(from Fechten – “to fight”, “to fight”) – sports single combat with the use of cold weapons. Fencers compete on a special track, the width of which is from 1.5 to 2 m, length – 14 m, and the cover – from electrically conductive material, for the purpose of isolation from the registration nyxes (blows) of the apparatus.
Manages the fight, as well as assesses the skills of fencers, the referee, guided by the testimony of the registration nyxes and the blows of the electric apparatus, to which the wiring system is connected with the weapons and clothing of the athletes. In addition, battles on certain types of weapons differ in some specific rules that allow in some cases to declare injections or strikes invalid and not count them.
The first fencing competitions, immortalized in the frescoes of the ancient temple of Abu in Medina (Egypt), date from around 1190 BC. According to the accompanying fresco hieroglyphic inscription, the competitions were arranged by Pharaoh Ramses III in honor of the celebration of victory in the battle with the Libyans.
Quite a long time, fencing, that is, possession of cold weapons (sword, sword, knife, ax, etc.) was simply necessary to resolve disputes, and sometimes – for survival. They taught the art of sword ownership of legionaries and gladiators in ancient Rome, and in ancient Greece fencing was taught to children who reached 7-9 years of age.
In medieval Europe (especially in France, Italy and Spain), the noble knights spent a lot of time studying the features of handling cold steel. In Russia, however, Peter I ordered the courtiers to learn fencing on swords, and introduced the study of bayonet tactics in the army. After a while, the noble art of handling cold steel was included in the number of compulsory subjects in many educational institutions.
Nowadays fencing has ceased to be a means of resolving disputes, and has turned from martial art into one of the sports. And this is not surprising – since ancient times, sword fighting has been an extremely popular kind of competition. Battles of this kind were conducted, as a rule, to the first blood, judged by the most respected elders. Fencing competitions were included in the program of the Olympic Games as early as 776 BC, and fencing competitions were held at the 1896 Olympics. Depending on the weapon used, these kinds of sports fencing are distinguished:
Fencing on rapiers
– this type of sport is used for a duel – the piercing weapon is a four-sided cross-section, the length of which is 110 cm, weight is 500 g. To protect the hand, there is a round guard , the diameter of which is 12 cm. Tournaments for men and women are held separately. Athletes are protected by a metallized jacket, the prick in which is registered by a colored lamp (this is the kind of nyxes that are counted), while a blow struck in an area not covered by a jacket is fixed by a white lamp and is considered invalid. The basic rule is to first reflect the enemy’s attack, and only then to proceed to the counter-actions. Priority of actions passes from one athlete to another, the advantage is determined by the arbiter, based on the readings of the recording apparatus.
Fencing on swords
– the sword is a trihedral cross-section thrusting weapon, whose length is 110 cm, weight – up to 770 g. The round guard, protecting the arm, has a diameter of 13.5 cm. Men and women compete in individual tournaments. Valid are injections inflicted by athletes in any part of the body (except the back of the head). Priority of actions in this form of fencing does not exist.
Fencing on sabers
– in this kind of fights, athletes use a saber – a cutting-piercing weapon of a trapezoidal cross-section, the length of which does not exceed 105 cm, weight – 500 g. The saddle is oval.The affected surface of the body of athletes (in this form of fencing blows and pricks, fixed on the apparatus with a colored lamp, can be applied to all parts of the body) is covered with protective clothing with silver shavings.
Fencing on walking sticks
– in this type of fencing athletes are armed with canes – smooth wooden sticks, the length of which is 95 cm, weight – from 125 to 140 grams. They keep their weapons with a straight grip with one hand, the second while being laid behind the back. The battle is in a circle with a diameter of 6 meters. The main goal of the fighters, protected by masks, bibs, gloves and flaps on their legs – is to inflict as many stabbing and chopping blows in any part of the enemy’s body in 2 minutes (this is the duration of the fight).
Fencing on carbines
– this type of fencing arose relatively recently – around the end of the 18th century – with the advent of a new type of long-barreled weapon – a carbine (from Arabian “Karab” – weapons, Turkish “karabuli” – rifleman or French carabin – rifle) . The honor of inventing the carbine is attributed to the arms master Gaspar Zolner. The handling of this type of weapon required not only an uncommon accuracy, but also strength, speed and agility when it came to hand-to-hand combat. Even after several centuries, the art of fencing on carbines has not been forgotten – moreover, it has gained quite wide popularity. For example, in the middle of the last century in the USSR, such a sport as fencing on carbines with an elastic bayonet was quite popular. During the training and various competitions, the participants not only fought for prizes and titles, but also got the opportunity to prepare for the hand-to-hand fight, to gain psychological stability during the battle, to hone the skills of handling weapons.
