Under the abysmal abbreviation GMO is understood a genetically modified organism. It is a living being whose genotype the person was able to change artificially, thanks to genetic engineering. The goals are thus pursued as scientific, and quite practical.
In the agriculture and food industry, organisms are created that are modified by introducing several transgenes into the genome. Thanks to this direction of science, people have learned to receive new plant varieties that are more resistant to poor conditions, new bacteria and even fish have appeared. Nevertheless, most people are afraid of GMOs.
It is believed that food based on modified products may be harmful to health. This view is fueled by marketers who began to write on packages “a product without GMOs.” In fact, the question is rather complicated, most of the judgments here are conjectures and myths. It is time to consider them.
GMOs are inherently dangerous, because human intervention leads to the emergence of new organisms with unknown properties.
It is worthwhile to understand that in each species of living beings, each generation is accompanied by new mutations. So, a person for a generation celebrates up to 50 new point changes. In addition, sexual reproduction is accompanied by recombination of genes, the offspring receives half the set of chromosomes from the father and half from the mother. So, ordinary sexual reproduction can be considered a step towards the emergence of a new organism with unknown properties. Such fears in the end can be attributed to any living being. Most often it is not known which mutations appeared in a particular organism in relation to its parents. But we are not afraid of all products at all, but we are afraid for some reason those that are created thanks to GMOs. It is also important to know that many of the technologies that work when creating transgenic organisms are quite natural. For example, we can mention the use of t-plasmid. Agrobacteria are widely known in agriculture, and they use the same genetic engineering with the help of t-plasmid, integrating their genes into the genome of the host plant. Agrobacteria in ordinary life quietly infect agricultural crops, including those growing in our dachas and gardens. But after all, there is no catastrophe, we eat foods that are modified by nature itself.
Recently, because of GMOs, there are more and more children with genetic abnormalities.
In fact, there is no scientific evidence in favor of such evidence. Nothing shows that the use of GMOs somehow affects the statistics of genetic diseases in newborns and in general in humans. But there are useful changes. Now people with certain diseases, previously considered deadly, can continue to live, thanks to modern medicine. Thanks to genetic engineering, those diseases that can not be diagnosed before can now be detected. However, to the GMOs themselves this relationship no longer has.
Because of the use of products with GMOs, people have had changes in internal organs, tumors have appeared, hormonal levels have changed.
People, and animals became barren. And again it is worth mentioning that there is no scientific evidence of human pathologies due to eating genetically modified plants. All that critics can handle is several works in which rodents have eaten tumors after eating transgenic plants. However, these materials fall apart with a close scientific view. Thus, in the study of rats eating transgenic corn, no statistical analysis was performed. If it is done, it turns out that the conclusions about the dangers of the GMO product are not statistically significant. In another work it was said that the use of genetically modified potatoes with lectin influences the work of the digestive organs of rats. That’s just no one as commercial crops does not use organisms with a built-in lectin gene.It is known that this can lead to the appearance of toxic properties. There will be a violation of the assimilation of nutrients, allergic reactions will begin, among other malfunctions and a violation. However, scientists are focusing on the effect of transgenisation, ignoring the fact that when decocting potatoes, for example, lectins, with which the root crop is already so rich, are generally rendered harmless. Some differences were found in the organisms of mice eating normal soy and modified. However, even the authors of the observations did not consider the changes to be significant. As a result, the researchers concluded that genetically modified food does not affect the health of animals or people. Talk about the dangers of soybeans refer to the work of Sakomoto, but the author himself after a year of monitoring rats on the contrary came to the conclusion that the genetically modified product is safe. The rodents sat on a diet that included up to 30% of genetically modified food. As a result, the impression is created that the same authors write about the negative properties of genetically modified products, violating the methodology, and only then this myth is replicated by the interested parties.
Using products with GMOs leads to changes in the climate.
It is enough just to think about how such a thing is possible. So this statement has not the slightest basis.
Using GMOs, corporations make huge money.
