Crossbow (French arbalète from Latin arcaballista, arcus – “arc” and ballisto – “throw”, other names – crossbow or balestra) – a type of throwing weapon. This is a mechanical bow consisting of a wooden bed (with a trigger set inside it), equipped with a guide groove for arrows. At the end of the bed are elastic elements (shoulders), made of horn, wood or steel, mounted on a cross.
The first crossbows, called “gastropods” (“abdominal bows”) because of the fact that the arrow had to be pinched on him with the stomach, were invented in Syracuse in the 5th century BC, was widely used in the Hellenistic period . During the reign of the Romans, the toast was forgotten (only carrobalists were used (giant crossbows mounted on carts), which, incidentally, the Romans at first preferred to capture from enemies, and not create independently).
Only in the III-V centuries. AD Crossbows, called manubalists, again began to be used by the Romans in battle. This weapon was used in Europe until the 6th century, then again it was forgotten for several centuries – before the beginning of the Crusades (although on some engravings of the 10th-13th centuries one can see images of crossbowmen).
Parallel to China in the II century BC. e. (according to some written sources – in the IV century BC), similar weapons were invented, somewhat different in design from the mentioned gastrofets. Chinese crossbows were successfully used to fight the Huns (the Han Dynasty), afterwards they were undeservedly forgotten, and were invented again in the 11th century.
The crossbow frenzy in Europe began to grow after the Second World War. The International Crossbow Shooting Union (IAU), which initially united only shooters of the match direction, was created in 1956 in Belgium, and 2 years later the first European championship in this sport was held.
It was during these competitions that rules were developed for shooting arbalests. Since 1977, under the jurisdiction of the IAU are competitions and field shooting. The World Championship in this sport was first held in 1979 in Linz (Austria).
Rules of shooting from the crossbow were developed in 1958.
Yes, however, it was only after almost 20 years (in 1977), based on the experience of many competitions, that the International Crossbow Union finally approved the rules of the competition for this sport.
In Russia crossbow sport was recognized only in 1993.
This is not quite true. Shooting from a crossbow was officially recognized as a sport in 1991, but competitions for this sport were really allowed only since 1993. Despite this, already in July 1994, Russian athletes performed quite successfully at the World Championships in the German city of Wiesbaden, and these days are among the five strongest teams in the world.
Competitions in archery and crossbow shooting are similar in many respects.
Yes, especially when it comes to field crossbows (first appeared in the US, shooting from this type of weapon was recognized as an official discipline in 1979). Competitions in these types of shooting sport are held outdoors and indoors, and the difference in distances is not so great: 35, 50 and 65 m outdoors, 10 and 18 m in the room (archers compete at distances of 30, 50, 60, 70, 90 m, as well as 18 and 25 m indoors). And the five-color target is similar to the one used during archery competitions. Its diameter can be 25 cm (for indoor shooting) and 60 cm (for open air competitiveness competitions). Even arrows for field crossbows are feathered, like arrows. Competitions for 3-D targets (three-dimensional images of animals, arranged along the route, along which the arrows should follow, looking for goals and “defining the distance” by eye) are also conducted according to the same rules as archery competitions of this kind.But the competitions in the match class (this division exists since 1956) are conducted by non-arched arrows of special shape (their thickness varies smoothly from 12 mm in the head and tail to 5 mm in the middle, and the tips are threaded, which prevents the possibility of bouncing such an arrow from the target ). The shooting takes place either in the premises or at specially equipped shooting ranges at distances of 10 and 30 meters along the targets, the diameter of which is 13.97 cm, the area of ”tens” is 13.7 mm, I “apple” (usually black) – 9, 7 mm. And the number of arrows produced by the arrows for one series of shots is different – archers must release from 3 to 6 arrows, crossbowmen – 30 arrows each.
Only arrows armed with field or match crossbows can participate in the competition.
Although today there is a division of crossbows into sports (field and match), hunting and low-power crossbows, used for entertainment, the first two classes are completely interchangeable. Since the characteristics of hunting and field crossbows are similar in many respects, in some competitions athletes using hunting crossbows can take part. The main condition – the weapon must meet certain requirements: the crossbow mass should not exceed 10 kg, the bowstring is not metal and is not equipped with devices to give the boom additional acceleration, the tension force is not more than 47 kg, the length of the sighting line should not exceed 720 mm, the length of the arrow – from 304 to 457 mm. A shooting for 3-D targets and is done entirely from hunting crossbows. At the same time, hunting can sometimes be met by an archer armed with a crossbow.
