Rock climbing

Rock climbing (“rock climbing” – “rock climbing”, “rock climbing”) is a kind of sport that consists of moving (climbing) on ​​artificial (climbing walls) or natural rocks. Initially, it was classified as a mountaineering species, nowadays it is an independent sport called “sport climbing” and is a climbing competition conducted according to certain rules.

Rock climbing, i.e. various ways to overcome the rocky terrain in order to develop new habitats and solve various tasks (search for a path in the mountains, hunting, etc.) in mountain areas arose a long time ago, but as a sport, a kind of active recreation and a way of self-affirmation began to be positioned only in the XIX century.

Climbing in our free time was practiced in some European countries (for example, in Germany – in the area of ​​the Citadel Mountains and Saxon Switzerland, Austria – in the Tyrolean Alps, Scotland, Ireland, etc.) and in Russia (on the Krasnoyarsk poles – the so-called “stolbism”). In the XX century, this sport and recreation began to gain popularity in the United States (for this purpose Yosemite National Park is the best). Today, there are more than 2500 areas in the world suitable for rock climbing.

The world’s first official competitions in this sport (with rules, regulations, program) were held in 1947 in the Caucasus (the Dombai cliffs) by Ivan Iosifovich Antonovich, head of the training camp of the Molniya climbing camp. Rules of competition of this kind were approved in 1949. The USSR Rock Climbing Championship was held for the first time in 1955 in the Crimea (Cross Rock) and from 1965 to 1991 the climbers regularly had the opportunity to compete for the right to obtain the title of USSR champion.

The first international competitions with the participation of athletes from Poland, Romania. Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, the FRG, France, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Japan, etc. took place in Gagra in 1976 and took place in the Crimea on a regular basis every 2 years until 1984. Youthful rock-climbing began to develop since 1982.

The difficulty climbing competitions were first held in 1985 in Italy, in the Olympic town of Bardonecchia (the cliffs of Valle Stratta). In 1986, international climbing competitions held in Yalta, received the status of an unofficial European Cup.

The World Cup for this sport was first held in 1988, and in 1989 the International Federation of Mountaineering and Climbing decided to hold such competitions exclusively on the climbing walls, therefore the stage of this competition, held the same year in Yalta on the rocks, was the last in history.

The World Climbing Championship was first held in 1991 in Frankfurt am Main (FRG). In 1992, the first youth world championship was held in Basel (Switzerland) and the first European championship in Frankfurt am Main (Germany).

World federations and climbing associations:
• The International Union of Alpinist Associations (UIAA), also called the International Organization of Mountaineering Associations, was established in 1932 in Chamonix (France) by eighteen national alpinist associations. In 1995, the UIAA was admitted to the IOC, and in 2002 prepared an Olympic dossier and initiated the inclusion of rock climbing in the Olympic program. Within the International Union of Mountaineering Associations, the International Council for Competition Climbing (ICC) was formed in 1997 to provide autonomy for this sport;
• The International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC) was founded on January 27, 2007 in Frankfurt am Main (Germany) by 68 federations of different countries. Currently, the organization has 88 organizations from 76 countries.

Kinds of rock climbing:

