– secretory fluid produced by the mammary glands of mammals and humans during lactation, physiologically designed to feed the cubs.
In the first days after delivery, colostrum is allocated, which gradually turns into milk of the usual composition. Caloric content of female milk is 65-70 kcal / 100 g, pH = 6,9-7,5, density 1,030-1,032 g / cm3, chemical composition (%): water 87,4, casein 0,91, albumin and globulin 1, 23, fat 3.76, milk sugar 6.29, ash 0.31; contains also a certain amount of mineral salts and vitamins A, B, C and D.
Milk of farm animals is a valuable food product. Milk of cows is especially widely used in human nutrition, more particularly milk of goats, sheep, mares, camels, donkeys, buffalo, zebu, yak, reindeer. From milk of animals produce lactic acid products, butter, ice cream. Milk includes: water, proteins, fat, milk sugar (lactose), minerals (including microelements), vitamins, enzymes, hormones, immune bodies, gases, microorganisms, pigments.
In the air, milk is sour, that is, it is exposed to acid fermentation. The top layer at souring turns into sour cream, the bottom layer into curdled milk. Being exposed to alcoholic fermentation, milk gives koumiss (mare’s milk) and kefir (cow’s milk).
Milk in boxes that are sold in stores are made from powder.
This is a myth, from the packing of the content depends little. Milk, which is produced in whole or in part from dairy canned food, has, or, in any case, must have, the inscription “restored”. In fact, it is a milkshake, and milk can not be called.
Milk can only be drunk to children, in adults this drink is not absorbed.
This is a fairly common myth, generated by the argument that in nature no mammal does not drink milk in adulthood. This is confirmed by information about the absence of the gene responsible for the successful processing of milk, in humans throughout the sixth millennium BC. But the thing is that the ability to tolerate milk sugar – lactose, evolved in the human body very quickly – by the fifth millennium BC. Thus, milk is perfectly absorbed in the body of an adult person, except for cases of individual milk intolerance or hypersensitivity to milk proteins.
A glass of milk is the best medicine for all diseases.
Undoubtedly, milk is not a panacea for all ailments, but it is known that Hippocrates also treated neural disorders diluted with donkey milk, and Avicenna isolated the healing power of cow’s milk. There is also a known method for treating tuberculosis with koumiss, a drink from mares’ milk. Modern scientists also admit that milk is especially useful in atherosclerosis, as well as in chronic liver diseases. In addition, milk has the ability to reduce blood pressure in hypertension.
Milk is given “for harmfulness”, since only it neutralizes all negative effects on the human body.
This is a myth. To date, it has been scientifically proven that milk has the ability to remove harmful substances just like any other liquid. Thus, on toxic production milk can be replaced with the same success for juices, fruit drinks or even tea.
Milk is worth drinking separately from all foods.
This is really so, and all because, getting into the stomach, the milk simply curls up and envelops all the pieces of other food, thus preventing the process of their digestion. Therefore, it is better to use milk separately. The exception is probably people with partial lactose intolerance, it is just better to drink some solid foods with milk, which will significantly slow down the absorption of lactose, without affecting the benefits of milk.
Pasteurized milk is no different from sterilized milk.
And yet there is a difference, and, moreover, significant.When pasteurized, the milk is heated to 60-70 degrees Celsius, which allows preserving some useful microorganisms, although the shelf life is reduced to 36 hours. But sterilized milk, although it can be stored for up to 6 months, but because of heating to 115-135 degrees and subsequent sharp cooling, it loses almost all useful bacteria. Thus, sterilized milk loses in utility pasteurized, but neither one nor the other heat treatment has any effect on preserving the amount of vitamins.
Homogenized milk contains genetically modified foods.
This is a myth of pure water, or even more appropriately – pure milk. Homogenize the milk before sterilization, so that, with prolonged storage, the taste of the drink does not damage the exfoliated cream. Homogenization is just a crushing of fat globules in milk into small particles.
It is impossible to determine whether whole milk is diluted with water or not.
This is misleading. This method is also very simple. You just have to put milk in a glass of water. A drop of undiluted milk will first sink to the bottom and only then spread, and if the milk has been diluted, the drop will dissolve in the water immediately.
Milk is the source of allergens.
This is certainly untrue, if only it is a question of natural milk, as well as consumers with no allergy to milk protein. However, it should be borne in mind that the more heat treatment is applied to milk, the worse this milk is absorbed – due to a change in the ability of the protein to dissolve, and thus the risk of allergic reactions increases.
If the shelf life of milk has expired, you can make cottage cheese from it.
It’s only partly true. After all, for example, from the sterilized milk of cottage cheese it will not turn out exactly – at the end of the shelf life it does not turn sour, but just spoils, as during thermal processing, along with other bacteria, those that cause lactic fermentation are also destroyed. This is the payment for a long, up to six months, shelf life of sterilized milk. So those who want to experiment with the independent production of cottage cheese at home can be advised to apply for these purposes milk with a shorter shelf life – up to a day and a half or buy a jar of fresh milk in the market.
Dairy products help to lose weight.
Studies have shown that daily consumption of dairy products (1 yogurt, 1 cup low-fat milk and 15 gr. Cheese) helps to burn fats and reduce weight. Dutch scientists have proven that calcium-rich foods also contribute to weight loss. All this is true, but this does not mean that you can eat everything, drink milk or seize yogurt, and do not gain extra pounds. If you want to lose weight, keep track of what you eat, for calories and fats, and include dairy products in your diet. Sour milk products are indispensable on the person’s table.
It’s true. Since man has long been using milk in his food, he managed to transform it for his needs. Fermented milk products are good for health, because they contain a lot of useful bacteria – an important component for the work of the intestines. A state of the intestine affects the entire human body, maintaining the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract in a normal state is one of the main conditions of our health. Kefir, cottage cheese, sour cream can be eaten by people with lactose insufficiency, because under the influence of bacteria the amount of lactose decreases to a harmless level (as well as the amount of radionuclides and dioxins). And the beneficial properties of milk as a result of lactic fermentation do not deteriorate, but even improve.
Ordinary milk can be replaced with soy without any damage to health.
This is a myth. Soy milk, although it resembles a natural consistency, can in no way become a substitute for it.However, for people with full lactose intolerance, soy milk can be a good alternative to the usual, the more it is proved that prolonged use of soy protein contributes to the prevention of cancer.
Africans can not stand milk at all.
Indeed, not only Africans, but also many peoples inhabiting the countries of Asia and Africa, the North American Indians are not tolerant of milk. Milk sugar, contained in milk, is cleaved by a special enzyme. As soon as the baby has a stage of lactotrophic nutrition, the activity of this enzyme also decreases. And if some people did not use milk in the course of a long evolution, they developed lactose intolerance. Therefore, people of Asian and Negro races from milk can have diarrhea. The residents of Scandinavia are well tolerated by milk, where dairy cattle breeding has been developed for 2 thousand years already.