Shooting from crossbows takes place at 3 different distances.
Only if it is a question of shooting from field crossbows in the open air. In this case, the archers compete in the marksmanship at a distance of 35, 50 and 65 m. For shooting in the distance room, two are 10 and 18 meters. If the shooting is conducted from match crossbows, the competitions, although consist of 3 stages, but only 2 distances – the first part of the competition is conducted on targets, the distance to which is 10 m, the second and the third – for a goal 30 m (first of the situation “standing”, then – “from the knee”).
During the archery competition for tensioning the bowstring, athletes should not use any attachments.
This rule only applies to field shooting competitions. Multiple arming, which requires considerable effort, not only leads to physical fatigue, but also gives rise to psychological stress. It is for this reason that during the preparation of the athlete who is going to perform in the above division, a lot of time is devoted to the development of strength and endurance, the speed of reaction, the ability to relax those muscle groups that do not directly participate in the preparation of weapons for the shot and pulling the trigger. But during competitions in shooting from match arbalests it is allowed to use for the cocking of weapons a special device called “goat leg” and is a small iron lever. This resolution is due to the fact that with a strong tension, the accuracy of the crossbowman drops sharply, which negatively affects the results of high-precision firing conducted on targets of small size.
Sports crossbows – Simplified models of combat weapons.
Although the first modern field crossbows were developed by the Marines, they were based on conventional bows. And after the crossbow sport began to develop in the middle of the last century, it became necessary to improve the design of the crossbow. It is sports crossbows of more perfect design that have become prototypes of modern combat crossbows.
The best results in competitions crossbowmen show those athletes who previously practiced archery.
No, according to experts, the best results are demonstrated by sportsmen who have experience of shooting from a rifle, since the positions of the shooter in both sports are identical, while the position of the archer is not much like the crossbow stand.
The equipment of athletes-crossbowmen in all kinds of competitions is identical.
Some differences do exist. For example, the arrows of the match direction are required to perform in boots with stiff bears, which firmly fix the ankle, while not interfering with its mobility. In field shooting, footwear of this kind is prohibited.
специальные Special arrows are used to shoot a crossbow.
This is indeed so. In ancient times, from the giant crossbows, shells of the appropriate size were fired: the ballists were throwing stone shells (their weight was usually about 26 kg), the catapults were loaded with darts weighing about 2 kg. Also from some types of hand crossbows, called schneppers, they shot lead bullets or small stones.
Nowadays, arbalest arrows (bolts) are thicker and shorter than the lunar arches, they are completely placed in the gutter.
An exception is crossbows shooting with arrows (in this case the crossbow design is slightly different: the arrow is not in the trench, but only leans against the special springy petals in the tip area, remaining free over the entire length). Hunting arbalests also have arrows most often longer than lodges – this is done so that the tip does not touch the guides (such a touch can change the trajectory of the arrow’s flight).
The best arrows are carbon.
No, they do not fit to shoot from a crossbow – they are too thin. Do not fit and iron tubes, because they are too heavy. Wooden arrows are quite applicable, but they quickly break. The best material for the manufacture of crossbow arrows is dural alloys, which have sufficient elasticity so as not to deform upon impact against the target, and at the same time quite strong, so as not to break when straightening.
Arrowheads are absolutely necessary, but very expensive.
This shield, the size of which is either equal to the diameter of the target, or somewhat higher than it, is really a completely necessary accessory when shooting from a crossbow – it is in the arrowhead that the arrow is stuck. The most economical option – an arrowhead, made by hand from plates of perforated cardboard (width – 23-30 cm), on the sides of which are placed boards, fastened with metal ties. Since the plates in such a shield are interchangeable, it can be used for quite a long time, simply changing the worn out parts of the central parts with peripheral ones. Option expensive – the most commonly used in shooting sports shields from a pressed straw harness, specially twisted and twisted. There are also arrowheads, which are a jute bag with a cotton padding, on which a target is drawn. And, finally, one of the latest inventions is etaphonic catchers, made of a material resembling rubber, but much easier. The shield that has fallen like this is reliably kept, and after its extraction, etafoum closes rather tightly – there remains only a barely noticeable trace from the hit.
