is one of the sports in which special equipment is required for competitions: boats or ships, sleighs for traveling on snow (ice) or trolleys equipped with a sail. Most sailing competitions take place on boats (sailing, sailing-motor or motor) – yachts (from the jacht, from the jagen – to drive, to pursue). In this case, the term “yachting” is used for the name of this type of competition.
Vessels equipped with a sail, have been traversing the water expanses for thousands of years, but for sporting events this type of equipment has been used relatively recently. At first, the inhabitants of Holland took a great interest in yachting, after – England.
Mention of contests of this kind are found in the chronicles, dated 1662 year. The first yacht clubs appeared in the 50-60’s. XVIII century, first in England, and in a few years – in other European countries, as well as in Russia and in America.
The International Yacht Racing Union (IYRU) was established in October 1907 and was headquartered in Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom. Nowadays this organization is called the International Sailing Federation (English International Sailing Federation, ISAF) and unites 115 national federations.
The most famous and large-scale competitions in sailing and rowing are regattas (from Italian regata, riga – “line”, “row”, “starting line”), which are held for vessels of different classes. One of the first regattas – the competition of gondoliers – was held in 1740 in Venice, although this kind of competition in the city on the water is known since the XIII century.
Such competitions became extremely popular and were held from the middle of the XIX century in Germany, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and from the late XIX – early XX centuries. – in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, the United States, Canada, Latin America, etc.
The Henley Regatta (held on the Thames near Henley since 1893) in rowing and the Kiel regatta (held since 1897 in the Kiel Bay of the Baltic Sea off the coast of Germany) are world famous. Nowadays the term “regatta” is used for the name of sailing competitions included in the program of the Olympic Games.
All sailing competitions are divided into several types:
A) in the navigation area:
B) by types (classes) of yachts:
• monotype – only yachts that fully comply with the measurement rules and designed according to strictly regulated principles are allowed to this type of competition;
• maxi-yacht competitions – only yachts with a length of at least 30 meters (100 feet) are allowed to compete;
• Competitions of yachts that correspond to the measurement formula – ships participate, the ratio of several parameters of which (displacement, length, sail area) is limited to a certain value;
• racing cruising keel yachts and dinghies – in this type of competition there are two types of vessels:
• cruising yachts (from the kruiser from kruisen – “to swim along a certain route”, “to cruise”) – ships, design features (for example, mandatory availability of cabins), staffing with certain types of equipment and level of supply which allow long autonomous transitions;
• Shverbots (from Schwertboot – “boat with sword”) – sailing ships that do not have a ballast keel and equipped with a dock – a special pull-out fin that prevents the boat from drifting under the wind.
• single-hull yacht competitions;
• competition of catamarans (from Tamil Kattumaram – “connected logs”) – double-hull yachts;
• Trimaran races – three-deck vessels,
B) according to the professional qualification:
D) according to the composition of the crew:
• single – the yacht is operated by one person;
• command – the crew is engaged in the management of the vessel (from 2 to 40 or more people, depending on the type of yacht);
• age – in this type of competition only athletes of a certain age participate;
• on the basis of gender – in some competitions only men can participate, in others the team is formed exclusively from the representatives of the weaker sex,
D) according to the type of distance:
• stage – the distance is divided into several segments (stages);
• Voyages – yachts follow a certain route, not involving calls to ports and stops (however, if necessary, the vessel can anchor),
E) along the distance:
G) according to the rules of the competition:
• match – the winner of the competition is determined by the results of a series of matches between pairs of participants, that is, each competitor competes in turn with all other yachtsmen participating in the competition;
• team – several teams of yachtsmen compete among themselves;
• with a transfer – each of the athletes alternately resembles the distance on all the yachts participating in the competition;
Handicapping – races of different classes participate in races, the results demonstrated by yachts are recalculated taking into account handicap points reflecting some features of this or that vessel;
• on arrival – the ship that reached the finish line first wins.
The most famous international sailing regattas:
• America’s Cup is one of the oldest international competitions (founded 20 years before the FA Cup and 45 years before the first modern Olympics), the most famous and prestigious. Award winner – a cup made of “British metal” (alloy of tin, antimony and copper, coated with silver) made by the company “Garrard and Co.” in 1848 in the form of a jug, which lacks a bottom – in accordance with the requirements of Queen Victoria. The ruler did not want the prize cup to be used as a container for drinks. The vessel engraved the names of the yacht-winners, and in 1958 and 2003 the cup had to be supplemented with grounds to place the names of the next yacht-winners. The owner of this prestigious prize for 132 years was the New York Yacht Club, and only in 1983 the cup went to yachtsmen from Australia.
