Flounder is the name of several species of fish that live in the seas and have a flat body shape. The distinctive features of flounder are, first of all, in a flattened body shape, as well as the location of the eyes, which are on one side. Flounder has fins, which are located on the side facing up.


There are several exotic species of flounder, the main “attraction” of which is the presence of the eye on the rib head. Flounder lives on the seabed, some can enter freshwater ponds. The meat of this fish is quite tasty, which caused the flounder to become of commercial importance.

Different species prefer to “populate” to different depths and choose a different soil. The sizes also vary. Flounder is lightning fast able to change the color of his body. Everything depends on the ground, next to which is this fish. Thus, it becomes almost invisible. Many species of flounder are of commercial importance.

For a flounder, there is a high body, very tightly compressed from the sides.

It is asymmetric. Speaking in a simpler language, what we can take for our back and belly is nothing more than a side and another side. To answer the question of which side is at the top and which bottom, it is necessary to find out to which species this flounder belongs.

“Young” flounder behaves like all other fish.

This is so. And this applies, in particular, to swimming, before reaching maturity, flounder in this respect does not differ from other fish. Her body is symmetrical. The eyes are also on either side of the head. With age, the flounder lays on one of the sides. Her eyes are shifted to the other side, which is also due to the uneven growth of the flounder’s body.

Flounder is characterized by a bottom way of life.

Flounder is buried in the sand in such a way that only the eyes and the upper part of the head remain on its surface. These fish can very quickly dig into the ground. They do this in the following way: with the help of undulating movements of the edges of their bodies, flounder creates a small depression in the ground. They instantly immerse into it. These movements vzmuchivayut soil, which then settles on the body of flounder, and it is buried in it.

Flounder – bad swimmers.

Mostly everything. Flounder flies with the help of vibrating movements of their fins. If they are in danger, the flounder will turn to the rib and in this form swim forward fast. After eliminating the danger, these fish again burrow into the ground.

Flounder can lightly change the color of his body.

Rather, the side on which the gas is located. The color of the flounder depends on the color of the bottom, as well as on its pattern. Thus, the flounder achieves that it becomes practically not noticeable. This ability to imitate is called mimicry. However, it should be noted that mimicry is not peculiar to all individuals of flounder, but only to seeing. If the flounder is blinded, then she can not imitate, ie. does not change the color of his body.

The size of flounder varies from a few centimeters to several meters.

Mask flounder of the smallest species is only a few grams. The mass of the largest flounder species exceeds three hundred kilograms, and the size is more than four meters.

Halibut is the name of the biggest flounder.

They inhabit the depths of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. These flounder can live to the age of fifty. The largest recorded weight is 363 kilograms. In addition, halibut is a very tasty fish, because of which the halibut is the desired prey for the fisherman.

Halibut spawning occurs at a depth of three hundred to seven hundred meters.

Spawning occurs in deep pits that are in the fjords or along the coast. The halibut mainly spawns along the Norwegian coast, as well as in the following areas: the Faroe Islands, the Danish Strait, the watershed of Greenland, Scotland and Iceland.

Industrial halibut fishing is difficult.

Moreover, it is strictly controlled. This is due to the peculiarities of halibut life. They do not form clusters, but float singly. In addition, halibuts grow very slowly. In connection with this fact, large individuals are found in the catches of fishermen not so often. True, a way out of this situation was found. It consists, first of all, in the artificial breeding of halibut – in special pools the young fish of halibut reaches a mass of about a hundred grams, after which it is sent to the sea cages. Here, the halibut reaches a mass of two to five kilograms, which is commodity.

The Black Sea Kalkan is a valuable fish.

This flounder is of commercial importance. Black Sea Kalkan has very tasty meat. For example, you can buy a kilo of this fish in Turkey for at least fifteen dollars. In the sixties of the last century, two or three tons of the Black Sea Kalkan were caught off the coast of the Crimea every year. However, in the seventies, the stocks of this fish significantly decreased. This was the reason for imposing a ban on the fishing of the Black Sea Kalkan. At present, there is no ban.

Fishing of the Black Sea Kalkan in our time undermines the reserves of this fish.

Capture the Kalkan using multi-kilometer networks. Large-mesh bottom networks overlap migration routes for the spawning of the Black Sea Kalkan – this is the traditional way of catching this flounder. And the length of the networks is hundreds of kilometers. Recently, fishing has become unmanageable, which can lead to a significant loss of the valuable Black Sea Kalkan reserves.