The best choice is a crossbow with eccentric blocks fixed to the shoulders.
Looking for what purpose the crossbow will be used. Athletes often prefer to use complex bows (with the ends of the shoulders curved in a special way), which, although more difficult to manufacture and more expensive than conventional ones (with arched arms), are not limited by the force of tension, and give the arrow more speed, significantly increasing the accuracy of the shooting. The crossbow, equipped with eccentric blocks, is a more complex design, achieving an ideal interaction of moving parts is very difficult. Such weapons can provide a good accuracy of a single shot, but the accuracy of a series of shots is much more difficult.Because this kind of crossbows is popular mainly with hunters.
Crossbow – pleasure is not cheap.
This is really true – the price of a good hunting or sports crossbow can be several thousand dollars. For this reason, for example, the Russian team for a long time felt an acute shortage of field crossbows, and there were no matches at all – they had to be rented just before the competition. But low-powered crossbow for entertainment is quite possible to make independently, using for this purpose unnecessary arcs from any sports bow and carved from wood (birch, ash, walnut) bed and trigger mechanism. Kevlar (enough for 3,000-4,000 shots), as well as lavsan, fast-fluff, and dain (can sustain 8,000 to 10,000 shots) is suitable as a string bow. Of the metal cable, the bowstring should be avoided, since it has a rather large mass, and reduces the speed of the arrow’s flight.
Because a crossbow is a weapon, you will need a special permit to purchase and carry it.
If the force of the arc of the arbalest is less than 43 kg (these are the models that go on sale in the CIS countries) – it is intended for sports and recreation, and is not a weapon. Permission to wear it is not required, but the accompanying certificate is necessary – if there is such a document, the owner of the crossbow will not have problems with the authorities unless he has the idea to wear a crossbow in the assembled state along the city streets. In this case, any guardian of the order has all the legal grounds to take the product for examination (in the process which may well be the breakdown of the shoulders of the crossbow as a result of an idle shot). Therefore, bows and crossbows should only be carried (carried) in a special soft case (if transported by public transport or own car) and a special hard case (if the crossbow or bow is transported on a train or on an airplane).
Shooting from a bow or crossbow, you can hit a target that is more than 300 meters away.
Arrows from missile weapons can indeed fly quite long distances. For example, back in 1200 the Mongolian soldiers, using compound bows from the horn, sent arrows more than 500 m, a hundred years later English archers from yew bows were throwing arrows at 700 meters. In 1798, an arrow shot from a classic bow by Selim the Magnificent (the Sultan of Turkey) flew 890 meters. Even further (up to one and a half kilometer) arrows shot from the bow bows fly. However, the crossbow is not such a powerful weapon, and it’s not necessary to talk about aiming at a long distance because the arrow does not fly in a straight line, but in an arc, rapidly losing speed. Therefore, the distance of effective sighting (both from a crossbow and an onion) is from 15 to 60 (maximum 100) meters, but no more.
Learning how to shoot a crossbow can be much faster than mastering the skill of archery.
This is indeed so. Within a few weeks, a person can master the art of shooting from a crossbow to a target, located at a distance of about 20 meters. In order to achieve the same results when firing from a blockbow, you will need to spend at least six months, and mastering sports and traditional bow will take at least 2 years of hard training. However, it should be borne in mind that shooting from this type of weapon seems simple only to the novice, more experienced shooters know that there are many factors preventing accurate hit on the target. For example, an unevenly stretched or twisted to a side a few millimeters of a bowstring will cause the boom to deviate from the set point by at least a few centimeters.The accuracy of the shot is influenced by factors such as the pose of the arrow (it should be as stable as possible), the speed and depth of breathing (best to shoot at the half-exhalation), the way the trigger is pressed (gently, without jerking), and the ability to correctly estimate the distance to the goal. Therefore, before you go with a crossbow to competitions or to hunt, you should pay attention to regular training on targets located at different distances (from 5 to 35 m) and at different heights.
