Inoculations

It would seem – where do the myths about vaccinations come from. But, like any misconceptions and myths, rumors of vaccinations appear where there is an information vacuum. If people are deprived of reliable information, then there are various speculations, inappropriate fears, everyday thoughts of activists who advocate against vaccination.

The inaction or inadequate work of those that conduct educational work or an information campaign is not the last role in the appearance of errors. This applies to doctors, beginning with the district pediatrician and finishing with the highest level of health workers.

Inadequacy can manifest itself in various forms – from underestimation of the importance of the issue, to misunderstanding of the true intelligence of parents, from refusal from modern information channels to providing idealized life-torn data. The main role is given to the relevance of the knowledge of those who should bring the whole truth about vaccinations to people. Here also we will try to consider the basic myths about the most known vaccines and inoculations.

Newborns from tuberculosis are vaccinated only in Russia.

In fact, this vaccine, called BCG, is practiced not only in Russia. As an example, we can cite the United States, where it is introduced to newborns and children at risk for tuberculosis, in France – in general all children under 7 years old, and in Finland – to newborns. Statistics show that BCG is effective in 80% in the prevention of severe forms of the disease in children, so WHO even recommends vaccination with this vaccine in countries with intensive circulation of microbes, including Russia. The BCS vaccine is supplied by UNICEF to many countries for newborns. This is in the light of the WHO program for assisting vaccinations in developing countries.

Vaccines are ineffective, for example, the same BCG.

Unlike other vaccines, BCG is not really 100% effective in preventing tuberculosis, not being, in fact, a means of controlling infection. That is, in principle, it is not possible to demand a decrease in the incidence of BCG. Even more absurd is the example of BCG when it comes to vaccines in general. But one can not dismiss the fact that BCG protects 85% of those vaccinated against severe, generalized forms of tuberculosis. And this fact justifies the use of the vaccine in Russia, given the high level of tuberculosis.

Mantoux or tuberculin reaction is the same bacteria.

Actually, tuberculin is not a vaccine at all and does not contain living bacteria. It includes extract from microbacteria, which are a mixture of different antigens and semi-antigen sticks of Koch, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Consequently, the Mantoux test is a test of the intensity of immunity to tuberculosis, rather than vaccination.

There is absolutely no point in trying Mantoux.

There is an opinion that the Mantoux test results can be influenced by various extraneous factors – ranging from allergies, age, ending with skin sensitivity, nutrition, etc. Hence – can they be trusted? But WHO and the American Pediatric Academy consider the Mantoux test to be a very important means of controlling tuberculosis. Indeed, many factors can influence the result of the sample, but this is manifested only in a minority of children. In the overwhelming majority of cases, you can take into account all the incoming factors – vaccination history, the presence and nature of postvaccinal scars on the shoulder, the results of the sample itself, repeated samples, the result of the sample in another modification (Pirka), which will unequivocally determine what the doctor is dealing with – postvaccinal whether immunity or tuberculosis.

BCG can fall asleep in the body, waking up later, with stress or weakness of a person, provoking tuberculosis.

According to this logic, the entire population of Russia sooner or later will be ill with tuberculosis. Men – after the first examination or service in the army, and women – after childbirth.In fact, the bacteria from BCG in the body do not fall asleep at all, but are absorbed by the immune cells of the skin or are digested by them, perhaps even an independent death of these cells after some time. Sometimes, as an argument, an example is given with Koch’s wand, which can live in the lungs for years. However, it is necessary to consider the nutrient medium and the requirements for the living conditions of the bacteria. Lungs are an ideal place for the reproduction of bacteria in terms of the presence of oxygen, nutrition and temperature. But the skin, being in fact a rough connective tissue, for microbes is an unimportant nutrient medium, since it does not give them the opportunity to receive neither temperature, nor normal nutrition, nor air. There are also cutaneous forms of tuberculosis, but their occurrence is accompanied by strong immunity disorders, related, for example, to AIDS. It is no coincidence that the intradermal method was chosen for BCG vaccination, because this place (skin) is extremely unsuccessful for the life and reproduction of microbacteria. Evidence of the absence of “falling asleep” BCG in the skin is the extinction of tuberculin test several years after vaccination.

BCG can have unpredictable consequences, because bacteria in the body can acquire new properties.

