By the end of the first trimester: height – 6-8 cm, weight – 14-19 gr.
The first trimester is the most crucial in the entire pregnancy, because it is during these 12 weeks that all the organs of the future baby are laid.
The vast majority of miscarriages also occur in the first trimester of pregnancy, so it is very important for a woman to comply with doctor’s orders, take vitamins and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Changes in the development of the baby occur almost daily. By the end of the third week of pregnancy, the egg is implanted into the uterine wall and turns into a fetal egg. Around it is formed the placenta, the fetal sac and the amniotic fluid.
Even at the initial stage of development, the prototype of the brain cells, future blood, skeleton, muscles, genitourinary system, gastrointestinal tract and glands can already be identified in the embryo.
By the end of the third month, the baby forms the rudiments of all organs, and the formation of the circulatory system is almost complete. Until the 20th week, the main organ that produces blood will be the liver, then it will be replaced by the bone marrow.
By the end of the trimester the child can listen to the heartbeat with a stethoscope, and on particularly accurate instruments one can observe heartbeat already from 21 days after conception!
The child’s head is formed on which the ears, mouth and eyes are visible (by the end of the trimester, the eyelids are formed). The hands and feet are separated from the body, and palms, feet and fingers become noticeable on the palms, and tiny nails are visible on the fingers.
The basis of the nervous system is formed: the brain and spine are formed. The brain is growing rapidly, so the head is larger in size than all other parts of the body. But by the end of pregnancy the ratio of head and body will be 1: 5 (in an adult 1: 8).
Unbelievable, but by the 12th week the baby starts to move the handles and legs, trying to swallow and suck. But my mother does not feel these movements, because the child is very small. With the help of sonography the movement of the baby can be observed from the 8th week of pregnancy!
The sex of the child is determined at the moment of conception, but the external genitalia are formed only in the 9th to 12th week, and exactly the sex of the child is determined already in the second trimester.
By the end of the trimester, placenta formation is coming to an end. Now she takes on the functions of producing hormones and life support for the baby. The “yellow body”, which produced progesterone and estrogen in the first trimester, is gradually inferior to its functions. Thanks to this, my mother ends with an unpleasant toxicosis.
Critical days in the first trimester, when the risk of spontaneous abortion is greatest, falls to 4-6, and then to 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. In the first case, the threat of miscarriage is associated with improper implantation of the fetal egg in the uterus, in the second – because of an unfavorable hormonal background.
By the end of the trimester, the weight gain is 1.2-2 kg, the height of the uterus bottom is 10-11 cm. While the baby builds his body, his mother also has global changes.
First, there is a restructuring of the whole body, starting with the structure of the body (breast augmentation, growth of the uterus, weight gain), ending with the appearance of additional glands (“yellow body”). All this can not but cause difficulties, the most famous of which is toxicosis.
Toxicosis is a characteristic phenomenon for the first trimester of pregnancy. Morning nausea, dizziness, weakness, even fainting are due to the fact that the “yellow body”, formed at the time of implantation of the fetal egg in the uterus, produces additional hormones progesterone and estrogen, necessary for nutrition and development of the baby. But toxicosis does not happen to all women, it does not mean that pregnancy is somehow wrong.
The woman stops menstruating, although there may be occasional small spotting.If the discharge becomes abundant and accompanied by pain, you should immediately consult a doctor (this may be a sign of a beginning miscarriage).
In addition to the toxicity of the first trimester, frequent urination is caused by the increasing pressure of the uterus on the bladder, the increase and swelling of the breast, as well as its soreness, many women have veins.
At the psychological level, many women experience the first stress, mood swings, a change of joy-excited state to depressed-depressed. The future mother is irritable, can cry for no apparent reason, often her sexual desire decreases. This is largely due to her fatigue from everything: from toxicosis, from work, from anxiety for the future baby, from worries for her new role – the role of mom.
And at the physical level, emotional changes are associated with hormonal changes and increased stress on the kidneys, liver, pancreas. Usually by the 13-14 week it goes along with a toxicosis.
The best advice is to think about yourself and relax more, exclude from your life all possible causes for stress, walking, swimming, breathing fresh air, and not sitting in the office or at home. In extreme cases, take in limited amounts of valerian, tea from lemon balm, mint, rose hips. If you feel that you can not cope with yourself, do not hesitate and contact a psychologist.
Until 12 weeks, the future mother is desirable to register with a women’s consultation. According to the plan, the first examination should be held on the 8-10th week to do the first ultrasound scan at 10-12 weeks and pass a double test for the determination of the developmental fetuses.
In the first trimester, the expectant mother gives the following tests:
– a clinical blood test;
– blood biochemistry;
– the general analysis of urine;
– blood test for the group and Rh factor, antibodies to the Rh factor;
– blood test for infection (toxoplasmosis, HIV, syphilis, rubella, parvovirus, hepatitis);
– gynecological smears for vaginal infections;
– examination by specialist doctors (endocrinologist, oculist, therapist, dentist, etc.);
– “double test” of blood for the level of hCG and plasma protein A in combination with ultrasound of the collar zone (screening for congenital chromosomal abnormalities, for example, Down’s syndrome).
Conception – 1 trimester – 2 trimester