• To take part in the American Cup, you must win the preliminary qualifying competition (currently the Louis Vuitton Cup). Only after that the yacht-applicant can enter into a fight with the representatives of the country, whose ship won the last season.
• Volvo Ocean Race, until 1997 – Whitbread Round the World Race – a round-the-world team regatta, for which Volvo class 70 yachts (single-hull, single-masted sailing vessels with a length of 21, 5 m, sediment – 4,5 m). From 1973 to 2006 it was held every 4 years, nowadays it takes place every 3 years. It includes 10 oceanic stages and short competitions in the water areas of large cities (port races).
• Regatta Vendee Globe (Vendee Globe) – founded in 1989 by Philippe Janto (France) is the only single round-the-world regatta that does not involve stopping the vessel anywhere and receiving help from outside. The competition for the Vendée region of France is named, in the capital of which – the city of Le Sabelle d’Olon – the regatta, which is held on yachts of the Open 60 class (until 2004 – Open 50), begins and ends.To participate in the Vande Glob regatta, the yachtsman must prove his competence by making a qualifying crossing across the ocean (the length of the distance is 2,5 thousand miles, the speed is 7 knots) or to participate in any single transoceanic race.
• Velux 5 Oceans regatta is a round-the-world race of single yachts. The idea of the competition was filed by David White (America) in 1980. Initially, the regatta was officially called the OSI Challenge, as it was sponsored by a major British corporation BOC (British Oxigen Corp), a little later – Around Alone, and beginning in 2006, when Velux 5 Oceans became the sponsor of the competition, Velux was renamed. The race takes place in 3 stages, the total length of the route is 30,000 miles.
• The Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race has been held since 1945, starts annually on December 26 in Sydney Bay, and finishes in the port of Hobart (the mouth of the Derwent River, Tasmania). The competition is organized by the Royal Yacht Club of Tasmania and the yacht club of Australia, since 2002 it has been sponsored by Rolex (Switzerland). To participate in the race can be a vessel that meets certain requirements (length – from 30 to 100 feet) and six months before the start of the regatta passed qualifying race or ocean crossing – not less than 150 nautical miles. The team must be at least 6 people over 18 years of age. On board there must be 2 people who can provide qualified medical assistance, and 2 radio operators. Each crew member must have an individual emergency beacon (PLB or EPIRB). In the Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race, professional yachtsmen and amateurs can participate.
• The Tall Ships’ Races Baltic Regatta – until 1872, named Cutty Sark, in honor of an English clipper who had traveled from Australia to England in 69 days. One of the biggest regattas in the world. All sailing vessels exceeding 9.14 m are allowed to participate in this competition, and according to the main rule of the competition, only young people aged 15 to 25 can be members of the team. Competitions are held in 3 stages, the first of which passes between 2 ports, the second – free swimming, the third stage – the actual race. And in each port, through which the regatta passes, the participants hold a solemn meeting, followed by various sports events, concerts, receptions, etc., lasting 4 days and ending with a solemn parade of contestants. The main prize of the competition is a silver model of the sailing boat “Cutty Sark”.
In the program of the Olympic Games, sailing competitions have been included since 1900 (II Olympiad, Paris) and since then have been present in the program of all the Olympics (the exception is the games of 1904).
In the regatta ships that are similar in construction participate.
Indeed, yachts with approximately equal capabilities should participate in competitions. For correct comparison of results, there are several approaches to the selection of the regatta participants:
• Monotype – only yachts designed for certain parameters participate in races, the deviation from which entails disqualification;
• Handicap – the measurement of the yacht is carried out according to a certain method, which allows to determine the features of the vessel. In accordance with the assigned handicaps scored in the certificate, at the start of the yacht, similar in points, are combined into groups, within which ships compete with each other;
• Measurement formula – yachts should be designed in accordance with a certain measurement formula, within which it is not forbidden to introduce various design changes that contribute to improving the running qualities of the vessel.
Regatta is a sporting event in which participants who have won prizes receive medals, and winners receive a cup.
