is one of the types of skiing. It is a descent from the mountains on special devices (skis) on the previously prepared routes. Extremely popular as one of the types of outdoor activities, especially in the winter. There are such disciplines of skiing:
Downhill – passing a specially prepared track (which is laid along the natural relief of the slope, and provides for passage through the gates of the gates, overcoming the trampolines, turns, hillocks, ridges, etc.) for as short a period of time as possible. The route is marked on both sides by colored lines on snow or bright flags, there are guide gates on it – double girders with red and blue flags of rectangular shape. Athletes in some cases can develop speeds up to 140 km / h, the length of the flight when jumping can be from 40 to 50 m. This kind of skiing is included in the program of the Winter Olympic Games.
(from the Norwegian “descending track”) – the fastest descent from the mountain on skis, in which the athlete must pass through the whole gate (if the skier missed the gate or crossed them with only one ski, he is eliminated from the number of competing) . The length of the route is from 450 to 500 m, the difference in altitude between the starting and finishing points is from 60 to 150 m; the width of the gate installed on the track is from 3.5 to 4 m, the distance between them can range from 0.7 to 15 meters. Skiers develop a speed of up to 40 km / h, while summarizing the results demonstrated by athletes during descents along two different routes. Since 1931, slalom and high-speed descent for men and women have been included in the program of the world championships in alpine skiing.
Giant slalom (giant slalom) and supergiant
– descent from the mountain on skis is carried out in compliance with the rules of the slalom. The difference is that the length of the route is from 800 to 2000 m, the height difference between the start and finish is 200-500 m, the width of the gate installed on the track is 8 meters. Overcoming the distance, skiers can reach speeds of up to 65 km / h, while summing up the final results takes into account the results of two descents (for male athletes) or one (for women).
(from the word mugl, which in the Vienna dialect of German means “small hill”) – one of the types of ski freestyle – descent from a fairly steep hillocky slope and the implementation of jumps on the trampolines. The hillocks (moguls) on the slopes are formed during the performance of small-radius turns by skiers (most often on routes that can not be leveled due to steepness, obstacles, small widths, etc.) or are specially constructed using technical means (for example, ratrak) for the competition. Mogul has been included in the program of the Winter Olympic Games since 1988.
– the founder of ski freestyle – doing tricks on skis. Olympic sport since 1994.
(from the English new school “new school”) – one of the directions of freestyle, highlighted in the late 90s of the last century. In style, this type of skiing resembles snowboarding, and, unlike freestyle, is free from the limitations of the complexity of the elements performed. Initially, the representatives of this area skied exclusively in snowboard parks, later moved to specially prepared tracks and even to city streets (riding around railing, boxes, walls (“wall” and rclasse – “ride”) and rails from the English rails – “railing, hedge.”)
In our time, the New School is divided into such subspecies:
(English half-pipe – “drainage trough”) – riding in a U-shaped half-pipe;
(from English big-air – “big air”) – the athlete disperses and jumps from a springboard, in . Full thus various tricks flight length is from 5 to 30 m;
(from the English.slope – “slope, mountain for skiing” and style – “style”) – competition consisting in the virtuoso performance of jumps and acrobatic stunts on a specially equipped track (trampolines, pyramids, rails, counter-slopes, etc.);
(from the English ski – “cross-country ski” and cross – “cross”) – skiing on a specially equipped track (trampolines, waves, bends, etc.). At the first stage of the competition (qualification), the skiers pass the track one by one. In accordance with the results shown, they are divided into groups of 4 people to participate in the final race, taking place according to the Olympic scheme (with elimination);
(from English speed – “ski” and ski – “skis”) – a competition for downhill skiing in a straight, well-prepared track. The goal is to go the distance with maximum speed. Features of the equipment – on the toes of skis are placed lead plates, before the attachments are installed handles, which make it easy to maintain the position of deep squat, on the shoulders of the athlete fixed inflatable fairing. The maximum speed developed by a skier with this type of descent was recorded in 1999 – 248,105 km / h. This achievement belongs to an athlete from Austria, Harry Egger.
(from the English Telemark – “turn with skiing”) is a kind of skiing that originated in Telemark (Norway) thanks to the efforts of Sondre Norheim (Aversen), who managed to systematize the knowledge and techniques of descent from the mountains. In telemark equipment, besides traditional skis with telescopic sticks, there is a special pole (lurg).
