is a complex disorder, the cause of which is associated, as a rule, mainly with a decrease in the contractility of the myocardium.
Heart failure can occur in acute and chronic form. As a rule, heart failure develops in a chronic form. In this case, heart failure develops gradually and is associated with a permanent depletion of the compensatory capabilities of the body. The heart with heart failure changes in size in the direction of increase, the heart muscle becomes denser.
Among the symptoms of heart failure, the leading place belongs to dyspnea, this symptom is most pronounced for different classes of the disease. In addition to dyspnea with heart failure, the following symptoms occur: blueness of the body covers, a decrease in physical activity, and others.
In the treatment of heart failure, as well as the cure of many other diseases, an important role is played by the patient himself, who must as clearly as possible follow all the doctor’s recommendations. Treatment of heart failure is complex, an important stage is the treatment of the underlying disease that caused the development of heart failure.
Diuretics, cardiac glycosides, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other classes of medications are among the drugs used in treatment. The purpose of ongoing treatment is to improve the patient’s quality of life and increase its duration.
Heart failure is a serious illness.
As for the disease, heart failure is not. However, it is this opinion that is widely spread among the people. What is heart failure? Heart failure is a combination of pathological signs that develop because the heart is unable to cope with the amount of stress that is imposed on it. Such signs include, for example, dyspnea, swelling of the legs and others.
As a rule, heart failure is chronic.
Moreover, this form of heart failure is the most common complication of diseases of the cardiovascular system. It should be understood that any heart disease helps to reduce its ability to provide the body with a normal amount of blood, thus cardiovascular diseases lead to a decrease in the pumping function of the heart.
Heart failure develops gradually.
This is, indeed, a rather slow process, since the mechanism of developing heart failure involves not one stage. Simplifying the mechanism of development of heart failure, we can distinguish the following stages. As a result of existing heart diseases, the left ventricle of the body increases the load, in connection with these hypertrophy of the myocardium (i.e., an increase in the volume of the heart muscle). Under such conditions, for some time the heart manages to maintain blood circulation at a normal level. However, after a while, in the thickened and enlarged myocardium there is a disruption in the delivery of oxygen and nutrition. The reason for this is that the cardiovascular system of the heart can not adjust to such a significantly changed body volume. The violation of myocardial function is due to a number of changes taking place in the heart, including due to sclerosis of the muscular tissue. Violation of the function of the myocardium manifests itself, first of all, in violation of contractions and relaxation of the heart. The latter in turn contributes to the fact that the discharge of blood into the vessels becomes insufficient, as well as the nutrition of the organ significantly worsens. Disturbance of the heart leads to changes in the work of other organs (for example, lungs and kidneys). Thus, the human body tries to help the heart.
Compensatory abilities of the body with the development of heart failure are constantly reduced.
This leads to increased heart rate, the heart is not able to perform its pumping function in full, that is, pumping all the blood from the circulatory system (large and small). The fact that the heart does not manage to pump blood from a large circle of blood circulation explains the fact that the left ventricle of the heart is considerably loaded. It is the left ventricle of the heart that suffers first. Then there are classic symptoms of heart failure, in particular, and shortness of breath. Dyspnea particularly worries the patient at night, when the patient is lying down. Shortness of breath is a direct consequence of the processes of blood stagnation in the lungs, which also leads to the appearance of edema. The development of heart failure leads to an increase in liver size and the appearance of pain in the area of the right hypochondrium.
The acute form of heart failure is characterized by rapid development.
Unlike the chronic form. Acute congestive heart failure can develop from a few hours to several days. Acute heart failure, as a rule, manifests itself against the background of an exacerbation of the main disease. If we carry out the appropriate classification, we usually get a chronic and acute form of heart failure, but sometimes we speak of a stagnant phase. What does this mean? In general, the stagnant phase occurs in acute heart failure and is associated with the following processes. The fluid retention in the tissues of the human body is due to the slowing of blood flow, which can cause the appearance of such a symptom as pulmonary edema. Lung edema threatens the life of the patient.
Heart failure is a serious complication of cardiovascular diseases.