This is true, but there are exceptions, for example, held annually in Venice on the first Sunday of September. The historical regatta (Regata Storica), which is a competition of gondoliers at a distance of 7 km. This competition was established in honor of the historic event – the abdication of the Queen Venetian Catherine Cornaro from the Cypriot throne in favor of the Venetian Republic, signed in 1489. In the homeland of the Queen, a grandiose meeting was prepared, and since then this event has been celebrated every year in Venice – before the regatta there is a costumed procession – a symbolic ceremony for the Queen’s meeting, then a parade of gondolas, and only after that competitions begin. The competitions are divided into several stages: firstly juniors on two-ponced gondolas (pupparini), then – women, also on double-bucket boats (mascarete), then – men on six-vessel ships (caorline), and finally – champions race on narrow and light boats gondolini), management of which requires remarkable dexterity and high skill. As a prize, participants of this regatta do not receive medals, but multicolored flags (for 1 place – red, for 2 – white, for 3 – green and for 4 – blue). Sometimes other awards are given – for example, for some time the winner was a living pig, however, animal defenders opposed this custom, because nowadays the prizes in the Historical Regatta are purely symbolic.
The America’s Cup is named after the continent.
No, this competition (and prize) got its name in honor of the schooner “America”, which won in one of the most prestigious English regattas in 1851.
During the round-the-world regatta, everyone who is on board takes part in the management of the yacht.
Not always. For example, in Volvo Ocean Race on board of each yacht, except for 10 members of the crew there must be a correspondent, whose duties do not include any participation in the management of the vessel. Its task is to collect, prepare and send audio materials, as well as photo and video reports on how the race itself passed and how harmonious and correct the actions of the team were in this or that situation.
All participants of the regatta will start simultaneously.
Most often it is true, but in some cases it is allowed to restart – for example, if a breakdown occurred and it took time to correct it. Some regattas officially start long enough – for example, the start of the Globus Vande regatta is open for 10 days, and the participants of the Golden Globe regatta (1968) could start the competition on any day from June 1 to October 31.
The main prize in the regatta is one.
Not always. For example, the participants of the Sydney – Hobart regatta are fighting for two main prizes: the goblet that the ship receives, the first to come to the finish and the Tattersall cup, which is awarded to the IRC winner-winning yacht. In the Golden Globe regatta, two main prizes were also provided – a goblet to the one who will finish the race first and a cash reward (5000 pounds) to the yachtsman who will spend a minimum of time to overcome the distance.
Only high sturdy ones come to sailing.
Misconception – in this sport, natural data are of little importance. Given the variety of classes of yachts, you can choose a vessel that corresponds to any growth and weight of the yachtsman.
Woman on the ship is not the place!
Quite a steady prejudice, but in some types of yachting (for example, in round-the-world races on single cruising yachts), the fairer sex is in no way inferior to men.
Olympic sailing competitions take place not far from the city hosting the Olympics.
Most yachting competitions take place away from the venue of the Olympics. Competitions of this kind are conducted on large water bodies, in places that are characterized by maximum stability of wind conditions.
The length of a good keel is seven feet.
Absolutely mistaken opinion. After all, the size of the keel depends on the class of the yacht and its dimensions.
There should be several anchors on the yacht.
This is indeed so. Anchors must be three – the main universal anchor-plow, a heavy anchor with wide paws (for example, the anchor of the Hall or Danforth), which will perfectly hold the vessel on soft muddy or sandy grounds, and the third anchor – spare. In addition, the yacht must have an anchor chain, the length of which is at least 50 meters, and a spare chain.
The hull of the yacht has a pointed nose and a stupid stern.
Not necessary. The main purpose of the hull is to provide rigidity of the structure supporting the masts and sails, as well as the ability to accommodate the crew. Due to the specific shape of the hull, the ship can move along the water at a rather impressive speed, regardless of different weather conditions. The most optimal variant is a streamlined vessel with a sharp nose and a stupid stern, but there are also yachts with a blunt nose and stern, or with sharpened above-mentioned structural elements.
The fastest and most stable yachts are multi-hull.
Yes, the most high-speed sailboats are catamarans, trimarans and polymarans (for example, pentamarans – five-hull vessels). However, it should be noted that these types of yachts are suitable only for experienced seafarers. After all, the catamaran and pentamaran, with a high initial stability and excellent running characteristics, experience rather high loads on the connecting parts of the hull, and sometimes this can lead to the destruction of the yacht. And the trimarans are prone to rolling and are unstable only with a slight roll, and under adverse weather conditions (strong side wind, high waves) or in case of an error in control leading to exceeding the allowable roll angles, they quickly turn over.
Modern yachts are much faster than ships of the last century.