During training, the crossbowman must clearly see the target.
Shooting should also be avoided, as this worsens the condition of the crossbow, and can lead to its breakage. Much depends on what the purpose pursues training. When the shooter goes through a period of half-conditioned reflexes, i.e. learns to control his muscles, while not concentrating on the movement, training takes place in a special way: practice shooting with closed eyes and shots idle in a dark room.
Crossbow and bow have nothing to do.
There are really a lot of differences between these weapons. For example, the technique of aiming from a crossbow is similar to aiming from a gun, and not from a bow. During the shot, the crossbow is positioned horizontally, and not vertically, like almost all bows (except for the foot). And to keep the string of a charged crossbow, fixed by the trigger until the moment of the shot, the arrow does not have to make any effort. However, there is a lot in common between the bow and the crossbow, in particular, the arrows that are released from both weapons move along similar trajectories with almost the same speed and force, and fly the same distance. During the shoot for archery and archery, arrows with special tips are used to quickly and effectively hit prey.
Crossbows are harder to pull than bows – you have to put more physical strength.
No, crossbows are easier to cock. First, for this operation archers and crossbowmen use different muscles, and those that are needed to cock the crossbow (biceps, muscles of the press and legs) in humans are usually more developed than those needed to stretch the bow (extending muscles arms and muscles of the upper back). Secondly, in order to properly stretch the bow, a combination of strength, accuracy and speed of movement is required, which in itself is quite difficult and causes tension even in the muscles directly involved in the string pulling process. And for arming, only power is needed. In fact, the tension of the bow depends more on the strength of the arrow, and the crossbow – on the strength of the trigger mechanism.
Crossbows yield to bows in accuracy and rate of fire.
Crossbows are in fact inferior to bows in the rate of fire, but they are exactly superior. It should be noted that the archer demonstrates a high level of accuracy only as long as he uses his own arrows, carefully adjusted and familiar. When he has to use state ammunition, the accuracy of the shots is sharply reduced. At the same time, a shooter armed with a crossbow is insured against the above problems, since shorter and thicker crossbow bolts are more standardized, and also have a smaller displacement of the center of aerodynamic resistance. That is why crossbows were most often used to guide the target fire (for this reason the arrows were forced to approach the enemy as close as possible), and bows – for hanging firing from a greater distance.
There is nothing in common between crossbows and rifles.
This is not quite true. For example, one of the first wickly dulled shotgun shotguns, which appeared in the 30s of the 15th century and was called arquebus (fr Arquebuse from arque – “bend” and buse – “buckling of the rifle box”, “trumpet”) was initially charged with metal balls crossbow with a closed bed. Powder and a wick for shooting from this type of weapon began to be used somewhat later.Yes, and a modern crossbow in many ways resembles firearms – and the way of aiming, and the appearance, and the materials from which they are created, are very similar.
The crossbows are much smaller in size than the bows.
Yes, when it comes to hand-held crossbows. However, it should be borne in mind that in ancient times during military operations devices were used that were similar in construction to crossbows, which were quite large in size. These combat vehicles were called catapults and ballistics. Ballista (Latin balistarum, from Greek βαλλιστης, from βαλλειν – “throw”) is the Roman name for a two-braided torsion machine designed for throwing stones from a weight of 0.6 kg to 78 kg (later – an arrow) at a distance of 150 to 360 In the Greeks such a weapon was called “palintonon” (“firing on a trajectory), as well as” cataplite petrobolos “(” stone against the shield “) .The catapult (Greek καταπέλτης, κατα -” against “πέλτη -” shield “, lat The name tormentum is “twist”) – a throwing machine with a torsion principle of action, the invention of which is attributed to t Iranian Dionysius from Syracuse (399 BC) The kinetic energy in it is ensured not by the elasticity of the bent shoulders, as in the bow, but in twisted fibers with a low level of elasticity.In Roman times catapults were called all the strelometers. They, who launched shells (stones) along a hinged trajectory, were renamed into ballista, and two-shoulder torsion barrels, which launched projectiles along a flat trajectory, retained the name “catapult” (gr. eviton).
Ballista and catapult are different names for the same weapon.
