Colombia is located in the northwest of South America, bordering Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and Panama. The country is named after Christopher Columbus, the discoverer of America. The officially accepted name of this country is the Republic of Colombia.
In form of government, Colombia is a republic. The president is headed by the state and the government of Colombia. The term for which the president is elected by the population is four years. Possible re-election. The parliament is bicameral. This is Congress. It includes the House of Representatives (one hundred and sixty-six seats) and the Senate (one hundred and two seats). Both the House of Representatives and the Senate are elected for a four-year term by the population.
The capital of the Republic of Colombia is the city of Bogota. Regarding the administrative division, the Republic of Colombia has thirty-two departments and a metropolitan district. Since 1994, the governors of departments are elected by a general vote, until 1994, the responsibility for their election belonged to the president of the country. Departments in turn consist of municipalities.
At the head of the municipalities are mayors – the mayors. Currently, the mayor elects the population of Colombia. Until 1986, appointing the alcalds was the authority of the governors.
Spanish is the official language. His native language was able to save only small isolated groups of Indians. One of the subjects of the national pride of the Republic of Colombia is the achievements in the field of art and literature.
Colombia has access to two oceans.
In the South American continent, only two states have access to two oceans. The first is Colombia. The second is Chile. Their coasts are washed by the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
The main resorts are on the north coast of Colombia.
As well as the main ports of the country. This is the Prikarib lowland. Here the subequatorial dry climate prevails. In northern Colombia is the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta – a mountain range towering somewhat apart. Its top – Cristobal-Colon – is covered with snow. This is the highest point in the country (five thousand seven hundred and seventy five meters). As for the beaches of the West Coast, they are much less attractive in the eyes of foreign tourists. This region is characterized by large tides and heavy rainfall throughout the year. Powerful mangroves grow in the lagoons along the Pacific coast.
Much of the Colombian population is concentrated in the intermontane plains.
This is the place where the Andes divide into the Eastern, Central and Western Cordilleras – into three parallel ridges. This is the south of Colombia. More than three thousand kilometers stretch to the north of the Cordillera Mountains. The main agricultural lands of Colombia are also located in intermountain valleys. However, damage to the economy and the population is caused by the high seismicity of this territory, as well as the presence on it of a large number of both active and already extinct volcanoes.
Amazonian Selva is an untenable territory.
It occupies the southeastern part of Colombia, and only one percent of the population of the Republic lives here. The climate in the Amazonian rainforest is wet equatorial. The animal world is rich and diverse. Vegetation forms five tiers. The trees reach seventy meters in height. Thus, the vegetation of the selva is practically impassable.
The equatorial climate dominates the country.
Equatorial and subequatorial, to be more precise. On the lowlands, the average monthly temperature is approximately twenty-nine degrees Celsius with a plus sign. From thirteen to sixteen degrees Celsius with a plus sign – such are the average monthly temperatures in the mountains at altitudes of two to three thousand meters. The amount of rainfall is largely dependent on the area.Thus, in the north-eastern part of the Republic of Colombia, only 150 mm of precipitation a year, while in the Pacific lowland this figure reaches 10 000 mm. The Pacific lowland is among the wettest places on the planet.
Colombia is the birthplace of many endemic plants.
On the territory of this country, about ten percent of endemic plant species on Earth grow. The vegetation of Colombia is diverse. Savannahs prevail in the northern and north-eastern parts of the country, wet evergreen vegetation – in the Pacific lowland and in the northern lowlands, mangrove forests – on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Depends on the height of the vegetation of the Andes. High-mountain meadows, mixed herbage and shrubby zone replace the woodlands, which in turn follows the forests that cover the lower slopes of the mountains. The national tree of the Republic of Colombia is the Kindioi palm tree (a palm of the species Ceroxylon quindiuense). The national flower of Colombia is an orchid of the species Cattleya trianae.
The diversity of the Colombian fauna.
Hummingbirds, opossums, condors, pumas, jaguars, tapirs, bears, monkeys, sloths, piranhas, butterflies – all these are its representatives. Fish, turtles and crocodiles in abundance represent the habitat of rivers. Ducks, cranes, herons and storks are widely distributed on humid tropical lowlands. Touches and parrots are typical inhabitants of a high forest canopy. Sarychs, osprey, eagles, condors are most often found in high-altitude areas.