This is not true. Some yachts of the late XIX – early XX century. could develop somewhat faster than modern ones. However, the design features of the sailboats manufactured today allow them to continue moving even in a headwind, which was previously rather difficult for ships equipped with gaffel sailing equipment.
Yachtsmen participating in the regatta are forced to eat exclusively raw fish.
No, usually athletes are stocked with their favorite products, including fish in various species. Restrictions exist only on sweet fizzy drinks – their use can lead to a deterioration of well-being in the open sea. However, it should be borne in mind that a stock of products of this kind can not be very large: first, some products have a limited shelf life, and proper storage conditions on a small yacht are not always possible. Secondly, to achieve high results requires a considerable speed of the ship, because it is necessary to save a lot. For example, participants in long regattas can take with them only one set of changeable underwear and must prepare in advance for the fact that the ration will consist of various kinds of freeze-dried mixtures and fast food products that have a long shelf life and take up a minimum of space. And to engage in fishing for yachtsmen simply does not always have time.
During the regatta, athletes have the opportunity to closely explore sharks and octopuses.
This is not quite true. Of all the inhabitants of the underwater world, yachtsmen are often accompanied by dolphins.
All yachtsmen are bad family men.
Not necessary. Of course, in life there are different incidents, but it should be borne in mind that a man who adores sea voyages is more in love with his yacht than in any of the fair sex who are eager for adventure.
Family people do not engage in yachting.
When it comes to professional sports, such a statement is really partly true. But among the lovers of the vast majority – couples who go to sea with their wives and children. In this case, the ship is equipped with special safety net along the deck, with children’s safety belts and life jackets.
Sailing is to participate in various kinds of competitions, regattas, races, etc.
This is not quite true. People engaged in yachting can choose a different direction of sailing – cruising, which consists either in the transition from one port to another, or in free navigation on the high seas. A pioneer of cruising in the late nineteenth century. became Richard Tyrell Mack Mullen (England), alone went to sea with one goal – to prove that a small handled yacht operated by an able hand is as safe away from the shore during a storm as a much larger vessel. The example of Mak Mullen was followed by many sailors, and in 1880 in England, the Cruiser Club (Royal Cruising Club) was established. In 1882, this club began to publish a magazine that highlights the activities of seafarers and is very popular even in our days. The cruising club was also not alien to the spirit of the competition – it was established many cups, for example, “Challenge Cup” (1896). Cruising clubs were also organized in Scotland (1909), as well as in Norway and other countries of the world. Nowadays cruising is the most popular type of sailing both among amateurs and professional yachtsmen.
Yachting is extremely difficult to master.
This is an occupation for professionals. Yes, this is true if it is a question of participating in serious sports competitions. An amateur can learn the basics of ship management for 17 days (a week goes into mastering the theory, another 10 days – for practical exercises). However, for those who do not have the skills to manage the ship, there is a way out – simply hire an experienced skipper, and if the yacht’s requirements require it, then the team.
Sailing is an extremely dangerous occupation.
Of course, this sport is associated with some degree of danger. However, it should be borne in mind that mainly to accidents on the water leads to non-compliance – most often yachtsmen-amateurs – elementary safety rules. For example, in almost 86% of accidents, people who were overboard were without lifejackets, 30% of the cases were caused by alcohol, 80% of accidents were caused by an inexperienced skipper who did not have a license. In addition, yachts do not so often get into unpleasant situations – the greatest number of accidents (42%) occurs with open motor boats, 27% – with hydrocycles, and only 14% of cases suffer motor boats with cabins and sailing vessels.
Former racer is the best skipper for cruising.
Much depends on what exactly is expected from the cruise. If speed, thrill and work at the limit of human capabilities – then it is really best to travel under the leadership of an experienced rider. In this case, most likely, you will have to always wear a life jacket and surf the sea in any weather. And the route will be laid, most likely, in a straight line. After all, the main goal of the rider is to reach the final point of navigation as quickly as possible, and the beauty of the coasts is of minimal interest. In addition, according to an old habit, such a skipper will not use the diesel engine even if necessary, preferring maneuvering. But if the purpose of the cruise is to relax, enjoy the scenery, swim, or even fish, it’s best to choose an experienced skipper-cruiser, who will set the course accordingly, striving to ensure that the holiday-maker gets maximum impressions, and will try to provide comfort, and to diesel the motor does not feel disgust.
Only very rich people can do yachting.
