Feuerbach Ludwig Andreas
is a famous German philosopher. He was born in 1804 in the family of a criminalist. Philosophical views Hegel Feuerbach took from the Hegelian, Daub. A little later he himself attended Hegel’s lectures in Berlin.
The basis of Feuerbach’s philosophy was the conviction that the source of true knowledge can only be sensuality; in the opinion of this philosopher, only the concrete and the individual are true (in this connection, there are no general concepts).
свой Power is inherent in the human mind. Great value in philosophy Feuerbach paid religious issues. In his opinion, religion arises on the basis of man’s fear of natural phenomena and the inability to explain them at an early stage of development.
Later a person begins to see in God what he wants to be himself, that is, God takes in the characteristics that a person would like to possess. Feuerbach denies the dualism of body and soul, believing that such a thing as an immortal soul does not make sense.
Body and soul are not separable from each other. Since Feuerbach’s doctrine is drawn to man, he is often called anthropological materialism.
Feuerbach’s philosophy is the completion of Hegel’s teaching.
Moreover, it is the overcoming of the teachings of this philosopher, as well as his predecessors. Feuerbach took the position of judgments, according to which man is inextricably linked with his mind and at the same time is a product of nature. Hegel also considered thinking and man separately from each other, insisting on the fundamental difference between the needs of man and his sensory activity. Feuerbach is also convinced that it is sensible data that must become the foundation from which philosophy will proceed. Thus, the following formulation is correct: the organs of philosophy are actually the organs of the senses of man.
The connection between philosophy and natural science is stronger than the connection between philosophy and theology.
As a result, a “marriage” between philosophy and natural science will be very fruitful. Salvation after death is what religion promises to man. The goal of philosophy is to help a person realize the promises of religion on earth. The other world does not exist – in this Feuerbach is completely sure. Philosophy should give people the opportunity to learn their abilities, and not get imaginary consolation.
Philosophy is the doctrine of man.
Feuerbach is the creator of the theory of anthropological materialism. The ability to think is possessed only by man. Thus, the problem of the essence of man is based on the relation of thinking to being. Feuerbach denies the superhuman essence of thinking, and its non-natural feature (this is the actual denial of the idealistic interpretation of thinking). Material processes are inextricably linked with human thinking. Such a connection is revealed by researching human activities of science, in particular, physiology. Man and nature are inseparable from each other, therefore the nature of spirituality can not be contrasted with nature. Anthropology, as Feuerbach states, becomes a universal science. In this connection, the philosopher stands up for the recognition of the unity of the body and the spiritual and the denial of the fact of the duality of the soul and body. There is also being and thinking, physical and mental, objective and subjective.
The essence of a person is reflected in the public consciousness.
The essence of a person is his experience, sensuality, life of the heart and mind. Man, first of all, is a loving, suffering being. It is characterized by a desire for happiness and other values. It is the vital content that should become the basis for studying different forms of social consciousness (for example, religion). The anthropological method of Feuerbach is special in that it reduces the supersensible to the sensuous, the fantastic to the real, and so on. He stands up for the unity of all people, as the activity of each person has a sensual nature.
Feuerbach is a critic of idealism.
The philosopher refutes the idealistic idea of the possibility of a logical substantiation of the existence of the external world. He talks about the impossibility of deducing nature from consciousness and thinking. All these idealistic attempts, so surely the philosopher, are based on the assumption of the existence of a supernatural primordial. Speculative idealism, in his opinion, elevates the supernatural spirit over nature, as a result of which it becomes impossible to exist outside consciousness.
Feuerbach is a critic of religion.
The philosopher understands the essence of religion from an anthropological point of view. In this regard, religion is reduced to the development of bourgeois atheism. Feuerbach agreed with the arguments of the materialists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, according to which natural natural forces give rise to human fear. Under the influence of this fear, there is a religious feeling. However, Feuerbach supplements these materialistic judgments: he says that religion reflects not only the fear of man, but also his hopes, ideals, sufferings, difficulties, aspirations. The philosopher believes that God is what man seeks to be, and therefore the content of life also fills religion as a whole. Religion, therefore, is not nonsense and not an illusion.
