the first official club of swimming lovers was created), Czechoslovakia.

In Russia, such a pool was built a little later – in 1891, although the first school of swimming in this country appeared in 1834, in St. Petersburg.

Sports swimming competitions were held for the first time in Venice, at the beginning of the 16th century, and the first official championship for this sport was held in 1877 in England. The official European swimming championship was held for the first time in 1890.

Competitions for this sport are included in the program of all modern Olympics. And if at the first Olympics in Athens swimmers (and only men) competed only in free style swimming (100, 500, 1200 m), then the second Olympiad included competitions in swimming on the back (200 m), and in the program of the third Olympic games included swimming competitions breaststroke. Women swimmers first performed at the V Olympiad (1912, Stockholm (Sweden)).

The International Swimming Federation (FRA, Fédération Internationale de Natation) was founded in 1908. Its task is to develop rules and programs for international competitions in swimming, water polo, synchronized swimming and diving, as well as holding world championships, appointing judges and setting the procedure for registering world records. Established in 1926, the European Swimming League (LEN, Ligue Européenne de Natation) is responsible for hosting European championships in this sport.

International championships, championships, qualifying, match and cup competitions are held in swimming, divided according to the way of determining the championship for personal (the results are counted only for athletes), personal-team (the results and places are distributed between swimmers and between teams) and team (results are counted only by teams).

Swimming competitions can take place both in open water (in “open water”) and in closed pools (in “closed water”) of different lengths: 25 meters (so called “low water”), 50-100 meters ( “large water”). The minimum depth of the pool is 1 m. All along and 1.35 m in the section of the pool from 1 to 6 meters near the start-up tables.

The width of the tracks is about 2.5 meters, from the outside of the outer tracks there should be a free space of at least 0.2 meters. Separating cords of different colors (green for tracks 1 and 8, blue for tracks 2, 3, 6, 7, yellow for tracks 4 and 5) are stretched along the entire length of the pool, and are equipped with floats whose diameter is from 0.05 up to 0.15 meters.

In addition, at the bottom of the pool in the middle of each track a special marking of dark contrasting color is applied (width of the lines is 0.2-0.3 m, length is 21 m (for 25-meter basins) or 46 m (for 50 m) ). On each track at the starting and turning ends of the pool a plate with a number is fixed.

Each float is 5 meters long and each float has red floats on each end wall. Also, the color of the floats, different from the main one, is marked by a 15-meter (or 25-meter in the pool, whose length is 50 meters) mark in the 25-meter pool.

For the start of the athletes, special numbered starting cabinets are installed, the height of which is from 0.5 to 0.75 meters, and the dimensions of the surface covered with a non-slip material are 0.5 × 0.5 m. To start when swimming on the back at an altitude of 0 , 3-0.6 m from the surface of the water there are vertical and horizontal handrails. The water temperature in the pool should be +25 – +28 ° C.

