Hurricane

A person can call himself a king of nature, but often she can not oppose anything to her. When nature starts to be angry, then all that remains for us is to hide, run, and restore the destroyed. One of the most famous natural disasters is a hurricane. You can call it a tropical cyclone or a typhoon, it does not change the essence.

The Japanese called the “divine wind” the word “kamikaze”. The tornado is different in that the wind is stronger than the hurricane. But this phenomenon does not last long. Hurricanes can reach the size of entire states, they are most active for several days. Hurricanes hit the ground with rains, leading to floods. There are waves reaching 5 and even 15 meters in height.

Those on the way to such hurricanes should know how to behave. From the correct behavior depends the life of a person, the safety of his property. And to fight the enemy, you need to know him better. The most interesting thing about hurricanes is unknown.

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There are a lot of snow and ice in the hurricanes.

These formations appear at high temperatures. But the clouds go up kilometers to the troposphere. There, the weather on the planet is predominantly formed. The largest hurricanes have hot pillars that can reach even the stratosphere. At this altitude, the low temperature is about 50 degrees below zero, and the humidity there turns into ice and snow. Those who fall into the hurricane say that the sky is clouded about the day before the storm began. The cirrus clouds are blame for clouding, they are part of the humidity and heat flow that underlies the hurricane. The clouds themselves consist of ice crystals and are visible even in pictures from space. Most of the snow particles fall from the upper tier and immediately melts. But there is something upstairs. Fresh research has shown that the ice thrown by hurricanes into the stratosphere can contribute to even global warming.

Hurricanes “breathe” and “blink”.

The hurricane’s breath comes from the surface of the ocean. Air flows not directly, thanks to the Coriolis effect. Because of this, in the northern hemisphere, the wind deviates counter-clockwise, and in the southern hemisphere it is clockwise. The effect does not allow the influx to reach the low pressure center. A strong wind surrounds the center and rises, so the wall of the “eye” appears. This influx rises for tens of kilometers, and then it also spins from the center outwards in the form of a pinnate outflow. The exhalation flows in the opposite direction to that which comes from the surface. And part of the rising air in the hurricane is not included. It slows down and descends to the surface, while losing its moisture and clouds. Such a central area of ​​the eye with clear weather is the quietest in the storm. But the situation can change quickly. In large hurricanes, there are cycles of changing the wall of the eye, during which it decreases in size. The eye seems to “blink” and fill with clouds, and then opens again. This occurs in connection with the formation of a new wall of the eye.

Registration of hurricanes by seismographs.

Water is a rather heavy substance. In a typical wave, a large volume of liquid is contained. The fluctuations in the water surface arising in the course of the hurricane, and, consequently, also in mass, far exceed the usual ones. In the course of a hurricane, waves receive a powerful impulse, which determines their speed. They fight against the earth with great force, from which the earth trembles. Giant waves collide with each other and in the ocean, generating a low-frequency sound. Scientists have discovered such seismic waves at the beginning of the 20th century, they considered it simply background noise. And only half a century later it became clear that infrasound seismic signals are generated by hurricanes. In 1938, signals from the fifth category hurricanes that hit the East coast, recorded seismographs in Alaska. Modern devices are much more sensitive. The activity of Sandy’s superstorm was noted in all seismographic tables throughout the United States.With the help of seismographs, scientists even learned to track changes in air pressure in a hurricane.

The appearance of a hurricane.

Nobody really knows what exactly triggers the appearance of the hurricane. It is believed that it appears when the warm moist air rises above the ocean. This creates a zone of low pressure. It attracts new air, it also heats up, gets moisture and picks up. This is how the cycle starts when the air constantly circulates above the surface. Rising up, it cools and turns into thunderclouds. They unite and form first a tropical depression, then a storm, and then a hurricane. Experts are concerned that this does not always happen even with the condition of existence of all necessary conditions. A hurricane must be formed, but this does not happen. Hence, the reason for his appearance is something else. Scientists could only identify some of the auxiliary factors – vorticity and the gradient of wind speed, but others remain a mystery. Hurricanes are born as they please, each time bringing to a standstill researchers.

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Effect on the Atlantic Hurricanes of the Sahara Desert.