The population of Colombia grew rapidly during most of the twentieth century.
An increase in the population from 11,910,000 to 1,809,000 people was observed between the two censuses of 1951 and 1964. In 1973, the population of Colombia already amounted to 23,228,000 people. Between 1951-1964, the average population growth was 3.2 percent, and between 1964 and 1973 it was 2.7 percent. In 2003 Colombia’s population exceeded forty one and a half million people. And this is despite the fact that some tribes of Indians could not be reached in the census by living in hard-to-reach places. In recent years, the growth rate of the population of Colombia has slightly decreased, the annual increase has approached the figure of one and a half percent. Life expectancy for men is slightly more than sixty-seven years, and for women is approximately seventy-five years.
Colombia is an illiterate literate country.
This is not the case, since the literacy rate in cities is approximately ninety-three. As for the countryside. Here things are somewhat worse. In villages, about sixty-seven percent are illiterate.
Mestizos are the predominant part of the population of the Republic of Colombia.
This is indeed so. Three-quarters of Columbia’s population is estimated to have “mixed blood”. Thoroughbred Indians make up less than ten percent of the Colombian population, and the proportion of descendants of Europeans without an admixture of Indian blood is insignificant. Mestizos appeared almost immediately after the appearance of the first Spaniards in the territory of modern Colombia. As for the Indian culture, it excepted the Amazon basin everywhere was in a state of decline. In the early colonial period, Negroes from the African continent entered the territory of Colombia. As slaves they were brought here by the Spaniards. The African heritage largely manifests itself among the inhabitants of the Caribbean coast. During the colonial period, immigration was not encouraged in any way, it continued until the twentieth century, when a small influx of immigrants from North America and Spain began to be observed in Colombia. However, even now, the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of the country were born precisely on its territory.
Colombia’s urban population is significantly higher than the share of the population living in rural areas.
In the first quarter of the twentieth century, about eighty percent of Colombia’s population was rural. By the nineties more than seventy-five percent of the country’s population lived in cities. Mostly, urban population growth in Colombia is dependent on lower urban mortality rates and internal migration. As for the influx of immigrants, it is completely insignificant. The population of such cities as Bogota, Kali and Medellin has significantly increased.
Bogotá is the largest city in the Republic of Colombia.
And at the same time the capital of this country. By the end of the twentieth century, the population living in Bogotá was about six million people. The cities of Kali and Medellin are the second and third largest in terms of population. In each of these cities there are approximately 1.8 million people. The fourth stage is occupied by the city of Barranquilla. Here lives more than one million people. In addition, about twenty more urban entities have quite a rapid growth rate of the population.
Bogotá is the center of political, cultural and economic life.
Undoubtedly, the Colombian capital has a dominant role in the political and cultural life of Colombia. However, the city of Medellin is the most important center of economic life in the Republic of Colombia.
The National Congress represents the highest legislative authority of Colombia.
He consists of two chambers. The House of Representatives includes one hundred sixty-two deputies. The Senate consists of one hundred and two senators. The powers of the National Congress include the allocation of public resources, the development of laws and the introduction of changes in them, the approval of tax credit policy, the determination of the level of wages for civil servants, the granting of amnesty, the definition of powers and structures of ministries, revision of presidential decrees, etc. The Senate has the right to file charges against Vice-President and President of Colombia to remove them from their positions. In addition, the Senate selects the Attorney General and determines the composition of the Constitutional Court, authorizes the declaration of the beginning of hostilities, etc. The House of Representatives has the right to file charges against senior officials before the Senate, approve a report on the state of the state treasury and budget execution, other members and the Senate, and the House of Representatives are elected by the population. Policemen and military personnel do not have voting rights. Citizens have the opportunity to vote from the age of eighteen. The term of office of representatives of both chambers of the National Congress is limited to four years.
The President represents the highest executive authority of Colombia.