There are such swimming styles:
• Overarm stroke – one of the types of sailing on the side with the carrying of the hand forward or with the hand raised above the head. It has long been used by the British. Previously referred to as sidestroke (English “swimming on the side”). After the improvement in the second half of the XIX century was quite popular among athletes. In Russia this kind of navigation was called “sapling”;
• Trudgen-style (originally called double overarm stroke) – a style of swimming on the abdomen, characterized by alternating strokes of slightly bent arms, legs at the same time were simultaneously horizontally bent to the sides, then quickly closed to the center. This style was first demonstrated in 1873 by John Arthur Tredzhen (England), and until the 1920s it was used to overcome long distances until it was finally replaced by crochet;
• Krol – a swimming on the belly, in which slightly bent hands alternately make strokes, legs – alternately continuously rise and fall (the principle of scissors). This is one of the fastest swimming styles, sometimes called freestyle. It was first demonstrated by Richard Cavill (Australia) at the end of the 19th century, and in the early 20s of the last century, thanks to some changes proposed by swimmers from America, took the leading place among the other styles of swimming;
• Butterfly (from English butterfly – “butterfly”) – one of the high-speed varieties of brass. Swimming on the abdomen, during which the hands move synchronously along a certain trajectory, making a strong stroke, as a result of which the body of the floater rises above the water. At the same time, both legs make waves at the same time. The most energy-consuming and difficult to learn style, the speed of standing in second place after the rabbit. This type of voyage has long been considered a variety of brass, and was finally separated only in 1953 (in the USSR – in 1949);
• Brass – swimming on the stomach, in the process of which the hands first move synchronously from the chest, and then make a stroke, and the legs simultaneously produce a jerk, first bending violently in the knees, and then straightening up. The most difficult to master, the slowest, and at the same time, the least energy-intensive and rather noiseless style. For the first time it was analyzed by Nicholas Wynman (Denmark) in 1538 and for a long time was one of the leading styles.He has been a part of the Olympic Games since 1904;
• Krol on the back – swimming on the back, in which the direct hands alternately make strokes, and the legs rise and fall alternately. Features of style – the swimmer’s face is constantly above the water, therefore it is not necessary to exhale into the water; the start is not made from the nightstand, as in other styles, but from the water. By speed this style is in third place. Crawling on the back appeared at the beginning of the last century, thanks to Harry Hebner (America) and quickly replaced the previously used breaststroke (“inverted breaststroke”).

In addition, the following types of navigation are distinguished:
• Integrated swimming is one of the types of competition that involves using all styles of swimming to overcome the set distance (swimming on the back, breaststroke, freestyle, and, since 1953, butterfly) . This form of swimming is officially included in the program of international competitions since 1961. The same principle is used to build a combined relay race – a team of swimmers overcome the stages using different styles of swimming. It is included in the list of international competitions since 1957;
• Floating in fins – the competitor moves underwater using a special tube for breathing;
• Scuba diving – A swimmer uses a compressed air cylinder for breathing, which holds his hands in front of him. The start is made from the nightstand;
• Long-distance diving – the athlete must overcome a distance of 50 meters at a breathing delay;
• Marathon is a competition for long distances held in an open reservoir. Breathing – through the tube, it is permissible to use a wet suit.

In addition, the program of the Olympiad initially included some non-standard types of navigation:
• Swimming in clothes (100 m distance) – was included in the program of the first Olympics in 1896 (Athens (Greece));
• Swimming with obstacles (200 meters) and diving (60 meters) – was part of the program of the second Olympic Games in 1900 (Paris (France));
• Diving for distance – competitions were held in this sport in 1904 (III Olympiad, Chicago – St. Louis (USA)).

There are kinds of swimming that have never been included in the program of any competition. For example, some national types of voyage – samurai (suyey-jutsu) and ninja swimming styles, suggesting the overcoming of water obstacles in combat ammunition (kattu goden shogi) and with weapons that, incidentally, should not have been exposed to liquid, and sometimes had to be let in move (tati oyogi sägeki), using only legs to move in the water. Also, the soldiers were taught to swim with large heavy objects – for example, signal flags (Okayatari obitas) or signal shell (choragai). And depending on the place of residence, various methods of navigation were developed.

Swimming training will take a long time.

This is not quite true. The art of movement in the water can be learned very quickly – for several sessions. But to master this or that style in perfection really have to spend a lot of time. The easiest way to master a crawl, more difficult is a butterfly, and the most technically complex is a breaststroke.

Learning to swim in the pool is safer than in an open reservoir.

This is indeed so. Firstly, because there are special demarcation devices in the pool between the tracks, which can serve as a support for the inexperienced swimmer, and negate the possibility of collision with other people in the water. Secondly, over the edge of the pool, in which case, you can also grab, and the coach keeps an eye on the newcomer, giving advice and assisting if necessary. And, finally, the change in weather conditions (strong wind, suddenly rising waves) to pool visitors also do not threaten. In the event that mastering the art of moving in water you have to master in an open reservoir, try to swim along the shore, preferably in those places where the depth is low, and the rescue service on the water works.