It turns out that if there were no Sahara desert, then there would be less hurricanes. The fact is that the huge desert is in a critical place, near the equator. To the south and north lie cooler wet regions. When mixing hot and dry air with a slightly colder and wetter the east wind is born. It was called the East African jet stream, it is responsible for the appearance of tropical air waves. Those at the sea subsidence, but under the right conditions and in the presence of a number of factors can turn into a hurricane. About 90 percent of all large formations of this kind appear this way. This also applies to hurricanes that appear in the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean. It seems strange that the powerful Isel that hit Hawaii in 2014 was originally an African tropical wave. But the Sahara may prevent the hurricane from appearing. Air flows of the desert are a lot of dry air with particles of sand. He goes from the desert to the west across the Atlantic, next to the tropical waves. Such currents can destroy the developing tropical system, reducing its moisture, creating a temperature inversion, increasing the gradient of wind speed. So the tropical system will be destroyed by the same desert that it spawned.

Hurricanes release a lot of energy.

It’s not a secret for anyone that these formations are characterized by regular rains, strong winds and high humidity in conditions of stuffiness. But many do not realize that hurricanes are born at a high temperature, which is the result of cloud formation and rain. You can understand this by going in and out into the pool or bath. We immediately begin to feel colder, even if the water was warm. Just droplets from our skin begin to evaporate into the air. Hurricanes also initiate this process in the opposite direction. They use condensation to draw water out of the air and release heat. Hurricanes have a large margin of humidity and air, which allows them to release an impressive amount of thermal energy. Due to the creation of clouds and the formation of rain, a hurricane can release energy 200 times as much as is generated during this time on the whole planet. So nature has its powerful thermal engines.

Clear borders of hurricanes.

And although the destructive energy of hurricanes frightens, massive storms still have to obey certain laws of physics. The Coriolis effect causes the formations to rotate in a certain way. Because of this, hurricanes can not cross the equator. Another principle, the Fujiwara effect, states that two cyclones may not merge, even if they rotate next to each other. Both cyclones should not be tropical. If Fujiwara interacts with the usual low pressure area, then a powerful hurricane will appear, like Sandy. He originally headed for the sea, and then turned and hit the East Coast.Hurricanes can also be weakened if they shake the warm upper layers of the ocean and push cold water upward. Since storms need a high temperature, cold water prevents them from intensifying and can generally extinguish the hurricane.

Loops of Australian cyclones.

Traditionally, hurricanes have to pass through any global wind belt in which they happened to be. This explains why the hurricanes of the Northern Hemisphere are first directed to the west, and then turn north and east. At first they are “pushed” to the equator by the eastern tropical trade winds. If the hurricanes manage to survive long enough over the water, they are already confronted with prevailing western winds. This is why the hurricanes that threaten, as it seems, to the eastern shores of America, go to sea. An exception is the situation with Hurricane Sandy in 2012, when the Fujiwara effect proved to be stronger than the directing winds. General rules should work in the Southern Hemisphere. They work there, but not in Australia. Studies have shown that there tropical cyclones are moving much more erratically than elsewhere. These objects not only make cool conversations, but even execute loops. For meteorologists, predicting the behavior of local hurricanes is a real headache. The reasons for this phenomenon are not clear. Somehow, the weather affects the hurricanes.

Tornadoes generated by hurricanes.

Tornadoes are the same rotating storm systems as the hurricane. However, he is just bigger and lives longer. That’s why hurricanes are more destructive. In addition, they know how to form a tornado, sometimes even a few days after the appearance at the shore. A tornado can form after the hurricane has reached the earth and the beginning of extinction. This is due to the removal from the water source of heat. In the tropics such a decay generates winds of different speeds at different altitudes. Gradient of speeds and causes a tornado. Usually they do not exceed the F2 level on the Fujita scale, however they can quite cause destruction and death of people. Although most tornadoes are born in the outer band, some somehow appear near the center. Experts believe that the damage caused by a wall of a hurricane’s eye can actually come from a tornado. Almost all the hurricanes devastating America, before moving into the interior of the continent, still form a tornado. This suggests that hurricanes from the northern part of the Gulf Coast generate more tornadoes. But the hurricanes from the East Coast are only partially touching the land. Basically, they remain in the open sea, far from the shore.

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Hurricanes can be amplified and mutated.

In the Atlantic, hurricanes are called tropical cyclones, and in some places in the Pacific they are called typhoons. In fact, it’s all the same storms. Half of them in the North Atlantic and one third in the Pacific Ocean are transformed into extratropical cyclones. This does not make them anything special, just their actions are not based on heat. Huge rotating cyclones exist due to the difference in air temperature. And such cyclones are quite dangerous. In 1991, a hurricane began, which then developed into an extra-tropical cyclone called “Perfect Storm”. He sank the ship Andrea Gale and devastated New England in 1991. But after the extratropical transition, the cyclone usually disappears quickly. But here lies the danger. Hurricane, coming with its heat reserve and temperature difference, may even increase. This is what happened with the “Ideal Storm” in 1991, as well as with the superstorm “Sandy” in 2012 on the East Coast.

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