The President is in charge of the State and Government of the Republic of Colombia. He is also the supreme commander in chief of the country, carries out foreign policy. The powers of the government allow him to have the right to legislative initiative. The government reports in its actions to the Parliament. The draft budget and national development plan are submitted by the Government to the House of Representatives. The president has a leading role in protecting the integrity of the state and its independence, in restoring public order. With the consent of the Senate, the president can declare war. The President approves the laws, issues orders and decrees. The term of office of the vice-president and president is limited to four years, they are elected by an absolute majority of votes. The right of immediate re-election of the president and the vice-president is absent.
The Supreme Court exercises the supreme judicial power.
The next steps of the judiciary are the State Council and the lower courts. In addition, the High Council of the Judiciary functions in Colombia. His powers include monitoring the activities of legal professionals and their promotion.The Supreme Court can administer justice against generals, governors, senators, deputies, the president and other persons, that is, to act as a cassation court. In 1991, the Constitutional Court was established in Colombia (in connection with the adoption of the constitution this year). Members of the constitutional court are elected by the Senate for a term of eight years. It is the duty of the constitutional court to enforce the constitution, which all laws, agreements, resolutions, etc., which must be approved, must necessarily correspond.
The basis of Colombia’s economy is agriculture.
So it was for most of the twentieth century. All this time coffee was the main point of legal export and the leading agricultural culture. At some point, the role of agriculture in the country’s economy began to decline. By 1996, agriculture accounted for twenty percent of GDP, and by 2009 – only thirteen percent of gross domestic product. In connection with the fact that the relief of a huge part of Colombia is mountainous, the lands suitable for agriculture make up less than twenty percent of the territory of the Republic. Of these agricultural lands, not so much is used for crops. In extensive areas, extensive livestock farming is practiced. Here the soils are less fertile.
Forests cover a large part of the territory of Colombia.
According to some reports, more than half of the country’s territory is covered with forests. In Colombia, a considerable number of valuable species of trees grow. However, due to the inaccessibility of forest resources, their value is greatly increased. The share of forestry in the country’s gross domestic product does not exceed one percent.
Colombia is a country with developed fisheries.
This is not true, fisheries in Colombia are poorly developed. This branch plays a very small role in the economy of the Republic.
The development of transport in Colombia has always been complicated by the peculiarities of the relief of this country.
This is so, because through Colombia there are three mountain ranges of the Andes. Until the middle of the twentieth century, even the largest cities of Colombia remained practically isolated to each other. This fact could not but affect the appearance of strong regional differences. The construction of highways and railways (in particular to the extent of the Atlantic Highway) substantially reduced the degree of disunity. With the development of the transport system, the transport importance of the Magdalena River decreased. The role of air transport in passenger transportation has decreased. Currently, air travel is the main way of exporting fruits and flowers grown on the territory of Colombia. The Republic of Colombia is the second largest flower exporter in the world. In recent years, the volume of air cargo transportation has increased very much. In 1996, this figure was equal to sixty thousand tons.
Colombia is a country of fabulous riches. This name was given to Columbia in the very end of the fifteenth century, when Spanish conquerors set foot on its territory. A large part of the “fabulous wealth” was ravaged, and there were many of them – not one thousand tons of precious stones and gold were exported to Europe. This continued until 1819, when independence was proclaimed in Colombia. By this time, the original Indian civilizations were also destroyed. Thanks to its amazing nature, unique culture, interesting traditions, the Republic of Colombia is now one of the best tourist regions of the South American continent. True, Colombia is not allowed to appreciate the dominance of drug barons and the internal conflicts that tear it apart.
The city of Santa Marta is the oldest city in the country.
The capital of the department of Magdalena, which is the given city, was founded in 1525. The founder of Santa Marta was Roger de Bastidas. Directly outside the urban quarters of Santa Marta, the picturesque mountain peaks rise.In Bogota there is a museum of Museo del Oro, which stores some of the gold items that were made in the territory of Santa Marta and subsequently escaped the fate of being exported to Europe. According to data for 2005, the area of Santa Marta was about two thousand four hundred square meters, the population of the city exceeded four hundred fifteen thousand people, and the density was one hundred and seventy-three and a half people per one square kilometer.
Santa Marta is an important seaport.