Sports climbing in such disciplines:
• Climbing is the most popular type of climbing, in which the athlete’s main task is to climb to the top or top for a certain time (from 4 up to 15 minutes depending on the complexity of the route). The number of attempts is one, the type of insurance is lower (that is, the climber, during the ascent, clicks the rope into the carabiners of the braces, placed in preloaded hooks or bolts, and the insurer at the bottom of the rock controls the remaining part of the rope, giving out how much it needs, or keeping it in case of a failure of the climber). Before climbing, the athlete can inspect the track – this is allocated to him for 5 minutes. Places between participants of the competition are distributed taking into account the height and time that they have reached, spent on it. Competitions can be held on climbing walls not lower than 18-22 meters. This sport originated in Western Europe, and in France preferred climbing in pre-prepared points of reference, and in England, the athlete himself created such points – trad (from traditional – “traditional”) in the process of overcoming the distance;
• Speed ​​climbing is a kind of climbing, in which the athletes try to overcome a certain section of the trail in the minimum amount of time. There are both individual passes and pair races. Type of insurance – upper. Speed ​​climbing is officially recognized as a climbing type by the Climbing Commission of the UIAA in 1987. This discipline was born in 1947 in the Soviet Union, and gained wide popularity first in Russia and Eastern Europe, and nowadays in Asian countries. And most willingly in competitions of this kind take part juniors, but older athletes prefer other types of climbing. At international competitions the height of the routes for climbing at a speed is 10-27 meters. The reference route for the competitions of this kind was established in 2005.
• Bouldering (English bouldering, from boulder – “boulder”) – climbing on rocks of low altitude. Insurance in this case is organized either gymnastic, or by covering special mats or crash pads (English crash pad – “cushion mat”, boulder mat – “boulder mats”) placed under the rock in the place of a possible fall of the athlete. To overcome the route takes from 4 to 6 minutes, the number of attempts is not limited. The above-mentioned type of rock climbing appeared in the city of Boulder (Colorado, USA), next to which there are many boulders from 3 to 6 meters in height. Nowadays competitions on this kind of sport are held both on the natural relief and on specially equipped climbing walls, the height of which can not be more than 3-5 meters.
• Rock climbing on the natural terrain on the prepared routes, i.e. on sections of rocks cleared of stones, with organized upper and lower insurance. To ensure its use, climbing hooks hammered into the slots of the rock mass are used, at the end of which a carbine is snapped-through it a safety rope (or a steel cable), the upper end of which is fixed on the protrusions of rocks or trees, will subsequently be missed. Apply also shlyambury hooks (bolts), which are driven into specially drilled holes in the rock massif. To drive the hooks into a crack or prepared hole, use a rock hammer (iceberg);
• Climbing on natural terrain on unprepared routes is actually a kind of mountaineering, which uses methods of insurance and passage of rocks, used by climbers (intermediate points of insurance, organized by a moving athlete ahead, climbing in conjunction with the organization of alternate insurance, etc.);
• Jumping is not officially recognized as a kind of climbing, assuming jumps from one point of support (hook) to the other. Insurance – kresh pads, gymnastic.Rules for these competitions are not yet clearly formulated, but the competitions usually go like this: first a simple jump, the next one is a little more complicated, then it’s even harder, and so on. And with each time the top moves farther from the starting hook. Participants in the competition are given several attempts and a limited amount of time. In the next round there are athletes who were able to reach the top, and the winner is the one who can make a jump for the longest distance (taking into account the expended attempts);
• On-sight – a kind of climbing, assuming the passage of the track on the first attempt and without preparation. The goal of the athlete is to pass the maximum possible number of trails in the minimum period of time. The most famous competition for this type of climbing is On-sight Marathon;
• Multi-pitch (multi-pitch from multi – “many”, pitch – “the distance between something, in climbing – between two points (bases) of the route”) – climbing in bundles along long routes, on which several bases (intermediate safety stations). At the bases, the leader in a bunch changes places with the athlete, who went second (his duties, among other things, are made to collect the first left hooks in a bunch of hooks and bookmarks). More often, routes for climbing of this kind are prepared in advance (“punch”, ie organize a reliable insurance by hammering reliable hooks or bolts);

Extreme rock climbing:
• Solo (solo climbing from solo – “climbing”) – moving on rocks of natural origin without insurance and alone. Deep-water solo (English deep-water – “deep water”) – solo climbing on rocks located above the water;
• Free climbing – rock-climbing without the use of any auxiliary means (for example, hanging devices for rest, insurance, etc.);
• Bildering (English bildering, a hybrid word consisting of building – “building” and bouldering – “climbing on boulders”) – climbing on the outer wall of buildings of various kinds (abandoned houses, skyscrapers, bridges, etc.). ). Founder – Harry Gardiner, back in 1916 engaged in bildering and received the nickname “man-fly”. Today, climbing the building is very popular in England, Germany, France, Holland. The first world championship in billing took place in Cologne in the mid-1980s, athletes competed in speed and effectiveness of conquering the vertical walls of buildings.

Only extreme climbers can do without the use of various adaptations. In sporting rock climbing, various kinds of equipment are used (individual safety systems and safety devices, ropes, braces, carbines, bags with magnesia, etc.).

Mountaineering and climbing are one and the same.