In order to improve your achievements in swimming, you should train exclusively in the pool – after all, the movements carried out in the water are extremely specific.

Yes, it’s quite difficult to copy this kind of movement in the gym. However, such a task during strength training and not put. The main thing for an athlete is to strengthen certain muscle groups, or to use those of them that minimize participation in swimming movements. Women, for example, should first of all pay attention to strengthening the abdominal press (by lifting the trunk from the supine position), the muscles of the back (pulling up), the triceps (pulling up with the opposite grip of the hands), and the chest (pressing). You can also perform swimming movements, holding dumbbells in your hands, and tying weight to your legs. And it should be noted that before and during exercises of this kind, and after them, you should definitely spend some time stretching the main muscle groups of the body.

To win a swimming competition, it is enough to master only one style – and to improve only in it.

This is not true. The fact is that the program of competitions for this sport includes the overcoming of distances by each of the four styles, as well as styler swimming for 1500 m and complex swimming.

During swimming, breathe more often and deeper.

Wrong opinion. After all, in the case of frequent breathing and incomplete exhalation, a fairly large amount of carbon dioxide can form in the body, as a result of which a chemical balance breakdown has a negative effect on the respiratory stimulus. In addition, keep in mind that when swimming with crawl it is best to do exhalations in the water alternately – then to the right, then to the left. So you can avoid curving the trajectory. And at the shooting distance, swimmers prefer to take one breath-exhale for two strokes with their hands.

The best result is given by classes with long continuous loads at a not very high overall swim speed.

Such exercises are really extremely useful, but to maximize the effect, experts recommend alternating them with so-called interval training, which involves quite intensive efforts at some distance intervals when the swimmer moves at a high speed. After such jerks, a brief period of slowing down and rest is given, giving the body the possibility of only partial restoration. It is believed that it is at such times that the cardiovascular system works with the greatest efficiency, pushing the maximum amount of blood through the veins and arteries in one heartbeat. As a result, individual muscle fibers are destroyed, and instead of them new ones are formed – stronger and more massive. The same effect on the body is exercised with weights. It should be noted that interval training, as well as power training, should not be used for two days in a row – the most optimal will be a regime that provides no more than 3 sessions of this kind per week. The remaining days should be preferred to the method of continuous continuous loads. In addition, it should be borne in mind that the best effect is given by loads in which the heart rate is between 70% and 85% of the maximum possible. Note that to prepare the heart for work in such a rhythm before the start of classes, you should swim a few segments, increasing the speed gradually, and at the end of the training – swim at a slow pace. In order for the swimmer to check the heart rate at any time and, in accordance with the indicator, increase or decrease the load, a stopwatch is located in the pool on the wall (and in some cases – under the water).

Synchronized swimming does not require special stress from the athletes.

Absolutely mistaken opinion. It is the synchronous swimming that is considered to be the most difficult – after all, for demonstration performances, not only grace and a sense of rhythm are required, but also a rather large physical strength necessary to perform certain elements under the water.It is for this reason that the first successes of girls who choose synchronized swimming are achieved not in adolescence as swimmers, but only after 20-22 years.

In synchronized swimming, only athletes perform.

No, in recent years, male athletes have also competed in this form of sailing, and at the end of April 2007, the first international men’s synchronized swimming tournament was held in Prague.

Children of short stature find it difficult to achieve good results in swimming.

This is not true. For children and adolescents aged 9 to 16 years, especially those who are not very tall or overly full, swimming is exactly the kind of sport in which they can show themselves in the best way, sometimes achieving even greater success than their tall one-year-olds.

Swimming is one of the safest sports.