(from the English free rclasse – “free riding”) – descent, carried out on alpine skiing outside the prepared trails (best of all on untouched snow). The main dangers of this type of riding are the danger of avalanches and difficulties in providing medical assistance in case of injury. Therefore, the freeride athlete should not only be well prepared physically, but also adequately equipped, familiar with the rules of behavior on the mountain slope. In some cases, the services of an experienced guide are mandatory.
Types of riding:
– athletes climb the mountain on the ski lifts, then descend through the unspoiled snow;
(from English back country) – Descent on virgin snow, preceded by climbing mountains that are not equipped with a lift;
(from the English ski – “ski”, tour – “travel, trekking”) – a hike, providing for periodic climbing to the mountains and descent through snowy virgin lands on special light skis;
(from English heli – “helicopter” and ski – “skis”) or heliboarding (from English heli – “helicopter” and board – “board”) – skiers are thrown to the top of the mountain by helicopter. In some places this type of freeride is prohibited;
– skiing in the snow using a snowmobile (motorcycle) as a draft force (the principle of water skiing).
There are also such skiing styles:
(Allround, Recreation, recreation, recreation) is not divided into levels, it is not characterized by clearly defined techniques. Most often, people who choose this style of riding, do not strive to achieve sports results, but simply try to derive maximum benefit and enjoyment from the very process of skiing with the sparkling whiteness of the snow-covered slope;
– skating outside prepared trails. There are two directions of freeride: a freeride proper, which presupposes skiing in any conditions (soft and hard snow, ice, stones, etc.) and “Powder” – descent through deep fluffy snow. Sometimes during the descent freeriders not only make jumps from various kinds of hills, using them as springboards, but also perform a variety of acrobatic stunts;
Fancarving or extreme carving
(from the English.carving – “cut”) – descent from the mountain on special carving skis, which includes steep turns (not only in the sides, but also in a circle). Differences in technology – severely cut corners, wide skiing with a deep inclination inside the turn, refusal to use ski poles.
New School of Freestyle, freestyle “new school”, modern freestyle
– skating, which involves performing various tricks, jumping from the springboards, riding in the chute (halfpipe), riding on rails and rails.
Alpine skiing is the most traumatic sport, especially for children.
No, injuries are extremely rare in children’s alpine skiing, as experienced trainers correctly equip and equip young athletes one by one on the slope (which eliminates the potential for collision with another skier). At a higher level, older athletes do have injuries. There are several reasons: incorrectly selected and adjusted ski attachments (after all, amateurs are engaged in this independently, considering themselves competent enough, the result – dislocations and fractures after falls); revaluation of their forces; poor organization of traffic on the slope, resulting in the skating collide at full speed. That’s why both novice athletes and professionals are required to comply with FIS rules: be attentive to other skiers; control the speed and method of descent, as well as correctly choose the trajectory of motion; Avoid stops in poorly visible bottlenecks, show attention to signs. At the same time, according to statistics, skiing is much less traumatic than, for example, hockey or football.
Slalom originated in Norway.
Indeed, descent on the mountain slopes has been extremely popular in Norway since ancient times – for a long time local people competed among themselves in the art of downhill skiing from the mountains in Hopmenkollen near Christiania (now the city of Oslo). At the competitions that were held in 1767, 4 prizes were held among the skiers, who faced the task: to walk along the slope, overgrown with bushes and trees, trying not to fall down and break the skis. Another 6 prizes were fought by brave men who descended from a steep slope without the help of ski poles. In those days, there was no distinction between skiing and alpine skiing – the technique of skiing began to develop somewhat later, in the Norwegian province of Telemark. In 1875, in the same Norwegian Christiania, the world’s first ski club was founded, and in 1877 a ski school opened at the club. In 1879, the first skiing competitions were held on Mount Goose near Christiania. However, some experts believe that the founders of skiing were the inhabitants of Austria – it was in the Alps since 1905 that official competitions began on this sport discipline.
Ski freestyle appeared at the beginning of the last century.
Indeed, it is considered to be the date of birth of this type of skiing in 1930 – that’s when Norwegian skiers began to include acrobatic stunts into the program of training in running and downhill skiing. However, some researchers insist that the first acrobatic jump on skis was made back in 1860. To this we can add that Stein Erickson developed ski acrobatics in the 1950s, and freestyle competitions, as an alternative to traditional ski disciplines, began to be held from the beginning of the 60s. In the 60-70s, ski freestyle (first called “hot dogging”) continued to develop, and soon three modern trends – mogul, ski acrobatics and ski ballet – emerged from one discipline, involving the demonstration of technique and performing tricks of one’s choice.