No one says that companies do not earn money on GMOs. But after all, another business, which is built on the sale of supposedly organic products, is quite profitable. And the simple labeling “does not contain GMOs” brings in income. It turns out that for the right to eat organic products, we pay an average of 10-40% more than the cost of conventional analogs. And the market of “clean” food is developing rapidly. If in 2002 organic products were sold for $ 23 billion, then in 2008 this amount was already 52 billion. A big role in the popularization of such products was made by the myth of the danger of GMOs, replicated and distributed. The benefit of this is direct. In the same America, almost all major producers of organic food are part of multinational concerns. So, based on the fact that someone earns on the product, it is not worthwhile to draw conclusions about its quality.
From the GM feed, cows die.
As evidence of this myth, the story of the German farmer Gottfried Glockner, won by lawyers, against the company “Syngenta”. However, by 2007, the case was not only not won, but one trial in general ended in favor of “Syngenta”. Indeed, the death of a farmer’s cows can be linked to a quite definite type of corn, BT176, however, the plaintiffs do not have actual evidence. He did not support the farmer in his proceedings with the corporation and the government of the country. Glockner is looking for more and more evidence, puts forward new lawsuits, but can not prove anything. Mass death of cows in general can be connected with anything. At one time in Wisconsin, for unknown reasons, 200 cows died, perhaps an infectious disease was to blame. Robert Koch Institute conducted a study of Glockner’s cows, coming to the conclusion that the death of animals is not the fault of the genetically modified corn, but of poor care and a number of diseases, including botulism.
GMO leads to the emergence of new diseases, in particular, Morgellons.
Under the name “Morgellons” is meant a potential disease – dermopathy, such a term appeared in 2002 thanks to Mary Leightau. Patients suffer from the fact that imaginary insects or worms creep along their bodies. Some people even “find” under their skin some fibers. Most dermatologists and psychiatrists believe that a morghelonne is a manifestation of delusional parasitosis. It is worth understanding, this is a mental disorder. What does it have to do with genetically modified foods? And again, communication is not found and there is no scientific research on this topic.
GMOs cause cancer.
The association of cancers and GMOs is usually traced from a note published in 1995 in the journal Adv Cancer Res. This work has taught that the insertion of new genes into mammalian genomes with the help of adenoviruses can lead to the appearance of cancer. And this is really true. Only here for the onset of cancer, these viruses themselves must be consumed in huge quantities. And what does the GMO products have to do with it?
GMO leads to the appearance of huge tumors.
There was no correlation between the occurrence of large or small tumors and the use of GMOs.
Eating food based on GMOs, we change our own genes.
It is believed that if one organism consumes another, a horizontal transfer is carried out. Scientists have proved that DNA can not be digested until the end, as a result of which some molecules can enter the cell or nucleus from the intestine, integrating into the chromosome. As a result, foreign genetic rates can be found in the cells of different organs of man or animals. In the proof of this there are the results of experiments. Indeed, foreign DNA can be found in our cells, in particular, in immune cells. Perhaps this is how natural protection against alien pathogens works. However, in order to understand this process and fix it, multiple checks and independent studies are needed. In any case, the mechanism of penetration of foreign DNA into the body through food is not unique solely to transgenic organisms. The DNA of the potato is no different from the DNA of the transgenic potato. If the body passes through the DNA of the transgene, then the usual will get there. People are constantly eating alien DNA for themselves, but we are not turning into plants, taking some of their cells. When they talk about alien genetic inserts found in animal and human cells, they refer to materials in which it’s not about it at all. So the work on transferring the plasmid from one bacteria to another inside the gastrointestinal tract of the mouse is mentioned, in the same place scientists tried to find out whether the plasmid, built into the bacterial chromosome, is transferred. As a result, this was not found at all. In other sources, we are talking about the transfer of genetic material to bacteria, rather than to animal cells.
Insects disappear because of GMOs.
