(Latin depressio – suppression, oppression) 1) mood characterized by a sense of inadequacy, a sense of desperation, a decrease in activity or reactivity, pessimism, sadness and the associated symptoms; normal, relatively short and frequent occurrence; 2) mental disorder, the main features of which are persistent long (at least 2 weeks) mood reduction, a sense of longing, a sense of hopelessness.
As a rule, it is accompanied by motor retardation (sometimes excitation), slowing of thinking, anxiety, ideas of self-blame, sleep disorder (early morning awakening), impaired appetite, decreased libido. Characteristic is the reluctance to communicate and accept help from others. In some patients, complaints of a violation of physical health (weight loss, constipation, arterial hypertension, palpitation, pain in the chest, head, abdomen, joints, or back) are at the forefront.
There are both extremely heavy (melancholy) and relatively light (dysthymia) variants. Severe depression presents a great danger due to the high likelihood of suicide. Depression is not considered an independent disease, but acts as a manifestation of many mental illnesses (manic-depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, intoxications, alcoholism, diseases caused by mental trauma, etc.).
Approximately in equal shares, there are cases of depression associated with stress, severe psychological loss (reactive depression), and arising without cause on the background of complete psychological comfort (endogenous depression). In any case, depression is seen as a very favorable disorder, as it is easy to treat, sometimes it spontaneously.
Endogenous depression is prone to repeated attacks. For the treatment use of psychotropic drugs (antidepressants), electroconvulsive therapy and psychotherapy. In accordance with the law of the Russian Federation, the diagnosis and treatment of a mental disorder is conducted by a psychiatrist.
Depression in our country is so little known, and the available ideas about it are so distorted that it’s even strange to write about myths. In fact, everything that is known to the man in the street about this disease is one continuous myth.
In autumn, anguish attacks only on whiners for life.
People who are not prone to depression at all, anywhere from 5 to 7% of the total population. In psychiatry, such lucky people are called “solar natures.” On all the others, alas, from time to time rolling a longing. In the beginning of autumn, psychologically uncomfortable (and without any apparent reason) feel:
– cyclotimous people are quite healthy people, but inclined to unreasonable mood swings, too sensitive by nature. In their fall, everything falls from their hands, a breakdown, tearful irritability and headaches. Such people are about 20%;
– people with weak vegetation. They have in the first place attacks of dystonia, pressure jumps and, as a consequence, a depressive mood. They are approximately 15%;
– there is still a special group of depressions, which often “pounce” in the off-season – hormone-dependent. Their “booty” are people during periods of hormonal shaking (pregnancy, menopause), suffering from thyroid disease.
Depression is always caused by acute stress or shock.
Much depends on the psychotype. Acute stress can cause post-traumatic depression, but it is not uncommon for a shock to break a depressive episode. Other types of longing are often based on the accumulation of negativity. Sometimes, in order to “untwist” the disease, the psychologist has to “unwind” the patient’s life several years ago. Someone with prolonged stress has a purely psychological manifestations – naked depression, the development of phobias (all kinds of fears). And someone provokes internal diseases. These psychiatrists are called masked or somatized (“soma” – body) depressions.
Choleric most often stress is masked for cardiovascular ailments (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart attack), duodenal ulcer, urological problems.
In melancholic depression may result in a stomach ulcer, asthmoids, neurodermatitis. Sanguine and phlegmatic are less prone to nervous diseases.
Depression should not be treated, since it is not a disease.
There is a widespread opinion that depression is nothing, it’s everyday, and sometimes it happens to everyone. Or even someone has nothing to do, so he shows off. It’s not a disease at all, it’s just that a man himself wills his bad mood. And if it’s not a disease, but some self-indulgence, then medications for depression are not needed. In fact, depression is a real disease. And the disease is serious, even with a possible fatal outcome. Not for nothing the bulk of suicides is attributed to mood disorders. Of course, a person can easily cope with mild depression, but in severe cases without treatment, depression can last for years, intensify and grow into something even heavier, such as manic-depressive psychosis.
Here everything is like with any other illness, for example, with the flu: you can “lie down”, you can even “go” on the principle of “self-will pass,” but there is always the risk that without professional help the case will end with serious complications and the hospital. In general, it’s better to show the doctor right away and let him decide what is needed now – drink tea with honey or immediately take antimicrobial medications. Similarly, with depression. Man can not independently assess his condition. Unlike the flu, whose experience of treatment is literally all, with depression even friends and relatives will not help. It is necessary to apply to a specialist. This is where another malignant myth comes out.
Depression is forever.
Not necessary. With adequate treatment of a depressive episode, you can forget about the illness. Forever.
To overcome it, just shake it up.
There are several clear signs by which it can be determined that it’s time to go to a doctor (and depression, unlike melancholy and sadness, is a serious illness requiring medical care):
bad mood, brokenness, inability to concentrate lasts longer day by day 5 – 7 days;
– you wake up already in anguish, with bad thoughts;
– depressive mood does not correspond to the objective situation, that is, it arises against the background of general well-being;
– sleep is disturbed – either daytime drowsiness, or a heavy night’s sleep, early awakening and the inability to fall asleep again;
– thoughts about suicide – direct or veiled type “without me everything will be better”, “it is unclear why I live”, etc.