The creators of the BCG vaccine in 1921 hardly knew anything about the return of virulent properties weakened by microbes and viruses, as it became known only three decades later. In fact, reversion of virulent properties is inherent only in viruses that have a high rate of reproduction, but bacteria simply die, not having enough time to form thousands of generations. In addition, for the return of virulent properties, microorganisms must be able to mutate, which is much more inherent in viruses than bacteria that have been mutated for decades. An example is the development of resistance to antibiotics. With the correct introduction of BCG as a complication, pulmonary forms of tuberculosis can not appear, because for this it is necessary to penetrate the microbacteria into the lungs from the skin, which does not happen in principle.

There are no tuberculosis patients around, so there are no infections and it is not necessary to vaccinate.

A person is characterized by such a reaction when he tries to protect himself from something he has not yet come across. But after all, when a person already has a serious virus, it makes no sense to prevent the disease and do not get vaccinated. So is it worth the wait? For a child, such an approach is fraught with the fact that he can simply get sick with all the infections until the mother is convinced that the baby can carry both hepatitis B, pertussis, tetanus, and tuberculosis …

Vaccinations destroy natural immunity, which itself fights against many diseases.

In this issue it is customary to refer to certain scientists, who, no doubt, no one has seen. In fact, there is no natural specific immunity that is directed against specific bacteria and viruses. Indeed, the body has innate nonspecific mechanisms, for example, the formation of interferon, but there is no inherent immunity against hepatitis B, influenza, tetanus. Otherwise, why would you need vaccinations at all?

Vaccination to a child is better to postpone until the immune system matures, since immunity is transferred to him with the mother’s milk for the entire period of feeding.

The T-cell link of the immune system completely completes its development only to 5 years, and begins to work for the first time only in a year and a half. So what – do not get vaccinated before 5 years? Or can it be for this period that the baby should be helped to fight infections if his body does not yet have such capabilities? The mistake will be to assume that immunity is transmitted to the child during breastfeeding, the fact is that the baby receives immunity from the mother, while still in her womb during pregnancy. Thus, the child can get immunity from rubella, chickenpox, measles and other diseases, if he had a mother, it is no accident that up to one-year-old vaccinations against these infections are not done at all.The fact is that the mother’s immunity can inactivate the live vaccine until it works. With breast milk, few antibodies are transmitted and this is not enough to protect against infections transmitted by airborne droplets. This is due to the fact that antibodies do not enter the respiratory tract of the baby, digesting in the intestines. Breastfeeding in any case can not provide for infections, since it is impossible to determine the exact amount and quality of antibodies. And if this myth were true, would the toddlers be sick with pertussis or the flu?

With vaccinations, you should wait at least a year.

Immediately the question arises – why not up to three or five? What is remarkable is the one-year-old baby, because changes in the immunity of the child appear significantly in 1.5 years and at 5 years. So what is to be expected, because the risk of meeting with infections that could be excluded by vaccination is very great – at least in a pediatric outpatient clinic from a child with whooping cough. Tetanus sticks are common and live very well in the intestines of people, possessing good ability to survive. In the case of poliomyelitis, a child can get a vaccine virus from those children who have already been vaccinated, and the results can be the most serious. It should be mentioned that the dosages of antigens in the DTP and ADP vaccines are very high, they are calculated for the weak immune system of the child, in order to awaken it and get a minimum of adverse reactions. This is taken into account when developing the vaccination calendar, in Russia this vaccine is not vaccinated by children older than 4 years, and in France – over 6. Therefore, with the transfer of all vaccinations, the second or subsequent years of life, the risk of adverse reactions only increases.

Ideally, it is necessary to compile individual vaccination cards for each child so as not to destroy natural immunity.

In order to compile an immune blood map based on existing methods, it will take about 50 ml of blood – try to imagine the procedure for taking it from a three-month-old baby. But, as we found out, there is no specific immunity at all, and only the immunity transferred from the mother against a number of diseases remains. And the cost of such research is quite high, about $ 200. Whether there is a sense to spend such sum in the conditions when ready antibodies in an organism of the child still and are not present?

Vaccines are best administered separately, and not together, then the body will be easier to cope with bacteria.