Indeed, swimming is considered to be the least traumatic sport. However, risk factors do exist. For example, there is a danger of drowning, injury from the impact (accidental or intentional) of other people. Current, waves and whirlpools can tighten the swimmer under the water. The threat is also presented by various representatives of flora and fauna (sharks, jellyfish, moray eels, etc.), whose bites are sometimes fatal. The danger in oneself is a loss of consciousness (especially during diving), heat stroke (most often after a jump into water), leading to cardiac arrest, heart attacks and strokes that occur when you plunge immensely into very cold water. And do not think that danger lies in wait for swimmers only in open water – chemicals added to the pool water can also have a negative impact on the body of athletes, in addition, some bacteria and microscopic parasites are resistant to chlorine, and can also harm the body bather. In addition, excessive passion for this or that style of swimming is also capable of producing a negative effect. For example, a butterfly can provoke pain in the back and shoulders, and, in exceptional cases, lead to a fracture of the spine. Fans of the brass often experience pain in the knee and hip joints. However, in the first place, such damage can only occur if a person is engaged in swimming professionally. An hour of training a day can not lead to injuries 5-6 times a week. Secondly, many injuries during swimming can be avoided by performing special exercises that help to strengthen, relax and stretch muscles and tendons that are most stressed during training (for example, the latissimus muscles of the back and the quadriceps muscle of the thigh), as well as swimming in different styles. The lesson should begin with a warm-up, and at the end perform a so-called “hitch” – some time to swim at a slow pace, giving time to the body to go into normal mode of operation. To avoid dehydration, you need to drink as much water as possible before and after your workout. To reduce the likelihood of diseases of the nasal cavity, you should use special clamps, and to protect against cold after visiting the pool, you must carefully dry your hair, put on a hat and scarf if training is like in the cold season.

Chlorine perfectly disinfects water in swimming pool.

Yes, this kind of decontamination is quite effective, but some microscopic parasites (for example, Cryptosporidium) are resistant to chlorine and, entering the esophagus, lead to an illness, one of the signs of which is diarrhea.

Chlorinated water adversely affects the skin and hair of swimmers.

Unfortunately, it really is. Chlorine can remain dry for a long time on the skin, even after careful washing, and an overestimated pH of the water often causes irritation of the skin and eyes.After a long drying effect of chlorinated water on the hair, they can change the structure (from straight lines become curly) or color (blondes become much lighter, and blonde hair sometimes acquires a greenish tint due to the fact that chlorine can dissolve copper). In order to reduce the above-described effect, you should use moisturizers for hair (for example, vaseline oil) and wear a bathing cap and special glasses before entering the pool.

People who suffer from ear diseases are not recommended for swimming.

No, ear disease or auricle is often not a hindrance to swimming, but before starting workouts, you should consult a specialist. The doctor will determine whether it is possible to deal with swimming with this or that ear disease, and, perhaps, recommend special gag plugs that prevent water from entering the auricle.

People with diseases of the respiratory system should not be engaged in swimming.

Evaporation of chlorine, inhaled for a long time, can have a negative effect on the lungs, and are particularly harmful to people with asthma. However, this kind of problem can easily be solved by choosing a pool with good ventilation, and even better – located in the open air, or swimming in open water, preferably freshwater, since the evaporation of salt water can create a foam in the lungs, thus making breathing difficult .

People with various diseases of the musculoskeletal system, or with a coordination of movements, swimming is contraindicated.

Absolutely mistaken opinion. Because water provides buoyancy, at the same time, having high resistance, swimming is sometimes necessary for the disabled and people recovering from surgery (of course, provided the healing of the post-operative sutures is complete). These people, of course, do not aspire to sports records, but perform various strengthening and aerobic exercises in the water under the supervision of a medical worker. It should be remembered that swimming exercises improve the flexibility of the joints (especially the shoulder and ankle), enhance the body’s immunity and endurance. In addition, training of this kind contribute to improving blood circulation in the abdominal cavity (effective prevention of varicose veins), protect against pain in the back area. Useful swimming with arthritis and with curvature of the spine (scoliosis, osteochondrosis, lordosis, and kyphosis, most often observed in old people), help to form a correct posture in both children and adults. For example, if there is scoliosis, it is best to swim with a crochet (especially with one hand – this helps to inflate the muscles of one side and stretch the muscles of the other side of the trunk) or breaststroke, extending the slip phase. Brass (dolphin) on the back helps to get rid of lordosis and kyphosis. Moreover – in some cases, people suffering from certain ailments not only get rid of them through swimming, but also achieve considerable success in this sport. For example, three times defeated at the Olympic Games, Don Fraser (Australia) began to engage in this sport after her polio. And Michael Phelps (America), who won the Olympics 14 times and the 23-time world champion, by way of navigation overcame problems with coordination of movements (he could not concentrate, as a result, he often ran into various household items).