The system ROSS (Russian Domestic System of Self-Defense), on the general principles of which – the laws of nature and the mechanics of movements – the program and methods of teaching this kind of fencing has progressed, offered 2 options for conducting bayonet lessons and competitions:
1. Simplified competitions (trainings) without any protective equipment, while fencers use mock-ups of carbines or small sticks (poles).
2. Sports, a more complicated option. Athletes are protected by masks with visor, protective gloves, breastplate and inguinal bandage. As a weapon, carbines are used, on which a bayonet is replaced by a soft tennis ball.
Fencing on heavy bladed weapons
– competitions of this kind are conducted informally, fencers use one- or two-handed swords, the weight of which can be from 1200 to 4000-5000 grams. For protection, historical (or stylized for this or that era) armor is used: armor, chain mail, brigantine, etc. Since there is a full-contact battle, this kind of fencing is extremely traumatic.
– one of the types of fencing on heavy blade weapons. This sport revived in Russia at the beginning of the XXI century. The battle involved teams 5×5, and the weight category of the athlete does not matter. The soldiers dressed in the appropriate equipment can use no more than two types of weapons. The battle is held on a square 20 by 20 meters, surrounded by a security zone, the width of which is 1 meter. The duration of the bout is 3 minutes. The fight may end in the event of a fall of all the fighters of the team (the loss or damage of all weapons, the out-of-the-way, loss of an important element of defense, etc.) is also equated with a drop.
The fencers’ etiquette was invented in European countries.
This is not quite true. Some formulations of verbal appeals in antiquity corresponded to modern ones. For example, with the exclamation “to battle!”, Which begins today in a fencing duel, the fencers started fighting in Ancient Egypt (as evidenced by the corresponding inscription accompanying the fresco depicting the competition).The winner saluted the pharaoh and his retinue with weapons, and the results of the battles were recorded on a special papyrus.
To win, the swordsman must inflict as many blows or jabs on the opponent, it does not matter with what force the blow is struck and where he fell.
Indeed, strikes and stabs in a duel are fixed without fail. However, it should be borne in mind that, in accordance with the rules of one or another type of fencing, the same stroke (shot) can be both counted and canceled. For example, when fencing on rapiers, only the injections applied in the trunk are counted, and the spring in the punch-bar (the tip of the rapier) is adjusted only to a pressure of not less than 500 g (the apparatus does not register any weaker bumps). The same rules apply to fencing on sabers, the only difference is the prohibition to make a “cross step forward”. And in the battle with swords, the tip of the weapon must create a pressure of at least 750 g, and the blows can be applied to all parts of the opponent’s body (except the back of the head).
In some types of fencing, battles are fought to the first blood.
This is true, but in some cases, the one who closes his eyes during the battle is considered a loser. Such rules apply, for example, in the mensurfechten (German mensurfechten – fencing in a confined space), extremely popular among young people and students of Germany since the XVI century. The equipment of the fighters consists of glasses with a metal mesh, a leather breastplate and a thick scarf that protects the neck. The aim of fencers is to sharpen the opponent’s face with sharply sharpened weapons (“шпагером”). After this type of competition has ceased to be a means of resolving disputes and has turned into one of the ways to test courage and fortitude, new rules of the match have been created – special judges make sure that the fighters do not close their eyes during the battle.
The fencing mask was introduced relatively recently.
Researchers argue that even fencers of Ancient Egypt were protected by special masks. However, in Europe, the need to introduce this element of fencing equipment talked only in 1755, and introduced the mask was only a decade later – in 1765. According to experts, it was after the introduction of the mask began rapid and rapid technical and tactical improvement of fencing.
The debut of Russian fencers at the Olympic Games took place in the middle of the last century in Helsinki.
Indeed, in the 1952 Olympics (Finland, Helsinki) the USSR team participated, but one should not think that this was the debut of athletes from Russia in the international arena. As early as 1910 Russian saberists performed at competitions held in Paris. Yes, and in the Olympics in 1912 (Sweden, Stockholm), domestic blade masters also took part, although no special success was achieved.
To achieve victory in any form of fencing, one must thoroughly know the techniques of this art of possessing weapons and be in good physical shape.
This is true, because fencing is an individual sport, even team competitions are held one-on-one. However, for example, in order to win the battle in order to win, the team members must show not only physical strength, dexterity, the art of possessing weapons, but also team tactics and strategy. The fencer’s intelligence is also an extremely important component of the future victory, especially in competitions of this kind.