In addition, it is a center for the development of tourism and culture. For a long period of time, Santa Marta was the base and home of the corsairs of Holland and Britain. This fact can hardly seem surprising. Even now, the city attracts drug dealers and smugglers. However, Santa Marta can not be called a simple export port, in which, if the travelers come in, it is only to immediately move into the interior of Colombia. Indeed, in Santa Marta there is something to see – the city is rich in tourist attractions, which, no doubt, will be of interest to the tourist. Among them: the Center for the Study of the Tyrone Heritage, the building of Sitios-Historicos, built in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Cathedral of Santa Marta, the small Museum of Bolivar, and the Villa La Villa de San Pedro Alejandrino built in the seventeenth century. It is located just five kilometers from the center of Santa Marta. In this villa, Simon Bolivar spent the last years of his life. Of considerable interest are the mansions of Santa Marta, made in colonial style – in the city they can count several dozen. The sights and the surroundings of Santa Marta are rich. Within a radius of fifty kilometers from the city is the National Park of Sierra Nevada del Santa Marta. Here you can find a rich variety of landscapes: both dry Andean plateaus, and rain forests. Fifty kilometers to the south-east of Santa Marta is the city of the famous Ciudad Perdida – “the lost city of Tayrona”. A little to the south of it there is a huge variety of steep stone stairs and a complex network of paths. Twenty-five kilometers to the east of the capital of the Department of Magdalena is the Tayrona National Park.
Medellin is the most dangerous city in the Republic of Colombia.
Perhaps there is no city more dangerous on the whole planet. Approximately five thousand serious crimes are committed on its territory within one year. For comparison: in the most unfavorable cities of the United States of America per year crimes are committed eight times less than in Medellin. The city of Medellin is the second largest country in the country, the date of its founding is 1616. The city is the capital of the province of Antioquia. Medellin is located at an altitude of one thousand five hundred and thirty-eight meters above sea level. Despite the notoriety, the population of Medellin exceeds three million people, which are very friendly. Many natives of this city have earned the reputation of merry men and artists.
Medellin is a picturesque city.
This is so. The color is created by sparse Spanish churches, cobbled streets, old quarters, barracks of red brick and villas. As for the climatic conditions, the average temperature in the Aburro valley, on the slopes of which are the city quarters, fluctuates around twenty-four degrees Celsius with a plus sign throughout the year. Among the main attractions of Medellin are the Plaza de Botero, Plaza de Toros la Macarena, Pueblito Picea, the Basilica Metropolitan, the Basilica de la Candelaria, the Museo de Antioquia Museum (the famous sculptor). In the city there is also the Botanical Garden of Hardin-Botanico-Joaquin-Antonio-Uribe, two stadiums, a university. Orchidorama – a glorious collection of orchids in the botanical garden. Every year in the end of July – beginning of August in the city a colorful festival is held – the festival of flowers of Fieria de Las Flores.The “caballero” parade (the number of riders sometimes reaches seven thousand people) opens the festival of flowers, the culmination of which is the descent of local residents carrying flowers from the slopes. At the height of summer, the International Poetry Festival is also held in Medellin, which is widely known.
Popayan is one of the most beautiful cities in the country.
This colonial city retained a large number of imprints of the colonial era. 1537 is the year of the founding of this city, its founder is Sebastiano de Belalkasar. Now the city is an important center of religion and trade. Among the local attractions that will undoubtedly be of interest to tourists: Cathedral Catedral, the oldest city church of Iglesia de La Hermitage (erected in 1546), the church and convent of San Agustin, the church of Iglesia de Santo Domingo and The Iglesia de San Francisco, the Capella de Belen, the Umilladero Bridge, the Morro de Tulcan building, the University of Cauca, as well as a variety of museums. Among the latter, the following deserve special attention: Museum of Natural History, Museum of the poet Guillermo Valencia, Museum of Casa Museo-Mosquera.
The Republic of Colombia is an ethnic mosaic.
