(Filicineae), 1) botanical, a group of vascular spore plants encapsulating several families and two subclasses: Hydropterclasseae and true Filipinos. In the first two kinds of spores are large and small, in the second one of the same genus, producing monoecious sprouts. Most grass, few are tree-like (up to 26 meters high); almost all perennial perennials, only a few annual plants.
Leaves are very diverse and beautiful, almost always composed of cuttings and plates, with characteristic branching (nerve) veins, serving as a good sign for distinguishing genera and species, especially fossil paportnikov. Disputes develop in containers, called sporangia (sporoplods); spores are chalky, unicellular, round or kidney-shaped.
Folders – up to 4,000 species, distributed throughout the globe, especially in the tropics. Most of the ferns of the Russian flora belong to the family Polypodiaceae. 2) Medical, fresh rhizome of the fern (Aspclassium filix mas) serves for the preparation of a specifically active anthelmintic.
Ferns are relic plants that have been preserved since the time of the dinosaurs.
This is partly true. Fern plants appeared more than 350 million years ago, becoming predecessors of seed species. But those ferns that grow now are only the remains of a rich kingdom that inhabited our planet millions of years ago. Most of these beautiful ancient plants have died out due to climate change along with dinosaurs.
Fern grows near water.
Indeed, these plants are very fond of moisture and prefer to grow in shady forests and near streams. But the presence of a reservoir nearby is not absolutely necessary, and the ferns take root anywhere: in swamps, forests, meadows and even on rocks. In this case, rock ferns do not tolerate a large amount of water and prefer dryness.
Ferns do not grow where it’s cold.
This statement is not entirely true, and although most ferns really love the humid and warm climate, they are spread all over the world, except for deserts and Antarctica. Many ferns are winter-hardy and occur in Siberia, on the subarctic islands and glaciers of the Arctic Ocean.
Fern is a small herbaceous plant.
Actually, ferns are different, and their family includes more than 10,000 species. These are the grasses we know, and small bushes, and lianas, and epiphytes (mosses and lichens) growing on tree trunks and rotten stumps, and even the fern trees themselves, found only in the rainforests.
All ferns are very similar to each other.
We think that all the ferns look like the well-known weeder, common in the middle part of Russia, or the eagle, with leaves that look like palm trees. In fact, the appearance of ferns is very different! For example, the fern of Marsilia grows in water and has four petals. Leaves of the parasite have a bluish tinge, while in the ostrich it resembles a snail in shape. Aphoretzed azole overflows with a green carpet a reservoir, and the fern of the reindeer horn grows on trees, collecting organic remains as fertilizers in its basket from its leaves.
The flower of the fern is endowed with a magical property.
According to the ancient belief of the Slavs, who tore off the flower of the fern on the night of Ivan Kupala (supposedly only then they blossom) will be able to understand the language of animals. But in fact, these plants never bloom, so the magic flower of the fern simply does not happen in nature.
Fern reproduces by spores.
Not only. In many ferns, reproduction occurs when the main shoots are divided into small shoots, or, as in ferns of nephrolepis, the beginning of the shoots of the mustache comes from the underground rhizome. Some species of ferns reproduce by brood buds, which are formed on the leaves.
Fern is an inedible plant.
Although in our gardens these plants are planted more as decorative, many kinds of ferns are used for food. Their fresh leaves are very fond in Tokyo and are eagerly eaten on the island of Java, in New Zealand and the Philippines, brewed, fried and baked in Mexico and Brazil. And the Indians of America from the roots of the fern bake bread. Often, fern leaves are added to salads.
Spores for reproduction are formed on the leaves of ferns.
And here there are exceptions. There are ferns in which sporopods are not all leaves, but only individual shoots, called sporophylls. For example, in ferns of the form of a peeler, the leaves are sterile, and spores develop in the ear on the legs.
Fern protects against mosquitoes.
Folk remedy for mosquitoes: hang fresh shoots of fern of the eagle around the room. It is believed that its smell insects can not stand and in a hurry trying to leave the room. In fact, the fern is effective in fighting only flies and ovids, and mosquitoes do not react to its elusive smell and certainly do not fly away. Do not believe me – check it out!
Grow fern at home can not!
Perhaps it is problematic to collect spores from leaves, to sow and grow them independently, but meanwhile the ferns are grown in flats and greenhouses, and special difficulties do not arise. There are species of ferns that reproduce themselves and are quite unpretentious. There are also those that can simply be divided into sprouts and transplanted.