We are not going to talk about exotic vaccines like tulelemia in this case. Live bacteria are introduced only in the case of BCG vaccine, therefore it is inappropriate to talk about the summation of bacteria. The immune system in general has multi-tasking properties, because due to different elements and their independence from each other it is able to “work” simultaneously on different tasks without harming each. Scientists have conducted studies, having calculated the number of immune cells in the body, the speed of their reproduction. It was found that human immunity can fully and qualitatively handle about 10 thousand antigens. But such quantity is never introduced to a person, even in the first year of his life, when the number of vaccinations is the maximum. Today in the world the tendency to creation of polyvalent preparations is traced, so in 2000 the hexavalent vaccine “Hexavac” was registered in Europe. In Europe and America in general, pentavalent preparations “Pentavac” and “Pentasel” are widely distributed. It should be noted also that fact that in such preparations of ballast substances is always less than in vaccines separately.

In the 1990s there was a wave of diphtheria diseases among vaccinated people.

Some sources even mention the figures in 85% among those with vaccination. However, official sources testify to the contrary – most of the patients were either not vaccinated on time, or they missed the planned vaccination. Such a picture was formed among adults, among the children with vaccination, the situation was much better.Most of the patients had contact with the “exporters” of diphtheria from the South Asian region of the CIS, where vaccinations with the collapse of the USSR in general ceased to pay attention. Today, even in developed countries, the coverage of the adult population with vaccinations of ADS-M is about 30%, and we do not even talk about the timeliness of vaccination.

дети In the first year of life, children can not get hepatitis B.

Vaccination against hepatitis B is attributed to risk groups, including drug addicts, homosexuals, prisoners, etc. It would seem – where are the children? The risks of obtaining a virus can be divided into three groups. First, it is medical manipulations, which involve contact with blood. Secondly, sex, in the third, household contact with carriers (including combs, toys, contact during labor with the blood of the mother). And this threat is not ridiculous, because in Moscow this virus rushes up to 8% of the population. If a child falls ill with hepatitis B in the first year of life, then with almost 100% probability he becomes a spreader of the infection and its chronic carrier. The vaccination will give confidence in protecting the baby from the virus for at least the next 15 years. Can parents be sure that one of their surroundings is not among the carriers of the virus? A vaccination is better early, because the less age, the more effective the hepatitis vaccine works.

Many do not get vaccinated at all and do not get sick at the same time.

It is a mistake to think that the 10-30 people you know are the measure of the health of the whole nation. For comparison, it is necessary to take into account groups that are the same age, sex, pathology, risk of infection, and other factors. Otherwise, we get a comparison of the incomparable. If you conduct a study of all the norms, it turns out that even for a simple flu with good and timely vaccination, the risk is reduced by 2-4 times, this is proved by hundreds of studies around the world. On the other hand in Moscow, few people get vaccinated against hepatitis A, and few people get sick of it, but the urgency of this disease is extremely low. But if the comparison is conducted in a region where hepatitis A is common, it turns out that they are only unvaccinated, the question of the need for vaccination will disappear by itself.

Live vaccines only clog up the body with unnatural strains for nature.

Unlike natural viruses, the microorganisms of a vaccine are devoid of completely dangerous properties, not being able to cause disease in humans, and do not allow it to infect others. That version of the virus that is present in the vaccine, in fact, is only able to form immunity. Therefore vaccine viruses of rubella or measles are not transmitted from person to person, mass vaccination does not cause epidemics of vaccine diseases. Microorganisms during vaccination live five days, as with a normal infection. There are no vaccine viruses in nature that would live in the body for a long time after vaccination. And what then would be the use in vaccination, which would cause a chronic infection. In fact, this rule, like in any other, has its own exceptions. For example, live poliovirus vaccine OPV, from which it is possible to spread the virus from vaccinated to others, although extremely rare. Single cases of virus preservation from OPV have been described for many years, but all these cases were associated with the presence of immunodeficiency. But more modern inactivated poliovaccine is devoid of such features. Other exceptions may be related to gross violations of vaccination techniques, as well as rarely used vaccines against anthrax and tularemia that can give a contact infection, a smallpox vaccine, which, however, has not been used in Russia for 20 years. About the contamination of the biosphere and speech it can not be, because according to the theory of evolution, weakened individuals in the environment do not survive. The weakened nedo-viruses of the vaccine simply can not clog the biosphere, since in principle they lack the capacity for dissemination.

DTP vaccination causes many complications.