First, a new style of riding – carving, and then – the corresponding inventory.
This is not true.At first, skis were created with a new (carving) geometry, and only a little later there were people trying to use all the possibilities of the new model of a special form, sometimes equipped with lift plates, allowing to raise the boot over the snow surface by 8-10 cm, which is ideal for extreme carving.
The equipment of the skier is extremely expensive.
Undoubtedly, professional athletes spend on equipment quite impressive sums. A beginner skier enough to buy a strong helmet, quality ski boots (maximum 100 €) and comfortable warm clothes. Skis, sticks, bindings, etc. at first you can not buy – all this is provided in sports schools and sections. Over time, gaining experience, you can buy and own equipment, the cost of which – about 250 €, and if the kit is used – then in 50 € you can keep up.
It is best to start skiing from the age of 11-12.
There are no age restrictions in this sport. You can start in 4-6, and in 11-12, and in 14-15 years. Yes, and retirement age is not an obstacle for mountain skiing.
Skiing can be practiced only by people who are healthy, possessing great physical strength and endurance.
Of course, when it comes to extreme skating, you can not do without good training. And to master the basics of this sport physical data are not important (in some cases people with almost completely atrophied muscles, quite respectable age – and achieved considerable successes) – intellect is much more important. In the ski schools, as a rule, accept all comers, and only on the person himself, how much he will advance in mastering all the subtleties of this sport.
Alpine skiing is an occupation for the rich.
On the contrary, it is one of the most democratic sports. In many ski schools and training sections are free or not very expensive (although in some “untwisted” places prices are really sky-high), and all the pupils get to summer camps in the mountains, regardless of the thickness of the purse of parents. True, official sports schools are not always conveniently located, but a gentle schedule allows you to put up with this problem. The only downside – in order to skate all year round, you should really have a fairly large amount of money. If you do not have one, you have to get used to seasonal breaks in training.
The most prestigious are sports skis.
Of all the variety of sport skis (skis for slalom, slalom giant, supergiant, downhill, freestyle) for lovers fit skis for slalom-giant, although with appropriate training skiers who prefer high speeds and are not afraid of hard slopes can use the slalom skiing and skiing for mogul (descent along the hillocks). It should be remembered that sport skis are usually designed for high speed, ice-cold tracks, because the amateur will not bring pleasure to them. The easiest way is to purchase universal skis that have all the attributes of sports (for example, competition, equip, racing, etc.) in the design. Products of this kind are easily controlled, allow for a decent speed to descend and at the same time serve as a means of satisfying the owner’s ambitions.
Skiing for amateurs and beginners is suitable for skiing.
This is true, but it should be noted that this type of sports equipment is divided into several groups:
skis for children and juniors – are distinguished by high controllability at low speeds and ease of making turns;
skis for progressive skiers are designed specifically for aggressive skiers, whose goal is self-improvement in this sport;
skis “expert” are suitable for descent on various routes with different snow cover conditions.They are high-level, stable in corners, and are designed for quite experienced skiers;
skis for amateur athletes and skis for downhill runs are characterized by good handling (even in hard snow) and less sensitivity to technical errors than sports models. However, on ice-lined tracks, at high speeds, such skis show themselves worse than sports;
special types of mountain skiing – specially designed lightweight products for ski trips (ski tour), for extreme descents on steep slopes (ski extremes), for descents on virgin slopes and for telemarking technology.
When choosing a ski, you need to consider the length, rigidity and specification of the product, the remaining parameters do not matter.
This is not quite true. To avoid some annoying misunderstandings in the future, in addition to the above parameters, attention should be paid to the radius of the side cutout, which is most suitable for your chosen way of riding.