The range of the Kalkan habitat is very limited.

In addition to the Black and Azov seas, the Kalkan lives in the adjacent part of the Mediterranean Sea. The Black Sea Kalkan can enter the mouths of the Dniester and the Dnieper. This type of flounder inhabits muddy and sandy soils at a depth not exceeding one hundred meters. The Azov Sea inhabits the subspecies of the Azov Kalkan, whose size is somewhat smaller than the size of the Black Sea Kalkan.

Kalkan is a predatory fish.

The diet of the Kalkan includes small crustaceans, mollusks, small fish. Young people of the Kalkan feed on crustaceans to a greater extent, and adult Kalkans – crabs and bottom fish (eats at least one hundred and fifty grams of fish per day).

About ten species of flounder are found in the Red Sea.

This is so. The name of the most famous of them in translation into Russian means “flounder of Moses”. For this flounder is characterized by a small size – body length is only about twenty-five centimeters. Inhabits a depth not exceeding fifteen meters. In the diet of the plaice Moses includes invertebrates. Predominantly spends time without movement, buried in the ground.

River flounder inhabits freshwater reservoirs.

Not quite the right statement. A river flounder can enter lakes and rivers and travel a distance of hundreds of kilometers in fresh water. However, the river flounder does not even breed in fresh water bodies. In the Russian Federation, a river flounder is found in the Azov and Black Seas, as well as in the White, Barents and Baltic.

The river flounder belongs to the same family as the halibut.

This family is actually flounder. However, the sizes of these two species differ significantly from each other. If the weight of halibut can reach three hundred kilograms, the mass of river (or, as it is also called, rough) flounder does not often exceed 500 grams.

The Baltic Sea is “rich” with river flounder.

She meets everywhere. River flounder refers to the massive marine fish. River flounder has an important commercial importance. In some years, the production of this flounder reached thirteen percent of the total catch of fish. River flounder lives at depths of not less than sixteen or eighteen meters. As a rule, this type of flounder is kept on sandy grounds.

River flounder is an ordinary inhabitant of the Gulf of Finland.

Indeed, there you will not surprise anyone.River flounder somewhat prefers the southern shore of the bay to the north. This is explained by the fact that in the southern part the impact of the saline waters of the Baltic Sea is more pronounced.

During spawning a river flounder lays a huge amount of eggs.

In larger females of river flounder this number can reach two million. Spawning occurs in the spring. In the Gulf of Finland it lasts from May to June. Interestingly, caviar from this species of flounder is free-floating. The female lays caviar on a stony or sandy bottom. But the caviar is already developing directly in the water column. The fry of the river flounder does not differ in their behavior from the fry of other species of flatfish – they settle to the bottom only after metamorphosis (the body is flattened, both eyes are on the same side, the male is asymmetric).

Flounder turbo is a member of the Kalkan family.

In ancient times fishermen named this fish “pilvin”. Turbo (or a large rhombus) is markedly different from the river flounder. Firstly, the size of the turbo is much larger. Secondly, the location of the eyes – the turbot eyes are located on the left side. Third, the width of the pelvic fins – it is much larger with a large rhombus.

A large rhombus is a large fish.

The length of some individuals reaches one meter. As a rule, it is about eighty centimeters. In the Gulf of Finland, flounder of a smaller size often come across. A large diamond has a high body. The height of the turbo body is half its length.

Turbo – a flounder-predator.

Turbo has a big mouth. Both jaws are seated with sharp teeth, which are small in size. The diet of a large rhombus is mainly fish: cod, gerbil, and even river flounder. Also eats sea cockroaches, and sometimes shellfish. In the methods of hunting and food, the turbot reminds the river flounder – it also slowly crawls along the bottom, looking for the victim, or, hiding in its shelter, waits for it. Tyrbo hunts like a river flounder. Turbo slowly crawls along the bottom in search of prey or waits for it, hiding and disguised as the color of the ground.

Large lozenge loam free-floating.

As with river flounder. Metamorphosis in turbulent larvae ends when the length of their body reaches about twenty-five centimeters. Then they go to life at the bottom.

The large rhombus prefers considerable depth.

The depth, as a rule, does not exceed one hundred meters. Likes sand or muddy bottom.

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