Polycystic kidney disease
is a serious disease associated with a change in the kidney tissue, which becomes represented as a large number of cysts. The factor of development of polycystic kidney is the hereditary factor (the risk of the development of the disease is transmitted from parents to children). This disease extends only to both kidneys (cases of polycystosis of one kidney with the preservation of normal kidney tissue in another is unknown).
Typical signs of polycystosis are dull pain in the lower back, rapid fatigue of a person. Characteristic is the presence of anemia and polyuria. Arterial pressure in a patient with polycystic kidney is increased.
The risk of developing polycystosis is the same for both the male and female part of the population. It is not so easy to be cured of polycystic kidneys, as there are not so many effective drugs against diseases that are hereditary in nature.
Treatment is often aimed at preventing complications and treating them. Surgical treatment is possible. Polycystic kidney disease can be accompanied by other diseases (for example, polycystic liver disease), and may lead to the development of pyelonephritis.
Polycystic kidney disease is a common disease among the population.
Indeed, this disease in our time to meet can not be very rare. But a widespread disease polycystosis can not be called. This is due to the fact that polycystic kidney disease can develop in humans only if there is a genetic predisposition to it.
Polycystic kidney disease is hereditary in nature. Science has known this for a long time. Indeed, a predisposition to the development of polycystic kidney is genetically transmitted. Frequent situations where polycystic kidney disease is detected either in all family members, or in several (that is, it is not a single case of polycystic kidney disease in the family). When a child is born (in the event that parents are sick with this disease), he already has the rudiments of the cysts on his kidneys. On the basis of all of the above, it can be argued that polycystic kidney disease is a congenital disease.
Polycysticosis affects both kidneys.
Polycystic kidney disease is always a bilateral disease. Polycysticosis leads to the fact that the tissue of the kidney becomes represented in the form of multiple cysts (hence the name – polycystosis, poly means a lot). All these cysts can be of different sizes. The direct appearance of the cysts is directly related to the abnormalities in the formation of the renal tubules – as a result, it may be that some kidney tubules end blindly. The latter leads to the fact that these tubules are completely filled with urine (it can not stand out, because in normal renal tubules flow into the collecting tubes, from which urine through small and large renal cups enters the ureters and is excreted from the body). After a while, in such kidney tubules, bubbles form (this is caused by the accumulation of urine in the renal tubule that does not communicate with other kidney structures). These bubbles are cysts. Often the polycystic kidney is compared with a bunch of grapes (something like it really is).
Polycystic kidney disease is a chronic disease.
This is indeed so. Throughout a person’s life, polycystic kidney disease gradually progresses in its development. The disease manifests itself, usually at the age of twenty to forty years. It is during this period of life that it is easiest to diagnose it. There are cases when the diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease is made both in childhood and in old age.
Polycystic kidney disease progresses throughout life, most often reveals itself and is diagnosed at the age of 20-40 years. However, this disease can detect itself both in childhood and in old age.
Polycystic kidney leads to the occurrence of cysts in other organs.
It does not contribute so much, how many is accompanied and not always – often the cysts are formed only in the kidneys.The polycystic kidney often develops parallel to the polycystic liver.
Polycystic kidneys are characterized by dull pain.
They are localized in the lumbar region. Patients with polycystic kidneys are quickly overworked, especially with physical exertion. Polycystic is also characterized by a frequent feeling of thirst and polyuria. Polyuria is a frequent urination (which is also abundant). Polycystic kidney leads to the development of the patient’s kidney failure. The patient often has cardiovascular disorders. On the basis of polycystosis, pyelonephritis also often develops, since infection occurs in the kidney affected by the cysts.
Polycystic kidney is divided into two types.
Each of them is caused by genetic defects. The first type is autosomal dominant. With it, the symptoms of polycystic kidneys usually find themselves between the age of thirty and forty years – that is why the autosomal dominant type of polycystic kidney was previously called polycystosis of the kidneys of adults (but cases of development of this type of polycystosis are also found among children). This type of polycystic is more common – namely in 85 -90% of cases. The risk of developing an autosomal dominant type of polycystic kidney is transmitted to the child even if one of the parents is ill with polycystosis.
The second type is autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. This type of disease is much less common and is associated with the detection of signs of the disease, usually soon after the birth of the baby (however, polycystic kidney disease in this case can be diagnosed in adolescence.) In contrast to the autosomal dominant type of polycystosis, a child can to transmit from the parents of this disease only if the genetic defect is present in both parents (the probability of the child becoming polycystic is 25%)
The science knows two genes that are responsible for the development the first type of polycystosis (autosomal dominant), as well as one gene responsible for the development of the second type of polycystosis (autosomal recessive).
There are three stages of polycystic kidneys.
