Nikita Ivanovich Panin

Nikita Panin

was born in 1718. He was the son of Ivan Panin, who in his lifetime had risen to the rank of lieutenant-general.

Nikita Panin himself began military service in the Horse Guards Regiment. His rank was one of the lower. It was this regiment that in 1741 presented the scepter to the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna.

In 1748 Panin was sent to Sweden, where he spent the next twelve years. In 1760, when Panin returned to St. Petersburg, he was entrusted with the education of Pavel Petrovich, Nikita Ivanovich received the rank of chief governor. It was the son of an heir – the future autocrat Paul I.

In 1763 Panin was appointed the head of the foreign policy department. In 1764, Nikita Ivanovich was appointed head of the campaign for business in Poland. The purpose of this campaign was the election of a candidate favorable to the Russian empire for the Polish empire-Stanislaw Poniatowski.

Until 1774, Nikita Ivanovich Panin was the tutor of the Grand Duke Paul. Nikita Ivanovich Panin was sent into retirement in 1781 (before this time Panin was the ruler of all foreign policy of Russia).

In retirement, he drew attention to the internal problems of the Russian Empire. In 1782 he wrote an essay, which, in fact, was an introduction to the constitution. In 1783 Nikita Ivanovich Panin died.

When the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna noticed Nikita Ivanovich Panin, she sent him to Denmark, and then to Sweden

I insisted on this her favorite II. Shuvalov. He realized that there was a rival in front of him. It was possible to get rid of him in a tried and tested way – to give an instruction, necessarily connected with the excommunication from the capital. Here Panin and was forced to go ambassador to Denmark and Sweden.

Panin had a useful time in Sweden.

Here he learned how the struggle between political parties is going on. In this country Nikita Panin comprehended the depths of the art of a diplomat. Sweden helped him to understand some ideas of the Enlightenment. In particular, he realized what the power of the law means. After all, he must unconditionally follow the entire population of the country (including the autocrat). The state should in every possible way help development of trade: both internal, and external, and also to development of the industry, agriculture. He understood that a country with such rich natural resources should rely on this wealth in its development.

Panin was interested in the fate of serfs.

In this case, he believed that it would be too early to abolish serfdom. But the state, in his opinion, is obliged to protect the peasants from the arbitrariness of the landlords. Relations between them must be fully regulated, in particular, the amount of duties that the peasant is obliged to pay in favor of his master is clearly established.

In 1760 Panin became one of the country’s important dignitaries.

He was summoned by Elizaveta Petrovna to educate Pala Petrovic (future king). Nikita Ivanovich Panin took the post of Chief Overseer. This post gave many rights to Panin: he could maintain a fairly close relationship with the Grand Duke and Princess, and even had access to the Empress’s apartments. Panin’s duties included the education of faith, goodness, meekness, justice, etc. in the son of Catherine, as well as the prevention of all vices (cowardice, flattery, etc.). The history of Russia occupied the most important place among the sciences taught to Paul.

N.I. Panin did not differ in zeal to educate the heir.

It was not just laziness, but rather that in 1763 Panin was appointed head of the foreign policy department. In addition, the themes that Panin got at the dinner table were rarely educational. Basically, they dealt with the most pressing secular problems, which the pupil could not properly take due to age. There were times when the conversation had a directionality contrary to the moral standards. Panin at the pupil could tell about executions, many of which seemed to him amusing. Sometimes Pavel attended performances in the theater, obviously designed not for children.Whatever it was, Panin perfectly picked up for the pupil teachers who know their business. Among them, there was an officer, Poroshin, who had a broad outlook.

Panin took part in the palace coup June 28, 1762.

Panin was a man who did not like to take risks, so getting him involved in the palace coup was very difficult. And yet E. Dashkova decided to directly ask Panin about what he thinks about the deposition of Peter III from the throne. To this Panin responded that he was aware of the devastating impact that the reign of Peter III might have on the development of the country, but he was not a supporter of violent measures. However, Panin was for the accession to the throne of the legitimate heir – Paul. After the coup and the joy that was in the society after the overthrow of Peter III, Catherine II became empress. Speeches about the regency of Catherine Alekseevna over her minor son no longer came.

Catherine II treated Panin confidentially.

Although the purpose of the palace coup, as Panin believed, was the accession of the legitimate successor to Paul I, there was no alienation between him and Catherine II. And NI himself. Panin no longer insisted on the enthronement of Paul.