This is so, since heart failure most often develops on increasing. In this regard, over time, the manifestations of heart failure become more serious than the manifestations of the underlying disease, which was the cause of the actual heart failure. Often, the cause of death of the patient is heart failure. American researchers argue that the manifestations of heart failure dramatically reduce the quality of life of the patient and in connection with this call the figure – 81%.
Shortness of breath is the main symptom of heart failure.
In severe cases, dyspnea may occur even at rest. However, shortness of breath is not the only sign of developing heart failure. These also include increased fatigue, increased heart rate, the appearance of edema. The cause of the latter is the retention of fluid in the human body. With heart failure, there is a restriction in the physical activity of a person.
In case of heart failure, the blueness of the integument is manifested.
The reason for this is obvious – the lack of blood supply. As a result of this insufficiency, the nasolabial triangle and nails become blue, and this occurs at normal room temperature. Heart failure leads to the appearance of abnormalities in the circulation. These deviations can either be noticed directly by the patient himself, or they can be detected by the cardiologist.
There are several methods by which a cardiologist can diagnose heart failure.
When a specialist listens to the heart, he notes the presence of not two of his tones, and the track, by the way, this phenomenon was called “the rhythm of the gallop.” The electrocardiogram shows the presence of signs of the underlying disease, which caused the development of heart failure in a chronic form. There is an increase in the heart in size and, sometimes, pulmonary edema. An echocardiogram is performed to determine the extent to which the heart is disturbed.
There are several classes of chronic heart failure.
Such a statement can be made based on one of the classifications given by the New York Heart Association. Consider them.
The first class is characterized by the following features. The group of patients belonging to the first class is not limited in physical activity, although the appearance of dyspnea is observed when climbing the stairs above the third floor.
The second class can be characterized by the following characteristics. First, here it is already possible to identify a decrease in physical activity in patients, however, to an insignificant extent, however, signs of insufficiency can manifest themselves even under the usual daily load. Secondly, in the question related to dyspnea, it should be noted that it appeared already when climbing to the first floor or when walking fast.
The third class is characterized by the following features. As for physical activity, then, in comparison with the previous two cases, it is much more limited. In order that the signs of the existing heart failure showed themselves sufficiently small physical exertion. They can manifest themselves even with ordinary walking, but at rest they tend to disappear.
The fourth class can be characterized as follows. Signs of heart failure greatly disturb the patient, even when he is at rest. At the slightest physical exertion, manifestations of heart failure become much stronger.
The main task in the treatment of heart failure is to improve the patient’s quality of life and increase its duration.
Great importance is attached to the treatment of the disease that caused heart failure. Often there is a need to use surgical methods. It is important to think about ways to reduce the burden on the heart, so the patient should think about limiting himself to physical activity, providing enough time for rest. In terms of a certain diet, the patient should try to reduce the intake of salt and fatty foods and not forget about the importance of a healthy lifestyle.
Cardiac glycosides are the basis for the treatment of heart failure.
Previously, it certainly was so. However, even at the present stage of development this class of drugs continues to play an important role in the treatment of heart failure, although they are used much less often than in the last century, and mainly at the initial stages of the development of heart failure. This type of drugs has an effect on the enhancement of myocardial function, and also contribute to the improvement of patient tolerance to physical exertion. The big drawback of cardiac glycosides is their accumulation in the patient’s body, speaking more scientifically – cumulation, resulting in the accumulation of a large number of glycosides may occur poisoning them. The latter has characteristic features. This, above all, slowing the pulse, nausea and loss of appetite. Sometimes poisoning with cardiac glycosides leads to the appearance of irregularities in the heart, which is the reason for an urgent call to the doctor.
Diuretics are the second class of drugs used in heart failure.
Diuretics are diuretics. In cases of cardiac failure, diuretics are prescribed when there is a fluid retention in the body. That leads to the appearance of edema and increased body weight. Drugs of the diuretic class include, for example, veroshpiron, furosemide, diacarb, and others.
In the treatment of heart failure, other classes of drugs are used (except for cardiac glycosides and diuretics).