The design of these propellers is very similar, but the shooting methods are different: the ballista has rocked the stones at a large elevation angle, and was intended primarily to destroy the enemy’s fortifications, while arrows or darts released from the catapult flew almost horizontally, and were aimed at destroying enemy soldiers.
For the manufacture of torsions, catapults and ballistae used veins of animals.
This is indeed so. In addition, in some manuscripts it is indicated that hair from the mane and tail of horses is suitable for this purpose. It is also mentioned that during the siege of the Capitol, the torsions of propelling machines deteriorated due to repeated use, the stock was exhausted, and the Romans, to help the fighting husbands, cut off their hair, which turned out to be quite suitable material for the repair of propelling machines.
Throwing machines built with the use of modern technology, will exceed the power and range of ancient analogs.
No, the successes of modern enthusiastic researchers are much more modest than the achievements of military engineers of past centuries. If, according to written sources, ancient catapults could throw stones weighing from 26 to 76 kg a distance of about 150-170 meters, then a projectile released from ballista, built in 2000 with the use of computer modeling and weighed 8.5 tons, flew in all 85 meters. Stone-stones, designed for throwing lighter shells, also lose their ancient counterparts. For example, a ballista made at the beginning of the last century by artillery officer E. Schramm (Germany) was able to throw a half-kilogram core at a distance of 300 meters, while Roman machines of this type sent cores weighing 0.6 kg to 350 meters.
Crossbows are more effective and comfortable in battle than bows.
The use of ballistae and catapults really gave the army (especially fighting against large fortified cities and having strong infantry) a considerable advantage, but the Byzantines and Arabs, whose army was based on cavalry, preferred to use bows. In addition, the participation of shooters armed with crossbows in the fight requires a certain organization of troops – after all, crossbowmen can not participate in melee combat (heavy weapons will be a big deal to them), therefore, they need cover.Yes, and the cost of such weapons exceeded the price of onions, because to buy a crossbow could not afford all the soldiers.
Hunting with a crossbow or bow is an exciting activity.
Yes, it is. But it should be noted that on the territory of many countries (in particular, in Russia) the use of onions and crossbow is forbidden. Therefore, a man who wants to hunt with these weapons for boars, deer or small game, will have to go either to Canada or Europe. In the near abroad hunting with a crossbow is possible only in Belarus.
Hunting with a crossbow is much easier than with a bow.
This is not quite true. The fact that the arbalest in the cocked state does not require any effort to keep the bowstring permanently in a certain position, like a vertical bow, to some extent alleviates the task of the hunter. However, if the shooter does not have hunting skills, he will not succeed with any kind of weapon.
The crossbow has a very strong return, almost the same as that of a firearm.
Wrong opinion. By the power crossbows are inferior to firearms, and by ballistic characteristics are very similar to block bows. Accordingly, the recoil force of the crossbow is almost the same as that of the bow, but much less than that of firearms.
The crossbow and the gun have almost the same power.
This is not true. The arrow released from the crossbow loses its speed, flying only 30 m (even earlier than the arrow released from the bow, but not because the bow is a more powerful weapon, but only because the arbalest arrows are shorter and lighter arrows used by the archers ). A bullet that is released from a gun starts to lose energy only after flying 100 meters.
Hunters with crossbows are less experienced than archer hunters.
The level of experience of an arrow from the type of weapon does not depend. In addition, there are often cases when experienced archers move to use a crossbow only because hunting with a bow makes them more difficult to do physically. However, the whole experience remains with them.
A crossbow is a favorite weapon of poachers.
No, according to statistics, poachers using bows are no less than those who use crossbows. It should also be mentioned that poachers do not often use these weapons for their own purposes, since both bows and crossbows, from their point of view, do not have a sufficiently high efficiency. After all, because of the design features of the crossbow, for the production of shots from the window of the traveling machine, it does not fit, and several shots in a row from this weapon in game can not do, first, due to the fact that it takes some time to reload, secondly, because the sound (although very quiet) of a shooting crossbow can frighten a deer. And, finally, a crossbow is not a cheap pleasure. The price of a good model of this weapon with ammunition and the corresponding equipment may exceed the cost of the proposed production – a condition that is not acceptable for poachers.
