In the middle of the last century, an atom came to serve humanity. It did not immediately become peaceful, at first its power was used by the military to attack Japan. For the first time the world has learned not only about the destructive power of an atomic bomb, but also about radiation. The tragedy in Chernobyl again raised this topic. People began to fear radiation. After all, it can not be seen, smell or taste.
Consequences of the same radiation exposure can be fatal. It turns out that each of us receives a dose of radiation every year, due to the work of equipment, and from nature itself. Technogenic irradiation can be manifested in the action of radionuclide sources containing strontium, cesium, cobalt. These substances are constantly “fonts”, they can not be turned off.
Gamma radiation has the greatest penetrating power. Generate radiation can and special devices in the on state, but the most active substance in them is not. Next to the X-ray machine, you can be, if it does not work.
In Russia, authorities carefully study the sources of exposure to citizens, in each region, enterprises and territories are monitored. However, people are still afraid of radiation, suspecting around her sources. That’s why with the myths about this phenomenon and it is necessary to fight.
People are exposed to nuclear power plants and industrial enterprises.
In any large city, you can find several hundred organizations that use technogenic sources of radiation. However, their total contribution to the total irradiation received by an ordinary person is only 0.02-0.04%. The indices of irradiation in large cities differ little from the national average. A similar picture is observed where nuclear power plants operate. Those hundredths of a percent of the total – the best answer to organizations that consider the neighborhood with a nuclear power plant to be fatal to people. The system that works allows the population to receive minimum levels of exposure, including when new facilities are commissioned. Enterprises are interested in their radiation safety, because this issue is under the strict control of the controlling bodies.
Accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons tests have caused the radiation to pollute the entire Earth.
In the course of testing nuclear weapons or accidents at nuclear power plants, radioactive substances do indeed fall into nature. And they continue to circulate there. Experts call this global fallout, but they account for only 0.2% of the total radiation of the average Russian. And special commissions make sure that this indicator remains the same. If the figure suddenly increases, then it can talk about some kind of accident that happened somewhere and that no one else knows about. But the indicator as a whole remains stable. For example, the accident at the Japanese nuclear power plant “Fukushima” in 2011 had virtually no effect on the overall radiation background.
From fluorography and x-rays more harm than good.
It is no secret that Russians receive about 15% of their total dose of radiation during medical examinations. We are talking about such familiar procedures as x-rays and fluorography. But there are no standards for medical exposure. The established indicator in 1 millisievert per year is relevant only to fluorography. And X-rays will be done as many times as needed for treatment purposes. If a person repeatedly breaks limbs, then the need to constantly carry out research will prevail over the harmfulness of radiation.
In hospitals, radiation is not the same.
Every year Russian hospitals submit data on the doses that patients receive. Most recently, for each type of diagnosis, there were averages across the country. The doctor could only multiply them by the number of studies carried out. Now the approach has changed a little. Almost everywhere, there is already an instrumental control of doses. On the same X-ray machine there is a clinical dosimeter, which determines the dose received to the patient during the study.Gradually it became clear that there was no point in using average values across the country. After all, in the same procedure, different levels of exposure can be generated. It depends on the model of the X-ray apparatus and its type, as well as the age of the person, the structure of his body. Now, observers can compare those levels of radiation that are present in different medical organizations. As a result, it is possible to determine where the largest doses are formed. So it becomes clear which equipment should be changed first. But these conclusions are of a recommendatory nature, not an orderly one. It happens that even on the same equipment, but in different institutions, patients receive different doses of radiation. This may be due to the qualifications of the staff. From the equipment depends not all, there are about a dozen factors that can help reduce the dose of radiation. But in the service of radiation diagnosis, the personnel question is the most important. If the installation does not have a qualified radiologist or medical physicist, then the equipment will turn into a lot of that, in a heap of expensive iron, it can still be dangerous to health.
After the X-ray, you should drink red wine or at least eat an apple.
This statement is a myth, unjustified. Experts believe that it is much more important at the time to give up smoking and go in for sports. Then, and for health, there will be less risk of getting an unfavorable disease. Even the danger of getting cancer will decrease, and the X-ray will not be scary even without apples or wine.
People live in a radioactive environment.
Of the total dose of radiation, 85% is due to natural radiation, with part of it being generated by cosmic radiation. And to hide from this is impossible, even if you walk with an umbrella made of lead. But the largest dose of radiation gets to a person inside his own home. The fact is that houses are built from sand, gravel and cement, which in themselves are natural radionuclides. It is no coincidence that legislation divides these building materials into classes, taking into account their radioactive properties. So, in the construction of residential houses only crushed stone of the first class is used, the second class is involved in the construction of industrial buildings and roads in the city. The most radioactive, the third class, is used for building roads outside the city. Before the house is put in commission, the check finds out how safe the materials were used in the construction.
Granite quays are dangerous for health.
In many seaside towns or cities with rivers there are beautiful granite embankments. However, it is believed that such a congestion of granite is unsafe for health. Such a statement is a myth. Even if every day to walk along such an embankment, the dose of radiation received will be much less than what we receive in our own house, even built on the basis of quality building materials.
Radiation can get into the body with food.
Radiation can indeed penetrate our body together with the products. But most often the path of such “infected” food to the city is closed. The incoming products always undergo radiation monitoring. It operates both at customs and in the form of unscheduled inspections of trade networks. If there are concerns about the quality of food, then immediately it is checked. It happens that radionuclides are found in vegetables or fruits, when the manufacturer ignores the conduct of radiation monitoring.
It is better not to collect mushrooms and berries near nuclear power plants.
Do not deny yourself the joy of collecting forest gifts, even if the NPP is nearby. Rospotrebnadzor even gives an opportunity to check for free the same fungi for the content of radionuclides. For example, in St. Petersburg, near which the nuclear power plant operates, for two years fungi with increased radiation were detected only once, and even then – they came from Belarus.
Our household appliances emit radiation.
In a modern apartment, only the wrist or table clock issued by Soviet enterprises in the late 1960s can be dangerous in terms of radiation. Then the industry used light components, which was based on insecure radium. Sometimes, when examining dwellings, these objects and “fonts” are the most. If such dangerous table or wristwatches are found in the house, it will be better to hand them over to special mobile waste reception points. Some in the bins can find radioactive compasses, scales from military equipment or manometers, as well as other instruments. On them, too, until 1970, light-based radium-based compounds were applied. The burial of radioactive waste in ordinary places is prohibited, and that such items do not fall on ordinary landfills, each machine passes through radiation monitoring. “Fonjashchie” items must be sent for processing to special plants.
The state hides the truth about radiation.
Myth was promoted by the events in Chernobyl, when the authorities concealed the whole truth about the scale of the catastrophe. Now people constantly think that they live in danger, and the state does not inform them about it. There was a real radiophobia that does not have a logical explanation, and even people with higher technical education are exposed to it. And although people explain that the radiation situation does not change, they still believe that it is better, just in case, to increase the portion of the iodine taken. In fact, when there is a need for such prevention, the authorities will definitely inform about this. And the use of their own methods of protection from radiation, invented on the basis of the above myths, can only harm the health.