Mendeleev Dmitry Ivanovich
(1834-1907) – a great Russian scientist, chemist, physicist, educator, public figure. In 1859 he discovered a periodic law, on the basis of which he created a periodic system of elements. After himself left over 500 scientific publications, among which the classic textbook “Fundamentals of Chemistry.” In his works, the foundations of the theory of solutions are disclosed, an industrial method for fractional oil separation is proposed. He was the organizer and first director of the Main Chamber of Weights and Measures (1893). Mendeleev was born into a large family.
Mendeleev was born on January 27, 1834. He became 17 and the last child in the family. By the time of his birth, only two brothers and five sisters had survived in the family. Father – Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev was the director of the Tobolsk high school and the schools of the Tobolsk district. Mother, Maria Dmitrievna, her roots were also of an old, but impoverished merchant family. Ivan Pavlovich died in 1847, leaving the entire burden of responsibility on the shoulders of his wife. Despite this, she, being a strong, educated and intelligent woman, was able to take care of her children and give them a decent education.
Mendeleev studied well at the gymnasium.
Actually, this is not quite true. Dmitry Ivanovich hated the routine that reigned in the gymnasium walls and studied mediocrely. With special diligence, he was engaged only in two subjects – mathematics and physics. For the rest of his life, a negative attitude towards the classical school remained in his soul. However, the fate in the Main Pedagogical Institute of St. Petersburg at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, he knew the whole power of education. Despite the fact that the first course was given to him with great difficulty, he graduated from high school with a gold medal. Later Dmitry Ivanovich became one of the best teachers of Russia.
Mendeleev stopped teaching at the University of St. Petersburg because of a conflict with the Minister of Education.
In the spring of 1890, student riots broke out at the university. The students worked out a petition addressed to the Minister of Education Delyanov. It did not contain any revolutionary ideas, as some suggest, and was of a purely academic nature. Mendeleev agreed to transfer the petition to the minister, provided that students stop the riots. However, the minister did not consider the petition, and Mendeleev answered rudely and tactlessly. As a result, the riots resumed. This attitude to himself and the students Dmitry Ivanovich could not endure and filed a petition for resignation.
Mendeleev invented vodka.
Mendeleev did not invent vodka. He wrote and defended his doctoral thesis “Discourse on the connection of alcohol with water.” Another controversial fact, this statement that Mendeleev offered to produce vodka fortress 40 degrees. In fact, in his works this figure is not traced. According to some sources, he suggested making vodka a fortress of 38 degrees, considering such a fortress ideal. However, in the future this number was rounded to 40.
The principle of constructing the periodic system was formed in Mendeleev’s dream.
This popular version, frankly speaking, somewhat detracts from the great chemist’s merits. According to this version, Mendeleev invented and created the system in one day, and part of it was seen during daytime sleep. According to O. Ozarovskaya’s memoirs, one day when asked about the opening of the periodic system, Mendeleyev replied: “I thought about it, I thought for twenty years, but you think: I was sitting and suddenly … ready.” These words fully reveal the long-term thought process of creating a periodic system. Even if he saw anything in a dream, it only means that the thoughts of genius worked even at a time when his physical component was resting.
In creating a periodic system a lot of mystical.
Indeed, the genial discovery gives mysticism. Making up the periodic table, Mendeleev arranged the elements in increasing atomic weight. Already on beryllium it became clear that according to the scientific data of that time the table does not work.And then it’s really inexplicable: Mendeleev simply changed the atomic weight of beryllium and added an empty cell between titanium and calcium. He did so almost with the third part of the table. The weight of uranium as a result increased as much as 4 times. This table not only systematized the chemical elements, but also predicted the appearance of unknown elements. A sensation of something divine is created, but how can genius be explained?
Mendeleev was unhappy in his personal life.
Dmitry Ivanovich’s first marriage can not really be called happy. April 29, 1862 he married Feozve Nikitichna Lescheva. In this marriage two children were born: Volodya’s son and daughter Olga. Mendeleyev loved children very much, but his relationship with his wife was cold. As a result, she gave him complete freedom, provided that he retained an official marriage. In 43 years Dmitry Ivanovich fell in love with 19-year-old Anuta Pavlov. These relations in the initial stage were very complicated. Anyuta’s father was against and asked Mendeleyev to leave his daughter alone. As a result, Anyuta was sent abroad, where Dmitry Ivanovich, having lost his head, rushed after her. Divorce in those years was a very difficult process. To help a genius man arrange his personal life and for the sake of Mendeleyev’s mental health, his friends NN Beketov. and Il’in N.P. asked the first wife for permission to divorce. After her consent and subsequent divorce, Dmitry Ivanovich had to wait another six years to conclude a new marriage. To avoid this, he bribed the priest, paying him for a marriage with Anyuta 10 thousand rubles (note that his estate cost him only 8 thousand rubles). This marriage was very successful. The couple got along well and understood each other perfectly. Daughter Lyuba, who appeared in this marriage, became the wife of A. Blok.
Mendeleev was engaged in the manufacture of suitcases.
Indeed, despite the employment and achievements in many scientific, Dmitry Ivanovich was fond of bookbinding and making suitcases. In this regard, even there were oddities. It is said that when, during the purchase of the material, the seller asked the shop: “Who is this?”. He replied: “Do not you know? It’s a well-known suitcase master Mendeleev.” It is also known that Mendeleev himself wore clothing, considering the purchase uncomfortable.
Mendeleev lost sight at the end of his life.
In 1895 Mendeleev became blind as a result of developed cataracts. In those years he was already in charge of the chamber of measures and weights that he had created. For such an active person it was a difficult time. All the business documents were read aloud to him, the secretary wrote down orders. Thanks to two operations successfully conducted by Professor IV Kostenich, the cataract was removed and the vision returned to Mendeleyev.
Mendeleev was only engaged in science.
Mendeleev had a wide range of knowledge and could influence the minds of people. He invested very much in the formation of industry and economy of Russia. In his writings, he proposed reforming the community, introducing an arti-zational organization of labor. Particular attention Dmitry Ivanovich pays to the oil industry. It was for acquaintance on this issue in 1876 that he was sent by the government to America. He studied the oil fields of Russia, paying special attention to the Caucasus. Part of his work is devoted specifically to oil refining. In addition, he dealt with the problems of the Donetsk Coal Basin and its rationalization. Thus, he had a great influence not only in the scientific field, but also in solving domestic economic issues in Russia …