Panin is the head of the foreign policy department.

In 1763 Nikita Ivanovich Panin received from the Empress a special rescript, which referred to his temporary appointment to the post of head of the Foreign Affairs College. However, Panin occupied this post for about twenty years. The fact is that for the first two years he replaced Chancellor Vorontsov, who went on vacation for this term. But this holiday for Vorontsov was a good excuse for resignation. Proceeding from this, after the end of the vacation of the Chancellor Panin became a full-fledged head of this foreign policy department.

Panin led the investigation into the Khitrovo case.

It was associated with the Empress’s desire to marry G. Orlov. In connection with this case, there was no danger for Catherine the Great. The punishment of the “conspiracy” participants was very easy. True, this is due to the fact that Panin himself was not satisfied with the possible marriage of the Empress with his favorite.

Panin supervised the investigation of Mirovich’s affairs.

This case was much more important than the previous one. Mirovich tried to release John Antonovich from Shlisselburg Fortress and hand him the crown, thereby overthrowing Catherine II. These events occurred just in those days when the Empress was absent from the capital (she was arriving in the Baltic States). The matter itself ended in the death of the applicant for the throne and the arrest of Mirovich himself.

N.I. Panin took an active part in the election of the King of the Commonwealth – Stanislaw Poniatowski.

Under pressure, the electoral Diet of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth elected Stanislav Poniatowski king without any debate. This happened on July 4, 1764. In principle, the main source of intrigue in Warsaw was the Empress Catherine the Great herself. Panin fully fulfilled all her demands.

Panin was the initiator of the creation of the Imperial Council.

The one that was not created at the last moment. This project was of national importance – he had to help the empress in the management of the state. The Imperial Council was to consist of six to eight people, four of whom would be state secretaries – they would be responsible for the management of domestic and foreign policies, as well as military and maritime industries. The weekend days of the council were to be Saturday and Sunday. It should be taken into account the fact that Catherine the Great could both support and reject any decision of the council. Catherine II seemed to like the project: she signed the prepared Manifesto about his institution, even announced the composition of this council. But something caused Catherine the Great to tear up the leaf with the Manifesto. Why she did it. Scientists believe that partly because of the blow to self-esteem, because previously such bodies were created to help the empresses, who do not know anything about the government.Catherine II did not consider herself to be such. An even more important reason seems to be Catherine the Great’s unfortunate decision to remove favorites from managerial affairs.

The Panin project envisaged the reform of the Senate.

Panin did not see in the current Senate any significant coefficient of efficiency. It was a very cumbersome institution – it included thirty senators, each of which, according to Panin, “comes to the Senate meeting as a guest for dinner.”

Panin, leading the foreign policy department, performed only the will of Catherine II.

If the opinion of Panin contradicted the opinion of Catherine the Great, she simply ignored it. Panin always fulfilled all the orders of Catherine II, did not object to her even when she had her own convictions. In zeal, Panin was not allowed to refuse.

In honor of the achievement of Paul’s full age, Catherine the Great generously awarded NI. Panin.

He was granted the title, which was regarded as a field marshal’s, more than eight thousand serfs, and also one hundred thousand rubles. Disposing himself with these gifts, Panin showed himself as a man of the noble and disinterested: he gave about half of the peasants to his three main subordinates, although they owed nothing to Nikita Ivanovich.

Panin was not married.

Without getting a family, he, nevertheless, did not allow casual connections. But all the same, Nikita Ivanovich made two attempts to get married. In 1766, Panin fell in love with Countess Stroganov (who, by the way, was daughter of Chancellor Vorontsov). In this regard, Nikita Ivanovich abandoned his affairs, even began to lose respect for himself, but Catherine the Great did not punish him in any way. The Empress in 1767 granted Nikita Ivanovich a count’s dignity. This gift was dedicated to the anniversary of the coronation of Catherine II. The second attempt refers to 1768. Panin passionately fell in love with Anna Sheremetev – the daughter of PB Sheremetev. Even a wedding was even scheduled – on May 10, 1768. However, before the wedding Anna fell ill with smallpox and soon died. This was a significant loss for Panin. Nikita Ivanovich again neglected all matters. Catherine the Great did not remove him from the business, because she understood how educated he was. She appreciated his talents as a diplomat.

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