Swimming has a negative impact on the female figure.

This can happen only if, for many hours of daily training, a fair sex representative will swim with the same style – for example, a crochet. In this case, it is really possible to increase the volume of some muscles of the upper half of the trunk, which can adversely affect the figure.To avoid the above-described effect, you should devote an equal amount of time to different styles during classes: start with a rabbit that develops the muscles of the posterior and anterior surface of the body, after about 50 minutes go to the breast that promotes the trapezoidal and lateral muscles, and at the end give some time to swimming on the back. In this case, the muscles will be evenly strengthened, and thus the feminine outline of the figure will remain.

You can swim pregnant and even need to.

Indeed, moderate physical activity (including swimming) to future mothers is useful. However, it should be borne in mind that intensive swimming, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy, can lead to a violation of the fetus blood supply, and if exercises that load the abdominal muscles or exercises with weight gain are added to this, miscarriage may occur.

It is impossible to lose weight from swimming.

Much depends on how active, regular and prolonged swimming is. After all, in order to lose excess pounds, you should practice at least a few hours a day. In addition, after a visit to a swimming pool, people usually feel very hungry – this can lead to overeating, due to which the weights dropped during the lessons will return with interest. However, if the above-described factors are not a problem, swimming is an invaluable helper. After all, loads from water resistance contribute to increased blood circulation, strengthen the cardiovascular and respiratory system, form a correct posture, accelerate metabolism, and also massage the body well. In addition, in cool water with a fairly high intensity of movements, metabolism is accelerated very quickly, and many calories are wasted. It should be noted that the most calories can be “burned” while swimming with a butterfly, which should alternate with a crawl. The most relaxing style is the breaststroke. If none of the styles of swimming you do not like – you can do aqua aerobics, which is also very conducive to losing weight. Because imitation in the water of running or dancing movements will require much more effort than on land, and at the same time, the load on the body will be felt a little less. And for aqua aerobics, you do not need to know how to swim.

It is best to swim in the pool with warm water.

The optimal temperature is considered to be the water temperature in the pool from +23 to +27 ° C. If the water is colder, it serves as a source of unpleasant sensations, and at times can lead to hypothermia. In warmer water the swimmer relaxes excessively, becomes sluggish and apathetic.

Swimming boards and spatulas for swimming are used only by beginners.

Yes, devices of this kind are used in the initial stages when learning to swim, since they help to keep on the surface of water without much difficulty. However, in the future they are useful, they are only used for a different purpose – to strengthen the strokes with hands (feet) and introduce novelty and diversity into the classes. For example, keeping your hands on the board, you can strengthen the muscles of the thighs or legs, and strengthen the muscles of the arms and shoulder belt, if you hold the same board or circle with your feet during the voyage. And to increase the resistance of water, which requires more effort to overcome, not only boards and spatulas, but also swimsuits with special pockets, or simply a bathing suit of a slightly larger size than a swimmer needs to be worn over the ordinary.

Swimming competitions can take place in swimming pools of different lengths.