For radical carving, it is best to purchase skis with a minimum side cut (preferably about 10 m), the ideal choice is skis for slalom, radical carving or a softer model, the geometry of which generally corresponds to skis for special slalom. Ski poles in this sport are almost unnecessary, but gloves with a reinforced Kevlar palm are very useful;
For skyscraper, slalom, slalom giant, you should choose the product whose side cutout radius is at least 15 meters (unless, of course, you set yourself the goal to go through slalom turns with maximum speed – in this case you will have to use skis with a radius of 10-12 m). And to achieve the width and smoothness of delineating the arcs, you need to buy a model with a radius of 16-18 m. It is good, of course, to get the latest, improved model, but keep in mind that such skis are extremely demanding for the track and, to ride them, high level of skill;
If your choice is a snow park or New School, – when buying skis, give preference to models with curved heels and a minimum own radius. However, it should be noted that the smaller the radius, the more difficult it is to land after a jump;
For universal riding on broken uncivilized slopes (freestyle) outside specially laid trails, skiing for freeride and universal models for carving (for example, allmountain – from the English “skis for the whole mountain”) are best. The radius of the side cutout of the model should not exceed 20 m, so that when going to the prepared slope you do not have to change skis;
могу For moguls, mild skis with a rather soft toe, medium stiffness level, narrow ones with a side cutout radius of 20 to 25 m are preferable. (
) It is best to give preference to shorter skies at the beginning of the training.
Not necessary. When choosing skis, in addition to the level of training of a skier (beginner, intermediate, athlete), his constitution and physique (sturdy and stocky or thin and tall), age, sex, and intentions are taken into account. For example, short skis (mini) are best suited for evolutionary (sequential) training, providing frequent changes of skis from a length of 100-135 cm to 160 cm.
Skis compact (compact), whose length ranges from 150 to 190 cm, differ high maneuverability even in deep snow, narrow waist giving many advantages at bends, and therefore are ideal for mastering cut slip. In addition, it should be borne in mind that the shortest skis are the most manageable, but when skiing down a hard, icey slope at higher speeds, longer skis are preferred.
When choosing the length of the ski, be sure to take into consideration the recommendations of the manufacturer. In accordance with the nomogram, you can easily determine the desired length of the product, simply by drawing a line through the indicators corresponding to your height and weight.At the same time, a correction should be made for the level of preparedness (a beginner skier should choose his product on the line below, experienced and aggressive – a line above the parameters obtained) and gender (women will be approached by skis located two lines below those indicated in the nomogram for their growth and complexion).
The most expensive skis are sports.
Most often it is really so. However, at times the price of tourist skis of the class “expert”, which create the latest achievements in the technology of production of this type of sporting equipment, can be higher.
специализи For the first steps in the development of freeride, specialized skis of “entry level” will do.
This is not quite true. The success of the freeride development process largely depends on the quality of the equipment used. And high-quality equipment for this type of skiing, in particular, junior freeriding models, are not suitable for training, and for ordinary skating on prepared slopes. Therefore, in the initial stages, you should choose to ski freestyle freestyle (FR / FS), which is suitable for both the development of off-piste and simple skating. And it is recommended to choose skis of smaller growth, than it is specified in the nomogram for your physical parameters – with them the beginner will be easier to cope with.
The rigidity of the skis is the same throughout the length of the product.
The rigidity is distributed differently along the length of the ski, depending on the type and purpose of the sports equipment. For example, in slalom and sports skis the central part (the horse) is softer than the skis for the giant slalom. And the tourist’s central part is stiffer, and the sock and back are softer than sports skis. Such design features are due to the specifics of the slopes on which these or those skis will be used (for example, the tourist skis are designed for skiing on a softer snow cover, the sport is designed for gliding over a more rigid, well-compacted surface of a specially prepared track). A softer heel and a sock of skis for a snowpark are designed to make a landing after the jump as comfortable as possible.
It is difficult for an inexperienced skier to determine the quality of the skis and to correctly select the required rigidity of the product.
Indeed, at first it is best to contact an experienced instructor in a section, a ski club or a tourist base. But there are ways to check the quality of the product, and even a beginner is required to know about them. First, the skis must be flat, not deformed. If the sharp squeezing of the skis, set to each other sliding surfaces, you hear a deaf sound – in front of you a product of good quality. The softness of the skis is also easy to check. To do this, put them vertically sliding surfaces to each other and the thumb and forefinger of one hand try to squeeze the skis in the center. Usually, with normal rigidity, such a force is sufficient to contact the products. However, it should be remembered that in this way it is impossible to determine the distribution of rigidity along the length of the ski, and it is this factor that influences their maneuverability. For example, soft skis (especially equipped with a soft toe) are more maneuverable, and more rigid ones are just a find for an energetic skier.