In the past, climbing and climbing really did make one whole. However, in our days, climbing has become a separate sport. Climbing competitions are often not in the mountains, but on specially equipped climbing walls, or on completely safe routes, previously cleared of stones and provided with devices for insurance. The length of such a “path” usually does not exceed 10-15 meters, and to overcome it it is enough to study some tricks and complex movements. Because many are engaged in sports climbing just to maintain themselves in shape, and there are almost no age restrictions in this sport – children from 5-6 years are allowed to take lessons in climbing walls.

Climbers are moving along the natural terrain, insuring each other. Their path is much more dangerous, since usually the length of the route is calculated in kilometers, respectively, it takes more than one day to overcome this distance.And the route goes not only on rocks of one type or another, but also on snow, ice, land, so climbers must have the skills not only of climbing, but also ice climbing, moving through snow, crumbling ground, etc. In addition, remember the impact of various weather conditions (strong wind, snow, rain, avalanches), the influence of which climbers, especially those trained on climbing walls, do not experience. Given the above factors, climbers are preparing not only to overcome some of the obstacles that stand in the way, but also learn the skills of survival in different conditions. They study the rules of behavior during a rockfall or avalanche, ways of providing first aid, setting up a temporary camp (tent camp, sometimes on a sheer cliff, or in caves), cooking, etc. And the degree of risk and responsibility for their actions here is higher, and the load is much greater. Therefore, only people who have reached the age of twenty can start climbing.

In order to engage in rock climbing, you need to go to the mountainous terrain.

This state of affairs took place until the middle of the last century. However, these days it is not necessary to go to the mountains – in many cities there are specially equipped climbing walls where you can train all year round and in any weather.

Skalodromes – stationary structures.

A climbing wall, which is a metal frame from 3 to 30 meters in height, on which plywood or fiberglass boards imitating the natural relief are fixed, is excellent for climbing competitions. However, such structures are not necessarily stationary. There are also mobile climbing walls that can be assembled on any dry and level ground, and are often used for promotions, some types of competitions or organization of extreme shows.

While climbing, you can train exclusively on the climbing walls – after all, all the major competitions are held there.

This is true – most sports climbing competitions take place on climbing walls, where all participants are on equal terms. And it’s more convenient for spectators to watch sportsmen, and the media do not experience difficulties in covering this event, and for sponsors such kinds of competitions are more attractive. In addition, the damage to the environment is not done – there is no need to specifically prepare the track, sometimes damaging the rock mass of natural origin. However, during training, many athletes prefer to exercise on natural terrain. In some types of climbing (for example, climbing on difficulty) without classes on the rocks simply can not do. In addition, in recent years, so-called rock festivals are held on a natural relief – competitions consisting of several tours and lasting, as a rule, several days.

While training on the climbing wall, you can use all the hooks in the reach zone.

This is exactly what newcomers do. However, more experienced climbers prefer to use hooks of only one color, forming a “route”, i.e. A copy of a real route on a rock massif of natural origin.

European and world championships in rock climbing are held every two years.

This is indeed so. However, the youth world championships for this sport are held annually.

Only people who are physically well trained, and with extremely strong hands, can climb climbing.

This is not quite true. Especially at the beginning it’s enough just ordinary exercise. The maximum load of hands only beginners, experienced athletes distribute the load in a different way, given the fact that the legs are much stronger than the hands and therefore they are the main support in this sport. But people with a lot of excess weight do experience a lot of difficulties on the climbing wall.

In order to achieve success in rock climbing, only trained muscles and stamina are needed.

Indeed, strength, flexibility and plasticity play a crucial role. However, in some disciplines of athletic climbing, for example, climbing on difficulty, still need to be collected, accurate and accurate movements, excellent coordination, as well as high intellectual ability, mindfulness and observation.

Route options are best viewed from close range.

Not always. If this is stipulated by the rules of the competition, experienced climbers before climbing prefer to spend some time “reading the rock”, i.e. possible ways of the route. In the future they only introduce minor adjustments in the climbing process.

It is best to climb with the same partner, and the equipment manufacturers should be changed as rarely as possible.

No, experts believe that to improve and sharpen the technique of movements, the climber should not only spend a lot of time training, but also as often as possible to change everything: types of rocks, climbing places, discipline, climbing partners, manufacturers of hooks, e.

To improve the climbing technique, it is sufficient to build your workouts competently.

This is indeed so. However, according to experts, among other things, the improvement of the technique of movements is facilitated by monitoring the training and competition of experienced climbers, as well as personal communication with them.