Undoubtedly, if we are talking about the acquisition of a modern cruise ship equipped with the latest technology, its price ranges from a few tens to several hundred thousand euros and is really beyond the means of an ordinary man in the street. As well as the construction of a specialized racing yacht will have to thoroughly fork out.But a beginner amateur sportsman can buy a used yacht, for example, a class “micro” or a mini-yacht at a price of about 2000-3000 €, and a catamaran – for 5000 €.
The rent for a yacht is the higher the longer the lease term.
Absolutely mistaken opinion. The cost of renting a yacht per day increases with a decrease in the lease term.
In serious sailing competitions, middle-aged people, experienced and full of strength, are most often involved.
This is especially true for skippers. Most often this is true, but practice shows that the age of serious yachting is not a hindrance. For example, the oldest participant in the Sydney – Hobart race, skipper John Walker – 85 years old, and the youngest captains – Greg Prescott and Liz Ouardley – 18 years old.
Beginners in yachting necessarily first suffer from seasickness, which is expressed, as a rule, in severe attacks of nausea.
This is not quite true. Firstly, even experienced yachtsmen, who spent a lot of time at the helm, sometimes suffer from seasickness caused by the vertical acceleration that occurs on the ship during the rolling process. Secondly, seasickness is not necessarily expressed in the form of nausea – sometimes it manifests itself as a sharply increased appetite, increased drowsiness, impaired coordination of movements, tremor (trembling) of the hands, weakening of memory, depression, disability, etc.
To avoid unpleasant sensations during the voyage, you should follow some simple rules:
• spend as much time as possible on the deck, not in the cabin;
• choose warm and comfortable clothes; • Be sure to take tablets or homeopathic preparations from motion sickness (for example, “Bonin”, “Avia-sea”, “Dramina”, “Tonginal”, “Vertigochel”, etc.);
• Lack less. According to experienced yachtsmen, personal participation in yacht management is the best way to get rid of seasickness.
In addition, even before going to sea, it would be superfluous to prepare the vestibular apparatus for future loads. Trampolines, fast squats, jogging with accelerations and sudden stops, jumping and running with obstacles, tilting forward and sideways, somersaults, handholds, spinning and turning sideways (“wheel”) in both directions, etc., will help in this. e.
For practicing sailing, you need impervious clothes and special shoes.
Much depends on which particular subspecies of sailing we are talking about, how long the transition will be, through which seas and oceans the ship will pass, and so on. Of course, the requirements for amateur yachts are not rigid – for example, if a walk on a yacht passes on a warm summer day and does not take more than 1-2 days – it will be enough just for a T-shirt with shorts. But if the journey takes more time – it is necessary to prepare for the bad weather, and to temperature drops, quite common in some latitudes. The first thing you should take care of is the presence of a waterproof suit, preferably made in the form of a one-piece overall that can protect against wind, rain and salty sea spray. When choosing clothes of this kind, it should be taken into account that it is best to purchase a suit from a “breathing” fabric (for example, “Gore-Tex”, “Sympa-tex”), which serves as a reliable obstacle to wind and water penetrating from the outside, and at the same time time allows the body to breathe, thereby providing dryness and comfort throughout the journey. For short coastal races the usual waterproof suit is also suitable, but it has one significant drawback – the ability to create a kind of “greenhouse effect”. As a result, after a few hours, sweat impregnates all clothes and a person begins to freeze, which does not contribute to well-being and negatively affects working capacity.
Under the waterproof suit, it’s best to wear special underwear, closely fitting to the body (preferably polypropylene), and on top of it, to keep the heat – clothes from the “breathing” taknei (polartec or fleece).As for shoes – lovers who expect to spend several days in the sea in good weather can get by with ordinary sneakers or light summer shoes (except for shoes with high heels). In terms of a longer trip, it’s best to get yacht shoes (“deck shoes”) – very durable, specially treated for protection against the effects of liquids, equipped with leather laces. Such shoes on a soft flat sole do not slip on the wet deck and do not fall off their feet with sudden movements. And during the rain, special models of rubber boots with a flat sole of white color (so as not to soil the deck), equipped with a welded fabric lining, are simply indispensable.
Yachtsmen, going on a fairly long voyage, also get gloves.
The most suitable model is made of synthetic leather with Kevlar inserts, short fingers, reinforcements from the bottom of the palm and a double velcro closure on the wrist, or neoprene gloves for cold weather. And, finally, glasses from the sun with shatterproof glasses (preferably with the effect of polarization) will be useful.