They stand out on the basis of how quickly the process of development of chronic renal failure
The first stage is associated with a situation where the existing renal failure can be replenished by the capabilities of the human body.This stage of polycystic kidney is characterized by the presence of dull aching pains in the patient that are I am in the kidney and lower back. The patient also feels a general weakness in the body – he quickly gets tired, he sometimes has headaches. Directly the work of the kidneys is very insignificant.
The second stage of polycystic kidney also has a second name – the stage of subcompensation. It is associated with the process of gradual reduction of the replenishing capabilities of the human body. Frequent signs of this stage are nausea, thirst and dry mouth, increased blood pressure and the appearance of headaches.
The third stage of polycystic kidney is a stage of decompensation. It is characterized by the presence of unceasing nausea and vomiting, a strong constant feeling of thirst. The general condition of the patient in this case worsens. Kidney function is impaired – as a result of the fact that the kidneys can not perform their functions in a normal volume (and the main function of the kidneys is the selective removal of various substances that can not be used in the human body), the patient’s polycystic blood contains a considerable amount of metabolic products. To products of an exchange, for example carry a creatinine, urea, etc. That is, the kidneys are unable to remove from the body these metabolic products.
Patient complaints are the basis for diagnosing polycystic kidney disease.
The obligatory moment in the diagnosis is the examination of the patient by a specialist.Enlarged kidneys (contours of which are also uneven due to the development of the disease) are easily probed through the anterior abdominal wall; there are even cases where the kidneys are not simply enlarged, but enlarged very much, so that they can be detected without even palpating the patient – they can be seen with an unaided eye (enlarged kidneys protrude through the stomach wall of the patient). The latter situation is more common in children than in adults.
In case of polycystic kidney an urine test is performed, which in case of this disease reveals the presence of leukocytes and erythrocytes in the urine (which are shaped elements of the blood). The specific gravity of urine is constant during the day and is reduced.
Laboratory blood test data are also important. With polycystic kidneys, a blood test will reveal anemia in a patient. Anemia is a decrease in the number of red blood cells – red blood cells. Biochemical analysis of the blood of a patient with polycystic kidney shows an increase in the amount of creatinine and urea.
Ultrasound confirms the results of palpation – ultrasound makes it possible to determine the increase in kidney size due to the presence of a large number of cysts in the kidney tissue. Excretory urograms also show that in a patient with polycystosis, the renal pelvis is deformed and stretched. The reason for this is squeezing the pelvis with numerous cysts.
Polycystic kidney disease can lead to complications of pregnancy.
In a significant number of cases, women who are sick with this disease can have only one pregnancy, as the subsequent can lead to the development of a complication that can be identified as life threatening. The highest risk of complications is in women who have already had high blood pressure before pregnancy.
Polycystic kidney leads to the formation of cysts in the liver.
The likelihood of this increases with the age of the patient polycystic kidney disease. It’s pretty big. Approximately 75% of patients who are diagnosed with polycystosis, at one or another moment of life, also find cysts in the liver – they can appear in both women and men. Although, as statistics show, in women they are often found at an earlier age than men, and are large (this is due to the activity of female hormones). Women who had previously given birth, who are diagnosed with polycystosis, are more likely to develop cysts in the liver.
Polycystic liver disease can lead to many complications.
In addition to the above, complications can affect the intestines, when a patient with polycystic kidney develops a hernia and pouches appear in the wall of the bowel. In addition, a frequent manifestation of polycystic kidney disease is chronic pain, which is localized in the abdomen and back. Polycystic can lead to the development of the pathology of the heart valves, that is, the situation develops when the mitral valve (the valve that delimits the left ventricle of the heart and the left atrium) ceases to close normally, as a result of which the blood can leak back.
Polycystic is treated therapeutically.
Far wrong. The fact is that the possibility of obtaining a favorable result by conservative methods of treatment is severely limited. But conservative treatment is also used: its goals are to eliminate infection in the urinary tract, and also to combat such characteristic signs of polycystic kidney as high blood pressure and anemia.
Often the question arises about the need for surgical treatment of polycystic kidney disease. In particular, it is necessary in the detection of large cysts, their suppuration, with the appearance of severe bleeding, as well as with severe pain. Decompression of the polycystic kidney is usually performed, which means the following: the surgeon punctures the cysts and then removes their contents. The name of the operation – igunipuncture – is associated with one of its constituent stages. In our time there is the possibility of percutaneous puncture of the cysts in the kidney.This means that there is no open surgery on the kidney.
If there is a suppuration of one of the kidneys, an operation to remove it may be possible, but the condition for such an operation is the fact that the other kidney performs its functions (at least partially). There are cases when a patient with polycystic kidneys needs a kidney transplant (one or both).
You can get rid of polycystic kidneys easily enough.
Invalid statement. On the contrary, the treatment of this disease is a difficult task. The fact is that it is practically impossible to stop the development of the process that manifests itself in connection with heredity, therefore therapeutic treatment is mainly aimed at combating the complications of this disease. If the polycystosis is characterized by the presence of persistent pain, the doctor prescribes analgesic therapy.