It is worth turning to the doctor, they will be fed with antidepressants.
When depression is not always necessary antidepressants! An integrated approach is important: psychotherapy plus individually selected doses of drugs. There is no universal scheme: asthenic depression is treated with stimulants, anxious – with the help of sedatives. The patient can not be loaded with medicines – he is already perplexed and depressed. To normalize the deep processes in the nervous system, microdoses of tranquilizers and neuroleptics are needed. Of the total funds to support the body need all the vitamins B, C, folic acid, as well as complexes with calcium and magnesium, selenium and lecithin.
You can not choose your own psychotropic drugs. Some of them, if mistreated, on the contrary, deepen depression! Such medicines include:
– antipsychotic drugs of aminazine series (aminazine, trifazin). They are designed to relieve excitement, delirium. As a side effect can cause apathetic depression, depression, anguish;
– Butterophenones (haloperidol, trisedil). Can cause a decrease in mood and fussiness;
– tranquilizers of benzodiazepine series (seduksen, valium, phenazepam).Usually well tolerated, but can cause lethargy;
– atypical antipsychotics (seroquel, rispolept, azaleptin). They evoke indifference, indifference to surrounding events;
antidepressants – yes, they can also trigger depression if an overdose or an error occurs in the diagnosis. For example, if the doctor took for neurotic depression, willed disorders (abulia).
Antidepressants are dangerous to health.
I must say, not quite a myth. Even modern, quite humane drugs designed to combat depression can have side effects, although psychiatrists try to choose a treatment so as not to aggravate the troubles of their patients. Most often, antidepressants cause headaches, dizziness, sweating, palpitation, increased sensitivity to light, loss of sexual desire, drowsiness, decreased or, conversely, increased appetite. Most patients are afraid of the latter. It is believed that because of taking antidepressants a person can gain excess weight. But, it is possible and with the most depression. Someone is afraid of losing sexual desire, but even with depression, it’s hard to be a sexual giant. In addition, side effects occur immediately after the end of treatment, and depression with its unpleasant symptoms can last for years.
Antidepressants cause dependence.
There’s nothing to say here. Neither old antediluvian, nor even more modern, soft antidepressants, do not cause physiological dependence, except psychological. But the psychological dependence that just does not cause. Then we must speak about the danger of ascorbic acid. Look how the children sit down! All the time they ask mums for a “great tasty pills” in pharmacies.
Antidepressants can be prescribed for yourself.
The consequences of self-admission can be varied. The chance that the medication will help is scanty. And even less chance that they will not harm. Antidepressants are highly active substances that the doctor selects individually. Especially it concerns dosages.
Antidepressants can stop drinking at any time.
Often, feeling a reduction in the symptoms of depression and tired of side effects, a person simply throws a course of treatment. But this can not be done categorically! The doctor not only prescribes antidepressants, but also must constantly look after the patient while he takes them.
Usually, small doses are prescribed first, then gradually increased, and then reduced again before completely eliminating the drug. If to throw the course of treatment at the peak, it is possible not only to resume depression in an even worse form, but also other entertaining side effects: nausea with vomiting, defocusing, dizziness – in general, a full set of troubles.
Depression is synonymous with a bad mood.
There are 10 most common types of depression that have the most varied manifestations:
1) Anxiety – the main depressive symptoms are added without cause, anxiety, fussiness, general anxiety.
2) Asthenic – depression of depletion. Prevalent feeling of fatigue, externally – a hue of exhaustion, a person can even seriously lose weight.
3) Hypochondriacal – is associated with anxiety for one’s health, a feeling of incomprehensible indisposition, bad thoughts such as “but I do not have cancer.”
4) Gnevlivaya (dysphoric) – everything irritates everything, facial expression becomes unkind, a look from under the eye. Attacks of anger alternate with tears, resentment, aggression.
5) Screeching – the person whines, complains, is in a state of chronic discontent with everything in the world.
6) Masked (latent) – manifested not as a mental disorder, but disguised as diseases of internal organs – heart, stomach, etc.
7) Smiling – outwardly the person seems benevolent, smiling, but under this mask are disregard (oh, leave me all …), longing and heartache. The most dangerous form in terms of suicide.
8) Apathetic – complete indifference to the environment, do not want anything, “nothing pleases, does not hurt …”.
9) Angelonic – loss of feelings of joy, satiety with emotions, sensation of a dead end. Depression of the great emperors and successful businessmen.
10) Depression without depression is actually spleen, spleen, discontent with yourself and the whole world, doubts when a person does not find a place and can not decide what he really wants.
This is interesting!
Sometimes depression, on the contrary, is the engine to success. This is either dysphoria (angry depression with mood swings), in which a person tries to prove something to others in spite of illness. Or lyrical depression, at the height of which created their masterpieces Pushkin and Goethe.