In modern medicine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been widely used in the treatment of heart failure. These, for example, include berlipril, enalapril, lisinopril.Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors promote the expansion of arteries, restore the functionality of the walls of the vessels (the inner shell first of all), which, naturally, leads to the work of the heart associated with pushing blood through the vessels. Such drugs, as a rule, are prescribed for each patient with heart failure. To some patients, cardiologists prescribe beta-blockers, which help reduce the frequency of contraction of the heart muscle. Thus, the oxygen starvation of the myocardium decreases and the pressure decreases. Beta-blockers include carvedilol, metoprolol, concor and other drugs. In the treatment of heart failure, several other classes of medications are often used.
A significant role in the treatment of heart failure belongs to the patient.
He is obliged to follow all the recommendations of a specialist (and there are usually a lot of recommendations). The cardiologist, in the first place, appoints the patient a certain diet. Recommended diet, which does not include excessive amounts of liquid and table salt. Secondly, a cardiologist usually advises patients the following: moderate physical activity (which is often controlled by a specialist), as well as ensuring a calm environment both at work and at home. From the point of view of the treatment itself, which is prescribed for a patient with heart failure, it should mainly be directed to treatment of the underlying disease, which led to the development of heart failure. It can be ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart valve flaws, arterial hypertension, or any other diseases. Preventive measures are of great importance in the treatment of heart failure.
Prevention of heart failure is the best cure for it.
This is an indisputable fact. As it was shown above, this syndrome develops against the background of other diseases of the cardiovascular system – as a complication. In connection with this, the prevention of cardiovascular diseases plays an important role in the prevention of heart failure. It includes regular visits to the cardiologist, timely and rational treatment of arterial hypertension, avoiding unnecessary stress on the heart. As for the latter, it is very important to maintain body weight at a normal level – in fact, its increase leads to an immediate increase in the burden on the heart. Unfortunately, people start to think about this only when they are seriously disturbed by shortness of breath. Probably everyone has heard and more than once about the importance of a healthy lifestyle – rejection of bad habits, healthy eating, moving lifestyle, etc. But is that how many people perceive such information rationally? But the healthy way of life is the prevention of all diseases and the guarantee of health for many years.
Limiting the intake of salt for the prevention of heart failure is an important stage.
Exactly ordinary table salt loads the heart and blood vessels, if its quantity is defined as excess. The most correct option in terms of prevention of cardiovascular diseases and, as their complications, heart failure is the restriction of salt intake. It is worth to accustom yourself to eating slightly under-salted. In general, to refuse salt is not necessary, although there are such people. Restriction of salt used is much easier than maintaining a strict diet in case of already developed heart failure.
Coffee and tea are enemies of the cardiovascular system.
They have a very strong load on it. Of course, we are talking about excessive consumption of coffee and tea. Of course, one cup of coffee during breakfast and three cups of tea for the rest of the day will not only not damage your health, but will also be useful. However, drinking a cup of coffee over a cup and thus fighting fatigue is harmful.In this regard, you need to think carefully about whether to drink a fourth or fifth (even third) cup of coffee, sitting at the computer at night (and at any other time).
Alcoholic beverages are the key to the development of heart failure.
Lovers of this kind of drinks are able to argue and argue the French scientists. These scientists have proved that red wine has a good effect on the heart and blood vessels. However, one should not be seduced about this. First, scientists have proved the beneficial effect of grape natural dry wine, and not all other alcoholic beverages. Secondly, French scientists talked about small daily doses, and not about Russian feasts. About smoking, even such amendments can not be, because it is harmful in any case.
Physical activity also affects the heart.
So say a sedentary person, spending hour after hour at the computer. However, he has something to object. First, there are loads that are useful on the heart (physical activity just refers to it), but there are those that have a harmful effect (alcohol abuse, smoking, etc.). You should know that, so to speak, the “idle” work of the heart will not lead to anything good either. While physical activity contributes to the strengthening of the myocardium – the heart muscle. Thus, physical exertion on the body is useful, they are an excellent prevention of myocardial infarction and, of course, heart failure too.