Indeed, nowadays the program of the competitions includes swimmings both on “long water” (50-100 meters) and on “short water” (25 meters). But it was not always so. For example, the rules adopted by FINA in 1908 stated that although world records can be recorded in pools that are 25 meters long, only 50 to 100 meters long pools should be used for official international competitions.The fact is that the results in the shorter basins are somewhat higher, due to the greater number of turns, which reduces the total time needed to overcome the distance. Since May 1, 1957, according to FINA’s decision, world records could be set only on “long water”. If the record was set in a smaller pool – it was to be repeated on “long water” and re-registered. However, the situation changed in the mid-80s of the last century, when competitions in swimming pools, which were 25 meters in length, gained great popularity. Since the end of 1988, the multi-stage World Cup, according to the decision of FINA, was held on “short water”. Since 1993, the world championships for this sport have been held in 25-meter pools. And world records can be registered not only at any stage of the competition, but also at one of the stages of the swim.

International swimming competitions are held only in closed water bodies.

Wrong opinion. Since the end of the XIX century, competitions have been held for long distances in open reservoirs. In the program of world championships this type of competition (distance – 25 km) has been included since 1991. Since 1998, the world championships in swimming in open water for a distance of 5 km, with 2000 – 10 km (this distance has become since 2008 Olympic).

Tracks in the pool are distributed among swimmers arbitrarily.

This is not true. During the competition, the 4th track (located in the middle) is reserved for the swimmer, who showed the best result at the previous stage or during the preliminary swim. In training, beginning athletes, moving at a low speed, should move along the tracks located at the edge of the pool, trying not to interfere with other swimmers. More rapid and experienced athletes on the contrary need to adhere to the middle of the pool, as well as carefully examine the path before jumping from the curbstone. If there was a need to cross the pool – it should be done only in the middle.

If the swimmer starts before the start signal is given, he will be disqualified.

Yes, however, if the swimmer did so as a result of erroneous actions of the judge – a false start will not be counted.

One dolphin movement is allowed during the “breaststroke” style swimming.

Indeed, the movement of the legs downwards is allowed to be performed during or after a full stroke by hands, and only after turning or starting.

Judges in swimming competitions must be at least 10.

The composition of the judiciary is usually as follows: the chief referee and his deputies (up to 4 people, one of whom is a doctor), two referees, starters, a judge at the false start cord, judges at the finish, judges on swimming techniques (on each side of the pool, and at international competitions – on each side of the pool). In addition, the composition of the board includes judge-seconds (the senior referee and his assistants – 3 per track, and 2 additional – if you do not use the automatic time recording system), referees at corners, referees at participants, judge informants, judges for doping control, awarding judges, as well as the referee-coordinator. At the competitions, the chief secretary and his deputy, secretaries, are also mandatory. And the participant of competitions can address to the judge exclusively through the representative of the command.

In the relay swimming of veteran swimmers athletes of the same age category must take part.

The age category is taken into account only for individual swimmings, for relaying the same swimming the sum of the ages of team members in whole years is calculated.

To determine your level of preparedness in swimming is quite difficult.

Yes, to determine the level of the athlete – the task of the coach. However, there are some signs that you can roughly measure your achievements.For example, the indicators of the average level of preparedness: • for people younger than 35 years – the ability to swim 90-95 meters (100 yards) in less than 2 minutes and about 914 meters (1000 yards) in 22 minutes;
• for middle-aged people, the first indicator is 2.5 minutes, the second – 25 minutes; • for people over 60, the first indicator is about 3 minutes, the second – from 27 to 30 minutes.
To the category of experienced swimmers, you can safely be ranked in the event that you are able to swim more than 3 kilometers without stopping.

Children can learn to swim from 4 years.

It is believed that it is from this age that children are able to swim on their own. However, in recent years there has been an increased interest in so-called baby breastfeeding. Children begin to learn to move in the water from the first months of life (the optimal age is 1-3 months), while the baby still has congenital reflexes that help him easily master the science of swimming and diving – after 9 months of intrauterine development, he spent exactly in a liquid medium . Scientists believe that the practice of breastfeeding promotes the improvement of metabolism, trains the cardiovascular, respiratory system, strengthens muscles and ligaments, and improves metabolism. In addition, children become more calm, sleep better, they start to sit, walk and talk earlier. Teaching swimming for young children is not so difficult, but at first it is best to entrust the lessons with the child to a specialist, and only gain experience to conduct them independently. If the baby has cyanosis or “marbling” of the skin, “goosebumps”, there are short-term stops of breathing, or the exercises lead to overexcitation – it is better to refrain from swimming. Contraindications are also all diseases in the acute stage.

