is a crystalline modification of pure carbon, which was formed at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, with exceptionally high pressure and temperature, about 600-650 million years ago. At all times people attracted and bewitched this mysterious stone, amazing imagination with its firmness and purity, pleasing the eye with its brilliance and beauty.
Many peoples of the world knew and appreciated this stone, gave it names that most accurately convey the best properties of the diamond. The Greeks called it “adamas” (“invincible”) or “adamantos” (“indestructible”, “irresistible”), Chaldeans – “hudan” (divine), Arabs – “almas” (“hardest”), Jews – “shamir” , Hindus – “Faries”, Romans – “diamond” (from the Sanskrit dyu “luminous being”). In Russia in ancient times, the diamond was called “adamas” and “adamant”.
About this in all respects, a remarkable stone was composed of legends and legends, various miraculous and magical properties were attributed to him. For example, people from ancient times believed that the life of the diamond gave 5 creative elements (earth, water, air, sky, energy). The Indians deified the diamond and worshiped it. In their opinion, the diamond is able to heal from any disease, protect it from enemies and evil spirits, protect it from injury, evil eye, spoilage, grant the ability to clairvoyance and predict the future. In addition, the diamond grants its owner strength and invincibility in battle, protects from despondency, depression, insanity, epilepsy, etc.
The inhabitants of the Ancient East believed that the diamond brings happiness, strength, good luck in love, and the largest stones that were the property of the lords, regarded as a guarantee of the invincibility and prosperity of their states. Warriors of medieval Europe decorated the weapon with diamonds, because they believed that this stone is capable of giving the owner courage and courage. In addition, women believed that the ring with this stone (especially having a greenish shade and revered as a symbol of motherhood) is an excellent assistant at birth and able to protect the young mother from all adversities. But not all stones were “lucky” talismans – some diamonds (for example, “Hope” and the notorious “Hope”) brought their owners only misery, pain and suffering.
What actually carries this stone, how to make the right choice and find a reliable friend in diamonds, and not a strong spiteful enemy? How to distinguish a real diamond from a skillfully created fake? What is true in stories about the origin and properties of diamonds, and what is fiction? We will try to find answers to all these questions.
Diamonds are formed deep in the bowels of the earth.
Indeed, the vast majority of diamonds are formed at a depth of over 80 km at very high temperatures (1100-1300 degrees Celsius). But in some places, the corresponding conditions arose on the surface of the Earth – for example, with the impact of huge meteorites (this is how the diamonds discovered in the Arizona meteorite crater were formed). Sometimes precious stones come to our planet from space (an example is a diamond found in the Novo-Urengoy meteorite).
Diamond and diamond are synonyms.
Indeed, these words are most often used interchangeably, but the difference in their meaning is still present. Diamond – raw stone, raw materials for the production of jewelry. Brilliant (“shiny”) – a word denoting the shape of a stone’s cut (and not necessarily a diamond). The cut diamond is a grinding of a rather large number of faces – from 18 to 57. Since this kind of work, when hand-cut, takes about two years, the diamond cut is used to process valuable diamonds. Ordinary glass or rhinestone is subjected to a diamond cut to create duplicates of unique diamonds, which are often exhibited in museums instead of originals. Diamonds, for processing which were chosen other forms of cut (“rose”, “briolet”, “anniversary”, “marquise”, etc.) are not called diamonds.
The diamond is extremely strong – it can not be broken.
In the old days it was believed that a diamond can not be broken even with a hammer on the anvil. Not all stones survived such a “test of strength.” After all, despite the fact that the diamond is the hardest of the minerals (it can not be scratched by anything other than another diamond), it is quite fragile, so it’s still possible to break this stone.
To appreciate a diamond is simple – the price of a carat must be multiplied by the number of carats.
This is not the case – when evaluating diamonds, the “Tavernier rule” is used: the cost of a diamond is equal to the product of the square of the weight (weight) of the crystal in carats (1 carat – 0.2 grams) per base price of one carat. The price of a stone in one carat is approximately equal to the price of 100 g of gold. 2 carat diamond costs 3 times more expensive, the price of a 3 carat stone is 10 times more expensive, etc., up to 5 carats. A 10-carat diamond is 100 times more expensive than a one-carat diamond. Stones weighing more than 25 carats are quite rare, so they are given their own names. (“Cullinan”, “Orlov”, “Hope”, “Koch-i-nor”, etc.).