Scientists have developed a generic genetic modification that allows you to fight pests. A special combination of bacterial genes Bacillus thuringiensis was created. But there were fears that the toxin could affect those living organisms against which it was not originally intended. However, it turned out that this substance was sprayed back in France, beginning in 1935, and in America since 1958. At the same time, there was no harm to the environment. The toxin itself acts only on representatives of certain orders of insects, this is due to the fact that for the action of the substance it is necessary to bind to certain receptors in the cells of the epithelium of a living being. If these receptors are not present, then the toxin will not act. In particular, claims that this toxin kills butterfly larvae “Monarch”. This is what the article, published in 1999 in the journal Nature, said. The publication did a lot of noise, it initiated several studies, which were designed to assess the risks of GM plants with the Bt-toxin gene for the butterfly population. The tests were carried out not only in laboratories, but also in experiments. On this subject, then, a work was written that gives a clear conclusion: commercial cultivation of corn with a Bt-gene does not affect the butterfly population of the Monarch. ” Researchers even noted that increasing the fields with this crop, on the contrary, increases the number of such beautiful insects.
All over the world, bees are killed from GMOs.
In recent years, the mass death of bee colonies can not but alarm. Beekeepers, not understanding what is happening, are blamed for all GMOs.Having analyzed 25 works on studying the influence of Bt plants on bees, it becomes clear that the GM plant does not in any way affect the survival of adult bees and larvae. Similarly, critics have not compared the rates of death of honey insects and seeding GM plants by region. Should we rely on the anonymous opinions of frightened beekeepers, bypassing science?
GMOs gave nothing to farmers in terms of increasing their profits.
In 2010, due to the involvement of GM plants in agriculture, the profit of farmers around the world increased by $ 14 billion. It is important to note that more than half of this impressive amount is accounted for by producers from developing countries. An analysis of fifty scientific studies on this topic gives an idea that in developed countries, the involvement of GM plants raises yield by 6%, in other countries – by 29%. About 72% of farmers from around the world noted improvement in their economic situation, most of all growth was felt by farms from developing countries.
GMOs had to reduce the amount of pesticides and herbicides used, instead they only increased.
When growing soybeans that are resistant to herbicides, the use of chemical agents for tillage has decreased by 25-28%. In fields planted with Bt plants, they began to use 14-76% less insecticide. Genetically modified cotton had a noticeable effect on the economy in India – yields increased, yields, even average farmers felt new standards of life.
Many genetically modified plants become infertile after a couple of generations.
In fact, such a technique is done specifically so that these plants do not migrate to the wild, running away from the control of a person. However, the infertility of the plants does not mean that those who eat them will become barren.
All GMOs are dangerous, they have a negative impact on human health.
Live creatures eating GMO products have an increased mortality rate. All the main fears are heaped in here. However, most scientists do not share this view. And on the website of the World Health Organization in this regard, it is very clearly stated that different GMOs have different genes that have got there in their own special ways. This speaks first of all of the fact that the safety of such products can not be assessed in a complex, making conclusions about the danger of the whole direction of science. Those GMO products that are presented today in international markets have been rigorously tested, they do not pose a risk to human health. There is no evidence that GMO products sold in countries where they are approved have any negative impact on people’s health. The harm of GMOs for animals was discussed above.
It is necessary to specifically label organic products and genetically modified.
This only makes sense when aware of a possible allergic reaction to the inserted gene. So, it is possible that a genetically modified soybean can contain the Brazilian nut gene, which encodes albumin protein. As a result, those people who are allergic to Brazil nuts, there may be an allergy to this soy. If it was accompanied by the appropriate labeling, then this problem could be avoided. In other cases, speculation on the labeling of organic or genetically modified food is a way to deceive buyers. In fact, we are forced to pay more, suggesting that we are acquiring a better organic product without GMOs. In fact, there is no question of a special quality here, it is in line with the analogs. But in society a real hysteria of anti-GMOs is formed, which brings material benefits to certain people. The society is misinformed about the important achievement of modern science.