Religion appears at an early stage in human development.
It is with this stage of human history that the philosopher associates the birth of religion. In this historical period man was not able to reliably understand natural phenomena. He could not correctly interpret everything on which his life depended. That is why at that time man began to worship natural phenomena. Feuerbach draws attention to the fact that animals also depend on nature, and to a much greater extent than man. Despite this, animals are deprived of imagination, thinking and spiritual life. Religion arises on the basis of a person’s ability to abstract thinking. The human heart, according to the philosopher, is the essence of religion. The heart of man seeks to love and believe, and this is his main difference from the cold mind. The whole person is reflected in religion. Deepening into this question, Feuerbach states that man does not want to die, and therefore he believes in an immortal being, a person wants to be perfect, and therefore he believes in a perfect being. Similarly, the philosopher explains religion – this is an anthropological understanding.
Feuerbach is a reformer of religion.
The philosopher often repeated that existing ideas about the world – religious and fantastic – would collapse, a person could achieve on earth what religion promises him only after his death. Religious feeling, according to the philosopher, can not be overcome. A religious feeling is the love of one person for another. In such interpretations, atheism is seen as a religion without God. This kind of understanding of religion is very broad. This is a rather weak point in the anthropology of Feuerbach. It allows to justify the emergence of religious feelings. The role of religion in history, this philosopher practically reduces to the basic spiritual life of man.
Feuerbach’s materialist doctrine of nature is the basis of his philosophical anthropology.
Nature is the only reality – this judgment of the philosopher is opposed to religion and idealism. The highest product and, accordingly, the expression of nature is a person. Nature thinks of itself and feels itself through man and in man himself. The philosopher is sure that nature has nothing above and below it, and therefore one can not agree with the arguments of the idealists associated with belittling nature. Moreover, according to Feuerbach, the following concepts are synonymous: “nature”, “reality”, “reality”, “matter”, “being”, because they essentially mean the same thing.
Nature is infinite in time and in space.
Only the emergence of individual phenomena can be determined from time, nature itself is eternal.These hypotheses can be proved, from the point of view of this philosopher, not only through cognition, but also by all human life. A double existence can not be endowed with any natural phenomena (this is proved by the experience of man), therefore the otherworld does not exist. The philosopher makes attempts to overcome that mechanical understanding of nature that took place among the materialists of the eighteenth century. Human sensations are diverse. This diversity corresponds to the variety of natural qualities. Feuerbach understands the unity of nature and man from the anthropological point of view.
Human activity and its emotional life are of great cognitive significance.
Thus, Feuerbach is not limited to describing the role of the sense organs in the cognition of man. However, he characterizes sensory activity without connection with material production.
Theoretical thinking is not seen by Feuerbach as an important cognitive function of man.
This is not true. Feuerbach does not take sensible data into account. He highly appreciates the role of cognition acquired through the senses. But he also recognizes the important role of thinking. It consists in analyzing the data obtained empirically and understanding their hidden content. The thinking of man must be comparable with sensual contemplation. Thus, sensory perception is the criterion of the truth of thinking. True, Feuerbach specifies that such a comparison is not always possible. This is based on the fact that the person in the process of thinking knows not only the present, but the past and the future. This means that he comprehends what is no longer, and what is not. However, arguing in this way, Feuerbach does not come to a conclusion about the connection between practice and theoretical knowledge. Although sometimes a philosopher talks about practice. For example, Feuerbach believes that practice is capable of dealing with issues that the theory is unable to solve. Nevertheless, there is no understanding of practice from the point of view of science.
Feuerbach’s sociological views are the most original part of his theory.
And at the same time, the least developed one. The philosopher could not understand social consciousness and social life from a material point of view. He did not come to the materialist understanding of history, believing that it is human sensibility that is the main force of the behavior of the whole society and the individual.