Natural diamonds are not colored.
This is not true. Firstly, absolutely colorless stones are a rarity. Most often there are diamonds of “pure water” with a bluish, grayish or yellowish tinge. Secondly, colored (fancy) diamonds of jewelry quality are found in nature, although much less often than colorless ones. The diamond can be painted in yellow, orange, cognac, purple, pink, red, green, purple, blue or blue. The most famous fantasy diamonds are the blue “Hope” (42.5 carats), the pale yellow 53-carat “Sancy”, “Dresden green” in the color of Antonov’s apple, “Hope” in sapphire, the yellow-brown “Golden Jubilee” (545 carats ). The cost of these rare stones can reach $ 1 million per carat. In this case, it should be noted that the price varies significantly due to small variations in color. For example, the cost of pink and red diamonds with a brown tint, blue and blue with a gray tinge, green with a yellow tinge, decreases quite sharply. And vice versa, the price of brown stones with an orange tint increases. At the same time, it should be remembered that it is easier to synthesize a large diamond crystal of a thick yellow-brown color than a colorless one. Through the use of modern technologies it is not difficult to change the color of a natural crystal to a fashionable bright yellow or green. At the same time, the traces of ennobling are outwardly completely invisible without special equipment. Therefore, the authenticity of the coloring of any yellow, yellow-brown or brown diamond should be checked at gemological laboratories.
Black diamonds are fiction.
Indeed, many experts are of the opinion that black diamonds are not worthy to be called diamonds, because these stones are completely opaque, they reflect light only by the surface, do not sparkle and do not “play”. Black diamonds until recently were considered purely technical raw materials, their value did not exceed $ 10 per carat. However, rare extremely uniform evenly colored and relatively inexpensive black crystals are becoming increasingly popular, especially among men who do not want to wear jewelry or cufflinks with ordinary diamonds. However, it should be remembered that some firms in the guise of black diamonds offer customers defective low-quality diamonds, “blackened” by annealing or irradiation, and even black artificial muassanite.
Diamonds are a primordially feminine decoration.
This is not true. Women began to wear diamonds with the light hand of Agnes Sorel, the favorites of the King of France Charles VII (it was since then that large diamonds began to get their own names). Before that, this stone was considered to be exclusively a man’s adornment.
Diamonds were cut at all times.
Actually, for the first time, diamonds began to be granulated only in the XIV century. Until then, natural stones, which are known to have the shape of an octahedron, have only been ground.
It is possible to limit the diamond quite quickly.
This is not true.The manual cut of diamond, especially of irregular shape and large size, takes from one to three to five years.
Diamond at all times was the most precious stone.
No, in ancient times the diamond was put on a lower level than rubies, pearls, emeralds. The reason is that the masters did not know how to handle this stone – but only a successful cut can reveal the beauty of a diamond, showing the world its beautiful rainbow shine. But it was still considered a precious stone and was used to make jewelry, inlaid items of everyday use, weapons, etc.
Real diamonds continue to glow for a while in total darkness.
Indeed, diamonds can phosphoresce (ie, glow for a while in the dark after the light source is turned off). However, this property is inherent in stones in varying degrees. In some, the luminescence appears brightly and for a fairly long time, in others it is hardly noticeable and briefly.
A real diamond, dropped into the water, is not visible.
This is not true. In pure water, the diamond is visible, since the refractive index of water (1.33) is by no means identical with the refractive index of diamond (2.42).
Under the influence of ultraviolet (for example, in a solarium) these diamonds glow with a bright blue light.
Indeed, diamonds luminesce (shine) under the influence of UV radiation. The most common color is blue, but the glow can be green, yellow, orange, red, milky white. And some diamonds are inert to the effects of ultraviolet radiation (ie do not shine at all).
The finished diamond ring is cheaper than made to order.
