Hofmann Ernst Theodore Amadeus
(E.T. Hoffman, 1776 – 1822 gg.) – a famous German romantic writer, composer. Born in Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad) on January 24, 1776 in the family of a native of the Polish noble family and the daughter of a royal lawyer. His pen belongs to all the famous “The Nutcracker”, short stories “Little Tsakhs”, “The Golden Pot”, “Don Juan”, “The Sandman”, the novel “Elixirs of Satan”, the unfinished novel “Life views of the cat of Murra”, the opera “Ondine” and many others, both literary and musical works.
Hoffmann grew up almost an orphan.
Three years after his birth, his parents divorced, and despite the fact that little Hoffmann stayed with his mother, the ever-sick woman practically did not take part in the upbringing of her son. This was done by Uncle Hoffmann, the family lawyer Otto Derfer, who considered it his civic duty to instill in the child the basics of piety and strict morality. And again, failure. The nephew and uncle were too different – a funny dreamer Hoffmann and a dull pedant Derfer. Between relatives who lived side by side for 18 years, there was a tense relationship, which, incidentally, did not prevent Uncle Otto from introducing Ernest Theodor to music.
Hoffmann received his legal education.
After graduation, under the influence of family persuasions and the example of a best friend, Hoffmann began to study law at the University of Königsberg of Albertina. During his studies, Hoffmann was a student of the lectures of Immanuel Kant, who often skipped, and in his spare time from studying, he imitated the manners of the famous philosopher. After graduating from university, Hoffmann works as a judicial investigator under the Koenigsberg district administration, and subsequently a referendum in the Berlin Court of Appeal and after passing the Third Legal State Examination as an assessor in the supreme court of Polish Poznan.
Daily drinking was a habit for Hoffmann.
After moving from capital Berlin to a quiet Poznan, Hoffmann, who was more than ever acutely aware of the gap between the romantic dream and the reality, joyfully plunged into the everyday drink that accompanied him, as an interesting, talented person and witty conversationalist, in society. In the future, love for alcohol also does not leave Hoffmann. Especially he drinks a lot in Bamberg, burning from the heart-rending passions.
Hoffmann’s life for the pursuit of failure.
Well, in part this is true. Since childhood, spent without parental love and care, Hoffmann’s life reminded little of a stable burgher existence. Youth, dedicated to the dull right and love for a married woman, the mother of five children, depressed moods because of the realization of how far the surrounding reality is far from the romantic ideal that the artist’s soul requires, leaving to the bottle and caustic satire in relation to the nobility, which led to the actual “exile” of an unwanted official in the deeply provincial Plock – all this is difficult to regard as a quiet existence, which, incidentally, did not always happen well-fed. After the occupation of Warsaw by the French, Hoffman has a very hard time – he loses an apartment, and then a daughter, dying during a trip to his wife’s relatives. Wife Hoffmann, who received a severe head injury, suffers, both morally and physically, and the writer himself, by the beginning of 1807, gets sick with a nervous fever. A few years later, Hoffmann is comprehended by a new misfortune – a non-existent way out of love for a young girl. And after – again lack of money, and creativity, gloomy and sublime, creativity suited to the life of the creator.
Hoffman is considered to be the founder of musical criticism in Germany.
Beginning in 1803 his literary activity Hoffmann is published not only as a master of words, but also as a successful music critic.After moving to Warsaw in the spring of 1804 as state counselor of the Prussian Supreme Court, Hoffmann begins to actively engage in music and even changes one of his names (Wilhelm) to the name of his beloved composer Mozart and becomes Amadeus. In Warsaw, he organizes an orchestra and he himself directs them in the performance of his musical compositions. In the Bamberg period, Hoffmann publishes critical articles on the works of Beethoven, Oginski, and a number of other composers, numbering 25.
Hoffmann was not only a talented writer, but also a good musician.
At the age of 12 he already owned an organ, a violin, a harp and a guitar. After a series of family misfortunes in Bamberg, Hoffmann devotes his entire life to music. He not only works in the local theater, but also writes his own musical works. In these years, Hoffmann creates a singspiel “Ghost”, operas “Mermaid”, “Aurora”, “Undine” and many others.
There was a tragic love in Hoffmann’s life.
She became a young student of the maestro – beautiful and talented, according to Hoffmann, Julia Mark. At that time, the writer was already 30, he was not very successful in his legal or creative career, he is poor, married, weak in health, has an addiction to alcohol, and looks absolutely unattractive. What can connect him with a young girl behind whose back a good position in society, youth, freedom and a good inheritance? .. Only music. But even she does not allow Hoffmann to forget himself. He goes crazy with love, he starts intrigues to forget Julia, and again runs to her, burning with passion, until finally, he understands how vulgar his feelings betrothal beautiful lover with an ordinary German trader, lacking even the banal manners in society.
Creativity Hoffmann autobiographical.
This is especially noticeable in the literary works created by the writer after the meeting with Julia Mark. Indicative in this plan is Hoffmann’s latest novel, The Life Views of the Cat of Murra, in which most of the characters (including the main characters) have real prototypes from the Bamberg period of the German romantic life. Even the cat Murr – and he was decommissioned with a pet Hoffmann, who died shortly before the death of the writer himself.
Creativity Hoffmann was very popular in Russia.
Works by E.T. Hoffman first translated into Russian in the year of the death of the writer, has always been readable in Russia. They influenced the work of many Russian writers, primarily Romantics of the 1830s – An. Pogorelsky, V.F. Odoevsky, N.A. Field, N.A. Melgunova, N.V. Kukolnik, V.N. Olin and others. Hoffmann in the century before last seemed to read everything: Zhukovsky and Pushkin, Gogol and Dostoevsky, Lermontov and Aksakov, AK Tolstoy and Turgenev. Romantics in the work of Hoffmann attracted romantic images and ideas, mystery and supernaturalism, inimitable irony and a dream of an inescapable, realists – detailed descriptions of German everyday life, everyday life of provincial people, realistic details of the described reality.