The power in climbing is the main thing.

Yes, but, in addition to strengthening the muscles, it is necessary to train and the ability to distribute the effort so that to go through the whole route from start to finish, especially if it’s climbing to a distance. The fact is that if an athlete trains only the ability to invest in every movement a maximum of efforts, his body gets used to this mode of work. In climbing on speed or bouldering, this state of affairs is perfectly acceptable. But on long routes leads to the fact that the force runs low after the first 10-15 movements, the breath gets lost, and the chances to overcome the entire route actually tend to zero.

The expander helps to increase the strength of the fingers and the brush as a whole.

Wrong opinion. The above-mentioned kind of sports equipment is advisable to be used as a warm-up, but not in the quality of training, since the need for frequent and rapid bending and extension of fingers during climbing usually arises extremely rarely. In order to make the fingers stronger, you should use the vises for various kinds of hooks or training on a campus board (a sports equipment designed by Wolfgang Güllich at the Campus Sports Club in Nuremberg in 1988). It should be noted that on the campus board or system board (another type of sports equipment for increasing the strength of the fingers), only experienced athletes can engage in the risk of injury without risking injury.

You can increase the strength of your fingers very quickly, the main thing is to train regularly and a lot.

Wrong opinion. After all, the great power of fingers is not foreseen by nature, and it will take a long time (usually about 2 years) to increase it, otherwise injuries are unavoidable. The load is best distributed for a whole year, training your fingers on small hooks and strengthening all types of grip (closed, open, etc.), since the preference for only one and neglecting the other sooner or later leads to trauma. The strength of the grip can be compared simply by calculating the number of pull-ups that the athlete can make on the hooks and using different types of grip. Especially cautious should be during training on the campus board or system board: start training only after a day of rest, between each exercise on this simulator to take a break 3-4 minutes. The fact is that the effectiveness of training on the campus is high only if the muscles are loaded minimally.

Strong fingers with weak hands or weak fingers with powerful muscles of the hands – the result of improperly constructed workouts.

Most often it is really so.If climbers pay more attention to training on high slopes and large hooks – they strengthen the muscles of the hands, and if they move along small hooks on the track with a smaller slope – they increase the fingers mainly. However, it should be remembered that much depends on the structure of the athlete’s body. For example, people with endomorphic type of build are stocky, possess powerful muscles, and thus the strength of their fingers is often small. And ectomorphs (more thin-skinned and tall people) differ in the large force of their fingers with insufficient development of the muscles of the shoulder girdle. Accordingly, athletes with this or that type of physique must build their training so that, first of all, strengthen the weakest muscles of the fingers or hands.

During finger strength training, the active grip should be minimized, since it is traumatic.

An active (clinging) grip, in which the fully bent fingers are most heavily loaded, is used on “pockets” (large hooks with obvious protrusions). According to experts, grip of this kind exposes the tendon to excessive strain, and can lead to their stretching, and also cause arthritis. Passive (open) grip, when the hand almost completely grasps the hitch, exerts a much less influence on the tendons, and at the same time makes it possible to use the power of the fingers in full. It is effective both on sloping or rounded hooks, and on “pockets”. However, it should be borne in mind that during climbing on the relief of natural origin, there are often many hooks suitable only for an active grip. Yes, and in some situations (for example, when the hands get tired), even experienced climbers prefer an active grip passive. Therefore, during training, you should pay attention to both grasps, just correctly distributing the time: spend about a quarter of the time working off the active grip, and devote the remainder of the lesson to the practical use of passive grip.

Injuries due to congestion in climbing are common.

No, tendons tend to suffer in this sport, and the compression load on the spine and joints is minimal, although the muscular system works extremely actively. If a physically strong athlete can not overcome routes of a more complex category, mastered by less experienced climbers, can hardly hold on small leads, often suffers from overloads of joints – most likely, he simply uses little the force of inertia when moving. After all, if you correctly shake the trunk – you can move between the hooks, using much less effort than moving without swinging.

In climbing, newcomers are often injured.

This is not quite true. Of course, if a beginner undertakes mastering the wisdom of rock climbing without warm-up and insurance – trauma is inevitable. That is why the experienced coach firstly offers to pay attention to the warm-up, then acquaints the beginning athlete with the action of the insurance (so that the person gets rid of fear, stumbling around the movement, he is offered several times to let go of the support and weigh all the weight on the insurance, feel its strength and reliability) this will begin real training. Injuries in this sport are most often obtained by experienced athletes who neglect insurance and are entirely hoping for their experience.