An hour before the swimming session, the child must be fed.

This is not entirely true, especially if the baby is less than 2 years old. The last meal (especially dairy) should take place no later than 2-3 hours before the swimming lesson.

During swimming lessons, parents can observe the child.

Of course, this is so. However, if the child is afraid and concentrates his attention on the mother or father, who, in his opinion, can help him, simply pulling out of the water – the instructor’s efforts can be wasted. Therefore, it is best for parents to be out of sight of the baby, at least until he begins to trust the coach.

If the child is afraid or does not want to swim, he should visit the pool as little as possible.

Conversely, the more resistance and fear – the more often there should be classes (3 to 7 times a week). Experienced instructors will make every effort to make swimming first in the child’s sense of safety, and then become a pleasure for him. When the attitude towards lessons changes, the frequency of visits to the pool can be reduced to 1-2 times a week.

You can visit the swimming pool at any time.

This is not quite true. According to experts, the best time for swimming is from 7 to 9 and from 18 to 20 hours, when the body is as relaxed as possible, and will best take this type of training.

A child attending a swimming section becomes physically strong and balanced, and in the future will be able to earn a lot by showing himself in sports.

Indeed, all of the above effects from swimming are taking place. Such children are accustomed to discipline and a rigid regime, usually well learn, restrained, polite, calm. Swimming has a positive effect on the physical development of the adolescent – posture improves, the chest widens, the muscles of the shoulder girdle strengthen. And the children who are engaged in this sport are growing quite fast, gaining a fortress of bone structure, flexibility, endurance, excellent coordination. And at the same time, the load on the joints is much less than, for example, during heavy or athletics, jogging or jumping.In addition, professional athletes earn well, enjoy universal respect, sometimes participate in advertising campaigns, which also promises a considerable income. However, there are swimming lessons (especially professional ones) and negative aspects. Firstly, most often children who regularly visit the swimming section have very little free time, so they grow up quite unsociable. Training in the university is given to them with great difficulty, since the assimilation of a large amount of information and almost daily training to combine is not easy. At the end of a sports career, no matter how successful she was, it is difficult for former sportsmen to get a job, since they have no experience in any kind of activity. In addition, with age, professional swimmers have some specific diseases (pains in the spine and joints, chronic rhinitis, “swimmer’s ear,” etc.), which does not contribute to an excellent well-being and progress through the career ladder.

Suits for swimming are not easy to pick up.

For beginners, ordinary swimming trunks are quite suitable, and athletes can do with a double swimsuit (the main thing is that it is not too big, and at the same time, so that it does not sting in the shoulders and around the legs). But the professionals are really recently wondering – which suit is better? In times of ancient olympiads, when swimmers competed naked, a problem of this kind simply could not arise. A lot of difficulties with bathing suits were experienced by athletes who performed at the first modern Olympic Games, as their suits, sewn from cotton fabric and almost completely covered the body, quickly became wet, heavier and, thus, reduced the speed of swimmers. This problem was solved in the 30s of the last century, when silk swimming trunks began to be very popular, and completely stopped worrying athletes when modern swimming overalls made of synthetic materials (nylon, lycra, etc.) – light, strong, waterproof – appeared. However, in the future, another problem arose: the newest high-tech suits that appeared in the mid-90s of the last century and close the body of a swimmer almost completely, thanks to the efforts of specialists, can help the athlete achieve significant accelerations, for example, by reducing the coefficient of friction or redistribution of water “twists” “around his body. For this reason, FINA has obliged since 2010 all swimmers to perform in textile suits.

Men swim faster than women.

This is indeed so. However, in swimming for long distances, women usually show better results than men swimmers. Experts explain this by the fact that more fat tissue in women allows them, first, to produce more energy, and secondly – to spend less effort to keep afloat.

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