Using a crossbow on a hunt often leads to accidents.
Accidents on hunting with the use of a crossbow occur not more often than during hunting with the use of an onion. Yes, and manufacturers, taking care of the safety of the shooter, make changes in the design of the weapon, minimizing the possibility of idling or the probability of injury to the shooter.
While hunting with a crossbow, you should get as close to the game as possible.
This is not quite true. As a result of the tests it was established that the optimal distance, guaranteeing that the arrow will fall into the murderous place, is from 27 to 70 meters (depending on the model of the crossbow, the conditions of the shot and the skill of the hunter). It is much more difficult to get to the right place on the body of a beast from a greater distance if the shooter approaches the target for a distance of less than 20 meters – it can be attacked by a wounded animal (the hunter’s position is equipped with a tree – in this case, .
Hunting with crossbows helps to reduce the population of various wild animals, in particular deer.
This is not true. According to statistics, over the past 30 years (hunting with a crossbow was allowed in some countries in the late 70s of the last century), the deer population not only did not decrease, but even increased.
Wounds inflicted by animal arbalest arrows are much more painful than wounds with firearms.
Experts believe that an animal injured by an arrow from an arbalest (which dissects tissues and causes severe internal and external bleeding) does not experience severe suffering. First, adrenaline that falls into the blood reduces the sensitivity of the beast, and secondly, because the bleeding is quite strong, the animal quickly weakens and falls asleep. The bullet, falling into the body of the beast and tearing internal organs, causes a hydrodynamic impact, and extremely painful – most often in this case the animal dies precisely from a painful shock.
Nowadays, crossbows are used only for hunting, recreation or sports.
This is not quite true. At times, crossbows are used as weapons, although not as widely as several centuries ago. For example, during the First World War, the German soldiers were armed with an easel crossbow made of steel and used as a grenade launcher (with its design allowing the shooter to adjust the range of fire by increasing or decreasing the pull of the bow). In the national liberation wars, crossbows were used as part of the self-fire trap. In addition, it is noiseless, compact and, thanks to modern materials, a fairly powerful weapon equipped with a sight (collimator, optical or laser) is now successfully used in special forces.
The coach must know the crossbow device and be able to properly select the equipment for the shooters team.
This is indeed so. A good coach must know what requirements crossbows must meet. The main criterion in the choice of weapons is the period of adaptation, i.e. accustoming the athlete to the characteristics of the crossbow. This period can be significantly reduced if the trainer selects a crossbow corresponding to the physical arrow data and possesses the skills of static and dynamic balancing of weapons (in case the crossbow comes in disassembled form or it is possible to select separately those or other components of the weapon).
In this case, one should not be guided by the results demonstrated by the crossbowman in the first days after receiving the weapon. In fact, sometimes this can be just a consequence of the “novelty effect,” and the first (very impressive) successes sometimes result in a sharp decrease in the accuracy of shooting and, as a result, a loss of confidence in weapons and a psychological breakdown. It is for this reason that the second most important criterion is reliability – an indispensable component of the athlete’s success. And a good coach must remember that the more complex the system and the more functions it has, the greater the probability of a weapon’s failure during the competition.
The reliability of the structure can be assessed in appearance, with the large thread on the fixing screws, the excess metal and the rough surface treatment of the arms indicate a design imperfection rather than its strength. Precise fitting of all parts is also not the best choice, especially if shooting is conducted in the field. After all, in this case, even drops of water, grass stalks or sand particles caught in a crossbow are capable of causing a complete failure of the mechanism.
The inventory to be selected should also be checked for maintainability, and the trainer should not only be able to solve some problems himself, but also to train the shooter to cope with equipment failure in the field independently, bringing his skills to automatism. Only in this case, the probability of breaking the crossbow will not become an additional stress factor for the athlete, which negatively affects the effectiveness of his performance.
If the coach works with the team, during the purchase of the inventory, he must necessarily take into account the possibility of interchangeability of elastic parts, sighting devices, fasteners and crossbow tools, as well as further upgrading of his chosen weapons. And, finally, pay attention to the versatility of crossbows – this quality will allow the shooters to compete in any conditions, while demonstrating good results.