This vaccine is given to children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, accompanied by high fever in children, sleepless nights, tears. First of all, it should be noted that some children have no negative manifestations at all. And the side events after the vaccination are usually divided into normal reactions, severe reactions and complications. It is considered an absolutely normal reaction to an increase in temperature after vaccination, as well as its increase in acute respiratory infections. After all, the body releases special substances – cytokines and other mediators of the inflammatory-immune system, which reacts to the inoculation or infection. The fact that the temperature rises just indicates that the immune reaction has started, that is, such a sign is not only normal, but even favorable in terms of developing immunity. Do not confuse complications and normal reactions. Anaphylactic shock of course can not be considered, but the temperature rise to subfebrile digits – too, can not be mistaken for complications. In its pure form, complications in general are extremely rare, the usual adverse reactions more often dozens of times. Yes, and control of the quality of the vaccine is still in progress, if complications to it are quite frequent, then the drug is simply withdrawn from production until a re-examination.

Only teenagers are vaccinated against hepatitis B, as it is dangerous for children.

One can not be guided by some doubts, because otherwise you should stop the production of cars, so there are doubts about their safety. And vaccination of teenagers can not be considered a refusal of vaccinations of babies. Just the same small children are vaccinated in Russia almost entirely. And it makes no sense to talk about fears or suspicions, the development of hepatitis B is so far gone in the world today that there is no time to wait for 13 years to instill a teenager. Age of 13 years was chosen not by chance – it is at this time, many begin to get acquainted with sex life, drugs. Ideally, the same should be given to children in the first year of life, and adolescents, but the problem becomes the financing of such a program. Today, vaccinations against hepatitis B are included in the vaccination schedules of all more or less developed countries, this is the best evidence of recognizing vaccinations as a successful measure to control the disease.

Monitoring the quality of the vaccine after its use indicates that it is experimental.

According to this myth on us, our children often put experiments to find out the nature and number of complications after vaccination. Let us recall the procedure for registration and development of a vaccine both in Russia and abroad. Phase I clinical trials are conducted on animals, during phase II vaccine is tested in patients at risk for this disease, the experiments conclude with Phase III, during which the vaccine is tested on a large number of healthy people. Usually their number can reach several tens of thousands, at all stages people are informed about participation in experiments, the research protocol is approved by the ethical committee. Successful passage of the drug at all stages of the study allows you to apply for registration of the vaccine in the country in which it was developed. That is, the registration of the vaccine actually shows that all the tests are over, nothing unexpected can be expected from the observer. The vaccine is conducted by state authorities and scientific organizations post-registration research, but this is not an observation by the experiment, but quality control that is conducted for all pharmacological drugs in general. Similar monitoring of the quality of their products is carried out by auto-giants and food producers. Often, only after a mass introduction of a car or medicine, rare features are revealed, but for a long time people have successfully used this product, so that there can be no question of any conscious testing in public.

It is easy to register a vaccine in Russia, there is no need to conduct clinical trials for this.

It should be said that Gossanepidnadzor does not participate in the registration of vaccines, they are registered by the Ministry of Health. Quality control of imported vaccines, testing with them involved the Institute named after Tarasevich. For registration in Russia, an imported vaccine must be registered in the producing country and have experience of application there. How to register, we have already considered above. In Europe, the most serious approach to this issue. As evidence of the myth, the vaccination of adolescents in Perm with the Rudivax vaccine was reported, which was supposedly an experiment. In fact, the novelty was the very fact of using an imported vaccine against rubella. “Rudivax” itself has been used since 1968 in more than 70 countries, during this time, about 75 million doses were administered. And at the time of application the vaccine has already been registered in Russia. We just fell behind by 30 years from the whole world.

Combined vaccines against mumps, rubella and measles (MMR vaccine) can cause autism.

Another bogeyman who made a lot of noise after the publication of the English doctor Wakefield. The doctor came to the conclusion that out of 170 children he watched from a certain majority, this combined vaccine, especially the measles component, was the cause of autism. It is remarkable absurd proposal of the doctor to apply these same vaccinations separately, including against measles. However, the bold assumptions of the doctor were not confirmed by scientists, therefore at first the Ministry of Health of Great Britain, and then the WHO publicly refuted these statements. Wakefield’s work was called unscientific, as gross violations were found in research methods. However, the myth caused panic among parents, which led to a drop in vaccine coverage and a sharp increase in morbidity caused by mumps.

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