Dyslexia refers to a person’s inability to learn the skills of reading and writing, but at the same time the overall learning ability remains. In the West, dyslexia includes a variety of problems related to writing and speech in general. People with such a violation can not learn math, they have problems with maintaining attention, motor skills and coordination are impaired. In domestic medicine, such problems are treated separately.
The term was introduced by the German ophthalmologist Rudolf Berlin in 1887. He worked with a boy, who just had difficulties with learning. And although the symptoms of dyslexia are revealed simply, this very violation is quite unusual and unusual even for experienced parents and teachers. There are also some errors in this matter.
Dyslexia is more common in boys than in girls.
Some experts even call the ratio four to one. But there is no single opinion on this topic. Physicians suggest that boys have some kind of genetic vulnerability in their set of chromosomes. But in schools dyslexia occurs approximately in equal proportions among the sexes. The formation of the myth is also influenced by the fact that the girls try to accept the challenge, while the boys respond to the problem with irritability and disobedience. Teachers should pay closer attention to the behavioral difficulties of children.
Children with dyslexia write letters in a mirror image.
Such writing does not always mean dyslexia. For example, for left-handers it is typical to mirror the letters Z, R, C, C. At the initial stage of training, many write letters incorrectly, not immediately memorizing the direction of the letter elements. Talk about dyslexia can be if the failure has a long and persistent nature. But this is not the only problem with deviation. People with dyslexia have a number of problems with the skills of reading, communication, speaking and spelling as well.
People with dyslexia should try harder.
In people with dyslexia, the brain functions differently. Some traditional reading techniques and techniques may simply not work. Studies have shown that people with dyslexia benefit most from intensive or structured learning. Some techniques suggest the maximum attraction of the brain, including vision, hearing, and touch.
Dyslexia is an indicator of low IQ.
Dyslexia does not determine the level of human intelligence. Deviation occurs in children of different social strata and the possibilities of the brain. Speaking of dyslexia, no one puts a stigma on a child. With the right support, many children even get higher education and build a successful career. The development of science is gradually reducing the myth “to no.” It became possible to talk not about a mental deviation, but about the features of the brain. It gives owners an advantage in imaginative thinking. It is known that dyslexics are famous for their non-standard solutions. Many actors, artists and scientists just have such a violation. You can name the names of D.Eniston, S.Spilberg, V.Goldberg, R.Bransona. True, unusualness can give rise to an inferiority complex. Such people may have difficulties with hiring, which turns them even to a criminal environment.
Dyslexia is curable.
In fact, dyslexia is a violation of the brain that persists throughout life. Early intervention and proper equipment of the classroom and living quarters can have a significant positive impact on reading skills and performance.
The child overgrows dyslexia.
This is a rather dangerous delusion, which for a long time accompanied dyslexia. As a result, the parents were inactive, expecting a breakthrough from their child. And they applied to specialists already in the neglected case. If the diagnosis is made to a child at the age of 9-10 years, then you can still have time to read it. But it will not be easy to do it.Dyslexia does not come and go, with it people are born and keep this violation for life.
The cause of dyslexia is brain damage.
In fact, this malfunction appears due to a violation of the synchronous operation of the right and left hemispheres. More recently, scientists have determined that learning problems are not due to brain defects, but to its particular mode of operation. Man is not yet fully able to understand this. Recent research has shown that dyslexia appears due to neurobiological reasons. Some areas of the brain are less active than usual. And the structure of the brain tissue is different from normal. As early as 1917, the Englishman Hinshelwood noted cases of dyslexia in relatives. But only in 1950 a fundamental study was carried out, which proved the hereditary nature of dyslexia. There were also genes responsible for this violation.
Dyslexia is best revealed before school, so that it is easier for the child to learn.
The modern system of general education in any case will make dyslexic training a painful occupation. The child spends most of the time in the school in an immobilized state, the activity of the sense organs is ignored, since the priority is given to instructive-programming techniques. But the impact on mechanical memory is meaningless for a schoolboy with dyslexia.
Dyslexics is written in a clumsy handwriting and with numerous errors.
According to the latest data, the motivation to write competently wins the natural ignorance of dyslexics. It’s not the training itself that matters, but the exercises that require effort. It is important for a person to constantly try to solve problems that require the mobilization of all resources and sometimes even superior capabilities.