In order for fingers to not slide on the rocks, climbers use chalk or talc, which is extracted from a special polyethylene bag attached to the belt at the back.

This is not true. White powder, used by climbers and other athletes, is called sports magnesia, and is a magnesium salt (carbonate). It absorbs moisture well, and, in addition, unlike, for example, from chalk, perfectly binds skin fat. As a result, the coefficient of friction between the athlete’s arms and the sporting projectile or the hook increases, providing a more reliable grip.Chalk (a white powder of quartz and calcite, used most often as a pigment in the paint and varnish industry, printing, etc.) only well desiccates the hands, but does not contribute to increasing friction. And talc (a fat loose powder of white color, used in everyday life to prevent clumping of contacting surfaces) generally reduces friction. The reason for the resulting confusion, most likely, is that sports magnesia in English-speaking countries is referred to as chalk by the word chalk.

Magnesia, used in rock climbing, is harmful to health.

Indeed, the inhalation of powdered magnesia, especially if it is used in small, poorly ventilated rooms, can harm light athletes or cause an allergy attack (since the above substance is one of the most powerful allergens). Therefore, one should either arrange supply and exhaust ventilation in such rooms, or use magnesium in liquid form. The negative effect this substance has on the skin, contributing to its excessive overdrying. Therefore, experts advise to thoroughly wash off the remains of magnesia, and then lubricate the skin of hands with a fat cream. However, the above-described effects of magnesia on the body is not exhausted. For example, until the beginning of the XVIII century it was believed that this substance contains calcium (lime), and therefore helps to strengthen the nails. But then the scientists found out that calcium is not included in the composition of magnesium, but it contains magnesium, whose use for the human body can not be overestimated.

In rock climbing use powdered magnesia, pouring it into a special bag, which athletes necessarily take with them.

Not necessary. It is absolutely necessary to store this substance for athletes who compete in climbing difficulty, because they are really necessarily stockpiled with a bag of magnesia, not only powdery, but also in the form of balls (the powder is placed in small bags of round form made of thin fabric). But in bouldering climbers prefer to put it on their hands only once – before the ascent, so as not to burden yourself with extra weight. Most of the powder is enough, because the trails in this type of climbing do not differ a lot. However, this method excludes the use of magnesia, if it still needs an athlete. Climbers climbing at speed do not use bags of magnesia at all, since the use of this substance requires a lot of time – and in fact in this discipline every second counts! Therefore, in climbing on speed and in bouldering, liquid magnesia is most often used, i. powder dissolved in water – they rub their hands before climbing, and wait a few minutes, allowing the liquid to dry.

The use of liquid magnesia is possible in all types of rock climbing.

Yes, however, in some cases (for example, when climbing on difficulty) the film formed on the hands after the drying of the liquid magnesia is not enough to pass the entire distance. Therefore, athletes competing in this type of climbing, combine the use of both types of the above substance.

Titanium hooks are stronger than steel.

The advantage of titanium hooks in front of steel is not greater strength (in fact, due to deformation during clogging, the hook is firmly held in the rock), and in lightness, that during the passage of long routes is of great importance.

Rock climbing can be practiced in conventional fitness shoes or sneakers, matched exactly to size.

Absolutely mistaken opinion! There are special “rock shoes” (“skalniki”), equipped with a soft sole, so that the athlete can feel the smallest roughness of the relief and cling to the protrusions of the rock sole and toes. In addition, such shoes are slightly smaller, which makes the toes slightly bend, and increases the tenacity. However, it will be difficult to walk along the street in shoes of this kind.By the way, rock climbers in the Soviet Union at first were engaged in rock climbing in galoshes. One pair of such galoshes, in which one of the athletes climbed on a nearly sheer rock to help the injured climber from Switzerland, even placed in the British Museum. Of course, footwear of this kind was not comfortable, and Soviet athletes sometimes went on small tricks to improve the grip of the soles with hooks. For example, Salavat Rakhmetov, who won the climbing difficulty in 1990 at the international competitions “Serre Chevalier-90” (France), glued rubber on the soles of his feet.

Rock shoes are made from natural or artificial leather.