Experienced athletes feel even a slight difference in the design of skis.
This is indeed so. It is established that a good specialist is able to even feel such changes as 5% of stiffness, 2% of length and 4% of the width of the product. After reducing the length of the ski by 10 cm, its weight decreases by almost 130 grams, the width decreases by 1 mm, and the rigidity increases by 3%. However, the difference between quality and mediocre products can be felt even by beginners.
All skis are bent only in front.
No, there are twin-tip lizards (twin tip – “two ends”) that resemble a snowboard and are bent both front and back.This feature of the design allows you to slide both face and back forward. Most often, the twin type is used in mogul and some freestyle varieties.
Buying the most expensive skis is the key to success in mastering the skills and skills of skiing.
This is not true. For money you can buy a good inventory and hire a professional trainer, but knowledge, skills and skills come in the course of practical training, and for quite some time.
On skis, you can ride in any clothes, if only it was comfortable and warm.
In the initial stages of training, you can really dress as you like. However, later, when the increased level of skill will allow you to devote to skiing for quite some time, care should be taken to ensure that such classes are held in the most comfortable conditions, which directly depends on the correct selection of equipment. For example, cotton underwear absorbs sweat well, and therefore remains moist for a long time. This leads not only to discomfort, but also to hypothermia. But the linen made of synthetic fabrics (polarthek, polyester) has less hygroscopicity, therefore, more suitable for skiers and snowboarders. Choosing socks, it is also best to give preference to products made of polyamide, polypropylene, polyacryl or a combination of wool with elastane (lycra). In addition to the above details of the equipment, you should buy a warm fleece sweatshirt, and when buying a suit, make sure that the lining is made of WindBloSk or WindStop material – in this case you will be reliably protected from the cold wind.
Skating in the Alps is very expensive, so you should give preference to the ski resorts of the Caucasus.
Indeed, a visit to Dombai will cost you about half the cost of an equivalent in duration trip to the Alps. However, we take into account the difference in the service. After all, any skier, whether professional or amateur, goes to the mountains, for the most part, for the sake of one – to ride. Therefore, accommodation and time of skiing should be paid. How are things at different ski resorts? In Alpine resorts, the athlete’s time will be roughly as follows: 10% – standing in line, 45% – climbing the slope, 45% – descent. And in the Caucasus, because of the huge queues for the lift, time is distributed as follows: standing in the queue – 30 minutes (ie 60%), climbing – 10 minutes (20%), descent – 10 minutes (20%). From all the above, we conclude: in the Alps, the time of pure skating is almost twice as high as that at the ski resorts of the Caucasus. To this it is also necessary to add a variety of Alpine routes and highly organized service for children, than domestic resorts, alas, can not yet boast.
Staying at a ski resort, you need to start skating from the first day.
This is not true. Consider that in the mountains there is more rarefied air, therefore one should wait at least one day, allowing the body to adapt to the lack of oxygen. In addition, be sure to arrange for yourself a rest days, devoting them to excursions or visiting health procedures.
If you regularly visit a gym or fitness club, you will not feel any discomfort in the ski resort – after all the muscles are thoroughly prepared for the expected loads.
Unfortunately, this is not the case. The thing is that when training sports, one muscle groups are trained, and when a person gets on the skis (snowboard) – other, more often not very trained muscles are involved in the work. Therefore, on the second day after the ride, pain in the body is observed in many beginning athletes. To reduce the above-mentioned pain effect to a minimum, you should ride on the first day no more than 60 minutes, in the following days, extending the time on the slope for 30-50 minutes. If pain still arose – some medications will help. For example, “AE-vit”, a detoxifying substance that causes muscle pain.Also, a positive effect will be visiting the sauna or taking a hot bath with sea salt, followed by rubbing the body and applying anti-inflammatory ointment (“Finalgon”, “Fastum-gel”, etc.) to the skin. The above methods will help maximum after 2 days to eliminate pain in the muscles.
Those who do not know how to ski, go to the mountains to anything.
Like any other resort, skiing, besides skiing, provides a wide range of additional services for vacationers: skating and sledging, horseback riding and hiking, spa treatments, etc. In addition, a few days of outdoor activities, among the picturesque nature will help you to strengthen health, get rid of stress, forget about anxieties and everyday problems, harmonize the daily routine.