Dyslexics are absolutely ordinary people.
Today it is customary to consider such people as progressive representatives of the society. Their specially organized brain activity determines the unique intelligence of dyslexics and distinguishes it from a number of ordinary people.
Dyslexia is a disease.
Dyslexia is a diagnosis that reveals particular from the point of view of human organization. Information to them can be perceived in bulk. Those words and symbols that can not be imaginatively imagined are given up in a void in perception. This can lead to confusion. That is why information is poorly perceived, clumsiness, disorganization and disorientation, attention deficit and hyper / hypoactivity are observed. But there are many variants of compensating behavior, through which dyslexic can leave this state of its own, even for others.
Dyslexia is associated with poor eyesight.
According to recent studies, popular visual impairments: farsightedness, strabismus, myopia, poor focus in children with dyslexia were observed no more often than their usual peers.
Dyslexia does not exist at all.
More than 30 years ago, data obtained through scientific research confirmed the existence of dyslexia. This allowed us to reconsider approaches to teaching problem children.
Dyslexia is extremely rare.
Studies conducted in the United States have shown that signs of dyslexia occur in 5-10% of the population, according to other estimates, the indicator reaches a total of 17%. The International Dyslexia Foundation claims that 15 to 20% of the population has learning disabilities, and dyslexia usually is the fault. Some people have mild forms, while others have serious symptoms. Dyslexia in primary school is one of the most common problems with reading. Only one in ten dyslexics gets an individual approach and special help in teaching reading.
Dyslexia can not be diagnosed.
Today, experts can fairly accurately identify the group at risk in kindergarten, and in the first class, dyslexia is already identified. The final diagnosis is made at the age when the child begins to actively learn reading and writing. And it is important to diagnose as early as possible. This will signal the need for help to the child.So you can keep his dignity. The combination of heredity in dyslexia and difficulties in speaking will help to identify a vulnerable child before formal schooling begins.
Dyslexia can be diagnosed by an ordinary teacher on the basis of special tests.
This is technically the case, but depending on the personality of the professional, the diagnosis may be different. Specialists in their reports use phrases like “the child has specific problems in phonological development” instead of the obvious diagnosis of “dyslexia.” School staff prefer not to contact this phenomenon. But this is only a matter of semantics. In most American states, dyslexia requires a special approach in education. It is understood that the child has a specific inability to learn reading, writing.
The diagnosis of “dyslexia” is put by physicians.
This problem is not medical in nature and is not diagnosed by doctors. The fact is that these specialists do not have proper preparation for working with the child’s oral speech, teaching him to read, writing, can not evaluate the spelling and somehow evaluate it. Dyslexia requires additional training for pediatricians, some of them receive neurobiological information about the violation.
People with dyslexia, in principle, can not read.
Most children and adults with dyslexia can read at least at a basic level. A classic alarm for parents and teachers is spelling. A child may not understand the basic rules of the language and can not parse or add words using letters.
Children with dyslexia can never even with the help of compensating techniques learn to read well.
Systematic and explicit work carried out on a scientific basis allows people with dyslexia to master the reading in perfection. You just need to identify problems in time, before they affect your motivation and psyche.
Daily reading aloud for 20 minutes will help a child with dyslexia.
Reading aloud unknown words does not help the child. Instead, he will try to remember the shape of the word and use contextual and visual clues in trying to guess it. The development of direct reading skills does not help.
People with dyslexia see things backwards.
Dyslexia is not related to vision. Studies have shown that children unfold the letters regardless of whether they have dyslexia or not. The deviation may cause the words to be read backwards, but this is due to a malfunction in the hemispheres of the brain. At the University of Albany, a study was conducted, asking students to recall from memory a number of complex Hebrew letters. Students with dyslexia performed the task with the same error as their regular classmates. So dyslexia does not affect vision.
Teachers know how to deal with dyslexia.
As soon as a child with dyslexia enters school, he usually faces problems. The fact is that most teachers do not know much about dyslexia and certainly do not know how to deal with it. There are many features related to the learning curve that the teacher faces in the standard classroom. It is simply impossible for a teacher to be an expert in all matters. So the problem child should be allocated, discussing its further training with the teacher and the director.