is a conscious statement that does not correspond to truth, which differs from the unconscious or delusion. People so often lie that they do not even think about what they’re telling a lie or why. More often than not, we have misconceptions about lies, which we unmask. It is not known where the word “lie” came from in Russian.

The origin of the word lies is unclear, even Dahl’s dictionary can not clearly tell about where it came from, content only with the interpretation of meaning. As we managed to find out, the word is derived from “skiing”, which means not a means of transportation in the snow, but “false news”. Just a couple of centuries ago, the sound “s” was not swallowed yet, and the word sounded like “to lick”. The names Zalygin and Perelygin just have related roots.

A liar can give out a gesture or pose.

This theory is even devoted to theories, books, films. A person, when he is lying, must certainly fiddle with his ear or rub his forehead, eyes, cover his mouth with his hand. That is, show subconsciously their concerns. But is it possible to conclude from this that if the interlocutor is pulling his ear, he is sure to lie? Of course not. Making such conclusions means getting into Brokaw’s trap, that is, not taking into account the individuality of a person, but being content only with theoretical calculations. For example, a calm and impassive voice is considered a sign of a truthful person. But if the interlocutor, in principle, is devoid of emotions and his voice by nature is even and inexpressive, does this mean that he always speaks only the truth?

A long pause in conversation can be interpreted as a lie.

Interestingly, those subjects who were oriented toward finding a lie just so and treated a long pause, but those people who were asked to reveal the truth, treated the pause in the conversation as meditation, an unambiguous sign of truthfulness. That is, there can be no unambiguous interpretation! But here on movement of eyes to reveal lie it is possible. It is noticed that when a person begins to lie, to dream, he first looks to the right and up, and then to the left and down. Thus, he creates a new image and tries to control his speech.

The lie causes a unique reaction of the autonomic nervous system.

Scientists are still arguing on this issue. Many scientists believe that the accompanying lies more frequent heartbeats, pulses, changes in the frequency of swallowing, increased sweating is caused not only by lies, but also by feelings of shame, fear, grief from deception. In case a lie is attributed to a special physiological reaction, it will help to simplify deciphering the data from the lie detector.

The lie detector lets you catch lies.

The lie detector is an apparatus for recording the parameters of the cardiovascular system, respiration and other physiological parameters. Analyzing them, the device shows a splash in case of using lies. The first application of this kind of instrument was recorded in the late 19th century. However, to date, the effectiveness of the detector is largely challenged. So, to erroneous data can lead bias of the subject, the expert, the results can be simply misinterpreted, and the error can often cost a very long time. That is why in Germany and Poland courts do not even consider the evidence on the lie detector, and in the United States in 2003 a special report entitled “Polygraph and revealing lies” was published in which research with the help of a polygraph was called “unreliable, unscientific and biased.”

Women unlike men are constantly lying.

If you believe the statistics, it’s the opposite. The average man lies five times a day, and a woman – only three.

People lie about everything in a row.

This is certainly so, but there are several phrases that people use to lie much more often. A study in the US showed that the most common lie is the phrase “I’m all right.” In the second place, the hackneyed phrase “No, you’re not fat at all” or “Yes, you look good”. And here the three eternal ones “I love you” close.

We are not so much and time for life.

The soulless statistics of the British company Beverage Brands says that during 60 years of life each of us will lie almost 88 thousand times. Apparently, the vows speak always the truth and nothing but the truth, usually do not incarnate.

The most deceitful profession is a journalist.

It turns out that sociologists were able to compile a list of professions in which a person most often lies. Indeed, in the western ratings the journalist leads, followed by real estate agents. In Russia, these specialties are located on innocuous 21 and 16 places, respectively. But our rating is headed by politicians, PR people, actors, lawyers, economists, advertisers, physicians. It is noteworthy that in our list there are also harmless at first glance professions – teachers, scientists and designers. In order for people to start lying in their profession, there are certain prerequisites. This requires the presence of a large number of external contacts, the dependence of career growth on other people, the possibility of giving up promises and legal impunity. Differences in ratings are obvious – if our policy can give empty promises and not be responsible for their actions, then in Europe this is unacceptable.

Pathological liars do not exist.

Scientists have proved that such people exist and distinguishes them not just a tendency to stories about fictional events, never-existing friends. Such people have in the brain less gray matter than ordinary people. Apparently, the lack of substances in the head forces these people to invent and deceive, thus attracting attention to themselves. In addition, pathological liars differ from ordinary ones in that they soon begin to believe in their own fantasies.

You can not lie in your own pleasure.

A brilliant debunking of this myth is the legendary Baron Munchausen. This, by the way, is a real historical person. After serving a little in Russia, the Baron returned to his homeland, afterwards inventing a lot of stories about his adventures in Russia. In the amusement of his neighbors, Munchausen regaled them with colorful stories in a special pavilion of lies. Soon these stories began to disperse around the neighborhood, they were even printed. Even on his deathbed, the baron told his maid that a polar bear had bit off two fingers on his leg, although in fact he had lost them from frostbite. As you can see, Munchausen lived a fun and quite fun lying, getting from this incomparable pleasure.

On the first date, women usually lie.

And again, a survey of Americans dethroned this myth. Lie more often men. About what? A quarter hides its true marital status and the presence of children. The same is true of the untruth of the level of their incomes, exaggerating them. But women on a par with men hide the truth about the number of their sexual partners – about this lie 17% of Americans.

The biggest parental lie is Santa Claus or Santa Claus.

And in this issue, British sociologists formed a kind of hit parade. Indeed, New Year’s grandfather with gifts in the first place. They also lie to the children that picking in the nose will lead to the head falling out, that children are found in cabbage or gooseberry, that the bones can germinate in the stomach, that the liars have language. But, despite the last statement, parents lie to their children, somewhere for good, with educational purposes, and somewhere – obeying an inexplicable human instinct – lie.

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