This type of sports footwear is not made from leatherette, because, firstly, it will be too hot in them, and secondly, artificial leather is not strong, and at high loads, which take place during rock climbing, it just breaks at the seams in a couple of days . Because rock shoes are made of genuine leather, or made of rubber.

The thicker the rock shoes are on the leg, the better.

This is not quite true. Excessively tight rock shoes will very strongly compress the foot, resulting in blood circulation worsening, legs numb, and cease to feel hooks. In addition, the size of the sports shoes depends on the preferred technique for traveling along the route, as well as the type of climbing chosen. For example, for athletic climbing, the asymmetrically-shaped rock shoes that are most closely fitting to the leg are ideal, making the toes heavily bend. To overcome the longer routes, shoes of a slightly larger size should be preferred, in which the toes are in a semi-bent position. In this case, small hooks will be felt worse, but climbing in such shoes can be longer than in closer. There are also shoes designed not only for the actual climbing, but also for overcoming the horizontal sections of the route. Such shoes are chosen exactly in size, covers the ankle, and is made of thicker rubber, which leads to a decrease in sensitivity during the climbing process, but at the same time allows you to make transitions over fairly long distances without feeling any inconvenience. Also pay attention to the marking of shoes. The inscription “Bouldering Slipper” or “Velcro Closure” indicates that these rock shoes are perfect for bouldering. The mark “Unlined Sensitivity and flexibility” is put on shoes made of very soft leather. It should be noted that such shoes with an active toe are very stretched. To navigate the steep, overhanging rocks and long slopes, you will find a “Slip-lasted Sensitivity and Flexibility” with a very thin sole. However, they wear out very quickly. Resist on very small hooks (“mizers”) is easiest in rock shoes, the toe of which is narrowed. However, such footwear with the inscription “Tapered, low profile toe box” is not very convenient, and it should be bought either size in size, or even slightly larger than usual. Shoes “Cambered last” are designed for the steepest routes, but the curved shoe of this type of shoes few of the athletes seems comfortable.

A normal sports suit is suitable for climbing.

This is true, but preference should be given to the tight-fitting suit, since wide sleeves and loose pants can interfere. It is best to choose a knee-closing breeches and an easy t-shirt.

All climbers sit on a stiff diet – because excess body weight creates a lot of problems in this sport.

Indeed, fat deposits do not contribute to the rapid development of the wisdoms of rock climbing. However, athletes control their weight through proper nutrition and limiting the amount of unhealthy food consumed (fast food, beer, chips, etc.) and alcoholic beverages.A strict diet is not used by climbers, since such a diet can negatively affect the condition of the body in general and muscles in particular.

People in glasses can not be engaged in rock climbing.

This is not true. Simply, glasses will need to be fixed with an elastic band or a cord, and the best option is to give preference to contact lenses for the duration of the workout.

To overcome the path in rock climbing, athletes have to make quite a few fairly complex movements.

In some cases, the movement has to do only one, but extremely difficult. Most often this state of affairs takes place in bouldering and is called one move problem (English “problem of one movement”).

Bouldering is the simplest kind of climbing, because it is not a very long distance to overcome.

No, according to experts, it is in bouldering – the most difficult routes.

The most popular type of sport climbing is climbing difficulty.

This is indeed so. However, recently in the world with this kind of rock climbing by popularity bouldering competes rather successfully.

In climbing the difficulty of the track should be overcome with one attempt.

In official competitions, this is indeed the case. But in some countries the rules for passing the route are somewhat different. For example, in England, climbers move along anchorage points, which they create themselves, driving hooks into the rock and fixing carbines into them, into which the rope subsequently clicks. Therefore, during competitions of this kind on the passage of the track athletes are given several attempts, and in the classification of the difficulty of the route, the degree of moral stress of the climber is taken into account.

The terms in rock climbing have the same meaning in all countries of the world.

Yes, it is. However, sometimes these values ​​are not absolutely identical. For example, the term “multipitch” for English-speaking athletes is used to refer to any route longer than the length of one rope. In Russia, this word indicates a route for free climbing with pre-prepared points of insurance. And on-sight can mean both the name of one of the kinds of competitions, and the passage of any route from the first time. If the athlete was able to observe how another climber is moving along the same route, it is already flash, even if the distance can be overcome at the first attempt.

Add a Comment