The most refined is the ancient Japanese art of fencing – after all, it is based on the philosophical principles of harmony.
European fencing is extremely rude and primitive. This is not quite true. In ancient times, samurai, clothed in heavy armor, used a massive long sword (Tati). The technique of possessing this type of weapon, undoubtedly effective in combat, was at the same time extremely simple, and there were no question of any complicated methods at that time. Only in the era of Edo (1603-1868 gg.), when the Japanese warriors armed themselves with shorter and light swords (katanas) and abandoned the fettered armor movement, the situation radically changed – instead of stamina and physical strength, dexterity, a sense of distance and time began to be valued. And the technique of combat was constantly improved and refined.
Approximately the same thing happened in Europe – the sword and rapier came to replace the heavy sword. There were also new schools of fencing, based sometimes on the conclusions of the exact sciences (for example, geometry) and appreciating the grace and beauty of the fencer’s movements above all else, even victory in the duel.
Japanese swords are the most qualitative, reliable and difficult to produce.
This is not quite true. The “high technologies” of Japanese gunsmiths (“Japanese Damascus” – the numerous welding and subsequent layering, the technology of steel packages (the core of soft iron is coated with high-carbon steel), which makes it possible to produce an elastic and long sharpening product) were known in Europe as early as VI- VIII centuries. In addition, it should be taken into account that Japan’s high-quality and pure ores did not contribute to the improvement of forging skills, while the Europeans were forced to invent new methods and technologies for manufacturing metal products.
The two-fight never really existed – it’s a fiction of the filmmakers of the militants and the creators of computer games.
Absolutely mistaken opinion. Two-fight from olden times was actively used in many countries of the world, although the conduct of the battle with two types of weapons required from a man an ingenious dexterity, coordination and development of a fairly extensive arsenal of techniques. In different countries, fencers preferred to use different types of weapons in the two-battle battle. For example, in Europe, except for a long weapon (sword, rapier or sword) used a short blade. Less popular was the art of fighting on pairs swords. In Japan, also often used two swords – long and short. On the islands of the Pacific Ocean, Kali Arnis art was very popular – rivals armed with twin sticks, and in some cases – pair machetes. The most common practice of fighting with pairs of objects was used in China. For the fight, the fighters chose pairs of short swords, pair of swords (shuandao), pair swords (shuangjian), as well as pair spears, maces, fighting fans, etc.
Dvomecnik gambling will win the fight of a fighter armed with only one blade.
Like any style of fighting, the two-fight battle has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include a huge arsenal of techniques and techniques. Of course, the effort and time for their study will have to spend a lot, but the result is worth it. However, we should not forget about the weaknesses of the two-masons. For example, if the enemy is fighting a long distance, using the second blade is simply impossible. And if, moreover, the rival is equipped with a two-handed or one-and-a-half-handed sword, he can easily defeat a man armed with two shorter blades.
The most effective is the protection of the “blade in the blade.”
Protection of this kind is mentioned in treatises on fencing only since the XVI century, before that preference was given to pushing enemy weapons from the line of attack. After all, the hard block (that is, the clash of swords with faces) not only deprives you of the opportunity to attack, but also damages the weapon – on the edge there are cracks and notches, which in the future can lead to a loss of sharpness of the blade, and even destruction of the blade.
From time immemorial there have been debates about what is more effective – a stabbing or chopping blow. Most often they tend to believe that the edge is greater than the blade.
No, such disputes are conducted relatively recently – approximately from the beginning of the XVIII century.Before that, in various parts of the world, both the stabbing and chopping blow were considered to be the fundamental techniques of combat, and the weapons were made in such a way as to enable the fighter to deliver any type of strike in accordance with the prevailing situation. At the same time, there was a purely cutting and stabbing weapon, and no dominance of blades of any one type could be traced.
Fencing can be started from the age of 12.
Indeed, most often in the sports section take children 10-12 years, but begin to comprehend the noble art of fencing can be from 5 years. In this case, special light weapons are used for training. By the way, you can become a swordsman at any age. At the World Championship among veterans, held in 2006, won an athlete from South Africa, who began to comprehend the wisdom of fencing at the age of fifty, and achieved great success.
In France, various schools of fencing have arisen, various techniques have been developed – hence, in various competitions the team of this country will often take prizes.
Indeed, it was France that was the ancestor of many fencing schools that later spread to many countries in Europe. However, following the results, for example, of the Olympic Games, this country was on the second place (36 medals), while the first firmly established Italians (42 medals). Hungarian athletes in third place (29 medals), on the fourth – fencers of the USSR and Russia, in the treasury of which at the moment 27 medals.