is a solid explosive mixture consisting of numerous components capable of burning in anoxic conditions and the release of gaseous products. Used to throw solid military objects of varying size and weight. Due to the fact that the combustion of gunpowder is carried out by parallel layers, the reaction occurring inside the substance gives the process of formation of gases greater stability, including under a large external pressure. There are two types of gunpowder – smokeless (nitrocellulose) and mixed (including smoky). Nitrocellulose propellants are divided into pyroxylin, ballistite and cordite powders.

Gunpowder is an explosive.

This is a traditional rather than a valid idea of ​​gunpowder. In the explosive blasting substance, the powder can turn, if it is stored incorrectly. In all other cases, gunpowder, of course, does not explode, but only secures the gases necessary, for example, for a shot.

Gunpowder is universal for use.

Pyroxylin gunpowders are used in small arms and artillery weapons, ballistic ones are used as charges to rocket engines, artillery guns and mortar charges, smoke powder is suitable for fire cords, as ignitors for lighting and incendiary projectiles and even for explosive work (mine gunpowder).

Gunpowder causes corrosion of the trunks.

The most harmful in this respect is the smoky powder, which, when burned, emits sulfuric and sulfuric acid. Until the end of the XIX century, this type of gunpowder was used in firearms, now its use is limited to conventional fireworks.

We owe the invention of gunpowder to the Chinese.

It is believed that they, and even Hindus gunpowder was known for fifteen hundred years before Christ. The main component of gunpowder – saltpetre, in ancient China has always been in sufficient quantities, it was often used instead of salt and it is only natural that Chinese alchemists could not pass by studying the substance lying on the surface (in the literal sense). Combining it with sulfur and charcoal, oriental craftsmen received a strange substance, which during the combustion produced soft cotton and left behind a dense trail of white smoke. This was the powder, the explosive properties of which were discovered a little later and were used by Chinese pyrotechnics for entertainment and signal purposes, and subsequently for military arson and shooting. From China, the secret of making gunpowder migrated to the Arabs, from which it got to Byzantium, and then to the rest of Europe.

Gunpowder was invented by a medieval monk.

According to legend, in 1320 the monk of the Franciscan order, Berthold Schwartz (originally from Freiburg), practicing alchemy, accidentally made a mixture of saltpeter, coal and sulfur, which miraculously appeared inside a metal mortar covered with stone. A spark that flew from the hearth, hitting a mortar, shattered the vaults of the cell, signaled the discovery of gunpowder. However, as mentioned above – this is just a beautiful legend, like the monk Berthold himself, who, most likely, never existed in history.

Gunpowder invented by scientist Roger Bacon.

For a long time there was an opinion that Bacon was studying gunpowder and its combustion and explosion processes, after which he left the formula for this extraordinary substance to mankind. In fact, this is not so, although it was Baconomu who owned the first mention of gunpowder in European scientific sources.

At one time, gunpowder was manufactured directly on the battlefield.

This was due to the fact that the powder in unsuitable conditions too quickly became ripe and became unfit for use. In addition, this technology prevented the danger of explosion of the substance during its transportation.

The transition from powdered powder to grain served as an impetus to the development of small arms.

The first guns resembled guns, which by that time were already quite actively used on the battlefields.Differing from the guns of smaller size, these shotguns fired on the same principle as their cumbersome sisters: to the firing hole of the gun it was necessary to bring a wick, after which a shot was heard.

A few centuries ago gunpowder was very expensive.

In the 16th century, one cannon shot cost the royal treasury five talers (for example, an army infantry officer received one a month).

In modern times, the production of gunpowder was controlled by European governments.

Gunpowder was so important for Europe that its production was taken over by the royal dynasty. But to control such an important military object could only be a strong centralized power, which in turn led to the formation and strengthening of a number of major European states. It is interesting that the Bourbon dynasty, for example, regulated the production of gunpowder up to the level of a single village, and in 1601 declared the right to produce powder as sacred, as, for example, the right to mint a coin depicting the ruling king.

Gunpowder was considered an infernal invention.

Gunpowder correlated with hell and Lodovico Ariosto, calling it in his poems “infernal creature”, and John Milton, making in his “Lost Paradise” the creator of the gunpowder of the Devil himself. Clerics, and not too enlightened people, were also in agreement with the poets-it was too good to associate the smell of sulfur (one of the constituents of gunpowder) with the hellish evaporation of the underworld.

Gunpowder received its Russian name due to its appearance.

Initially (right up to the 16th century), Russia was shot with the help of powder, which looked like a black dust. “Dust” in ancient Russian was designated as “dust” or “gunpowder” (full-blown version of “dust”).

Gunpowder is used as a propellant.

More precisely, powder mixtures that differ from all others by a number of parameters: for example, specific thrust, a large range of combustion speed control, and also not a strong dependence of the burning rate on physical parameters such as temperature and pressure.

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