This is not quite true. Comparing prices in stores and the prices offered by dealers for purchasing a diamond from them and then making jewelry, you can notice an obvious difference. Buying a finished product will cost you more than buying a certified stone and paying for a jeweler. But it is necessary to take into account some peculiarities of making custom-made products. On the one hand, you can participate in the process of making the desired decoration personally and choose any vending design. On the other hand, it will take a lot of effort to properly convey your idea to the master who is carrying out the order.
The cheapest diamonds are in Dubai.
This is a myth. Cheap stones, most likely, where they are cut, and not in the city of boutiques and millionaires, lashing money to the right and left.
The best cut diamonds – Indian, because it is this country for millennia engaged in the extraction and sale of jewelry.
Indeed, for a long time India kept the palm tree in the mining of diamonds, but the high-quality faceting of the master of this country could not boast. Little has changed in the jewelry business of India these days – the quality of the cut leaves much to be desired. The term “Indian cut” is most often used to denote the poor work of a jeweler, not necessarily Indian.
If you put a diamond in your mouth – your teeth will collapse, and if you swallow it – the guts will rupture.
This myth, which arose around the 7th century, is based on the fact that the diamond possessed great destructive power – it cut any other stones. In addition, according to legend, the fields were guarded by poisonous snakes. In fact, no damaging effect on the body of the diamond (especially uncut) is not able to do – this was proven by diamond mine workers, who often concealed the found diamonds in … their own stomach. Stones came out of the body naturally, without causing the person the slightest harm.
Any person who wears a diamond, this stone will bring happiness, health, luck.
From the earliest times, wearing a diamond meant observing certain conditions, because this strong and strong stone, according to our ancestors, could become a source of both great happiness and grandiose victories, as well as hopeless grief and devastating defeats in all spheres of life.
First, in order to achieve the best health and protective effect, the stone had to reach its owner only in an honest way. Thieves do not like thieves, scammers, scammers and can harm them. In addition, it was believed that the purchased diamond will begin to “work” only after 7 years. Therefore, it is good, if the stone is given, or even better – it will be inherited from a successful and rich ancestor (the history of the stone needed to be known, for there are diamonds that bring the owners failures, illnesses, death – it is better not to deal with them).
Secondly, the diamond itself decides whether to help its owner or not. If a person is strong, proud, confident in himself, strives to occupy a high position in society, craves fame and honor – a diamond will suit him. But living on the principle of “quieter you go – you will continue” this stone is contraindicated.
Third, a diamond is best worn when it reaches 30 years. In this case, he will help to gain fame and recognition, increase wealth, strengthen self-confidence, develop the mind and intellect of the “owner” who “likes” him, and help the hostess get rid of problems of a sexual nature and make her irresistibly attractive.
Astrologers believe that it is good to wear a ring (preferably gold) with a diamond on the left hand, and the necklace or suspension should be worn so that the stone touches the neck.
The diamond is ideal for people born under the sign of Aries and Leo. However, people born under other signs who possess the above features of character and temperament can also wear this stone and hope for its help.
Natural stone is very difficult to distinguish from fake.
Indeed, fantasy (colored) stones are faked so skillfully that only a specialist can make appropriate conclusions in the laboratory. And, nevertheless, each buyer should have certain information that will help to recognize the most coarse and obvious forgery.
1. Through the diamond inserted into the ring, the finger on which the ornament is worn is not visible, and if you look at the light through the stone, only the luminous point is visible. The cause of this effect is a facet – the light entering the stone through the crown is completely reflected from the rear edges, as from mirrors.
2. A drop of hydrochloric acid will not damage the diamond. If the stone remains a dark spot – before you a fake of zircon.
3. The diamond will leave scratches on the glass and any other stone.
4. The diamond dropped into the water (glycerin, methylene iodide or monobromide monophthalene) is visible, while counterfeits made of spinel, sapphire or lead-rich crystal glass will simply not be noticeable in the liquid.
Diamonds are best cleaned in ultrasonic baths for cleaning stones and jewelry.
Indeed, this is one of the best methods for cleaning diamonds, but for some other precious stones such baths are not suitable. In this case, you can use special solutions for cleaning jewelry or just a soapy solution (or a solution of dishwashing liquid). However, the last of the methods described is completely unacceptable, if there is pearls in the decoration.