All the peoples that make up the population of Colombia have contributed to shaping the country’s way of life, arts, folklore and culture. A unique community of people was formed due to a mixture of African traditions, the Spanish language and, of course, the richest ancient culture of Indian tribes. Almost all world traditions and phenotypes can be found on the territory of Colombia. Residents of the Colombian capital are considered obsessed with politics and work. The reputation of closed, but very hardworking people, are residents of the north-eastern regions of Orinocia. Boltovy residents of southern departments, and the Indians of the Amazon are recluses. The latter simply can not stand aliens. All of the above conjectures belong to people who know nothing about Colombia. The inhabitants of this amazing country earnestly believe in God, honor the history of their country, they are proud and courageous. Colombians are able to express their views on a particular issue, they are inquisitive, cheerful and sociable.
The influence of the Indian influence on the culture of Colombia.
The pre-Columbian era, indeed, left an indelible mark on the country’s culture. About the richness of the culture of some Indian tribes say many preserved ceramic products, statues, temples. Modern works of art also retain the imprint of Indian influence.
Folklore traditions are very rich in the Republic of Colombia.
They are reflected in Indian, African and Spanish roots. For example, the Spanish fandago is somewhat like the national dance of Colombia bamboo. A great popularity was won by the musical instrument of chirimia, somewhat like a pipe. In 1910 the National Conservatory was founded in the capital of Colombia, in 1936 the National Symphony Orchestra was established in the country.
The family occupies an important place in the life of every Colombian.
Traditionally, the family includes distant relatives. Great importance in Colombia is attached to such a concept as personal honor. Each family member has a certain role. The female part of the population has a subordinate position in the family, the society can be characterized as practically patriarchal. In the public life of the country, women began to take direct part only in the 1970s. Many women who work are forced to do this because of a material defect (they belong either to the urban poor or to the peasantry). Not only in the public, but even in the political life of the country, young people take an active part in it – a fact influenced by this circumstance is the fact that Columbia has a tradition of students’ participation in politics. Traditions of this kind are common to all countries of Latin America. However, they receive a higher education and even a secondary education in Colombia.
Respect for each other is a distinctive feature of the nature of Colombians.
The resolution of disputes is often the responsibility of a local priest who acts as an arbitrator. There is no place for open confrontation among ordinary Colombians. A considerable number of complex issues are resolved at joint meetings. They often involve an intermediary or “attorney”. However, almost all of the male population carry firearms with them. At the same time, the ability to own this weapon is very important. A traveler who has arrived in Colombia can face a somewhat cold attitude towards himself from Colombians. This is explained by the fact that in many regions of the country there is a rather complicated situation. Local residents, for example, sometimes try not to start a conversation with people they do not know, do not hurry to invite travelers to their homes, etc. At the same time, Colombians are very friendly people. They can tell the tourist about the sights of a particular locality, each visitor will be cordially greeted by the owner of the restaurant or cafe. Clashes between drug lords, gangs, parties, various factions, eventually, accustomed local residents to exercise caution. This kind of caution applies to all foreigners arriving in Colombia. In Colombia, they are very Russian, they respect Cubans and have a negative attitude towards Americans. Visiting Sunday services and attitudes with their neighbors in Colombia are a measure of the decency of its inhabitants.
Colombians are a rich nation.
On emeralds and cocaine in one year you can earn huge money, but the vast majority of Colombians rightly believe that making money is not a war, but labor, so most of the local people live very little. Cases for the welfare of the country in general and for the benefit of other members of the community in particular – that’s the criterion that determines the status of a person in society.
Colombian policemen are some of the best in South America.
This is so. It is not easy to call their work. Several hundred policemen die every year in the fight against various kinds of bandits.
Colombians are admirers of art.
Big fans. An art exhibition or an ordinary collection of reproductions can be found in almost any locality in the Republic of Colombia. And here there is a place not only for the universally recognized masterpieces of culture. The works of modern authors and works of ancient Indian masters are also very much appreciated in the country. An interest in the historical past is also due to the desire to decorate the objects of his life. With the elegance peculiar to Colombians, houses are decorated. Very colorful can be called and local folk costumes.
Colombians prefer national clothes.
As for the Indian settlements, this is indeed so. Most Colombians prefer comfortable and simple clothes, but they dress very democratically. All the best Colombian will dress before an important event – the meeting of an important guest or to the church service. This is expected from the guests of Colombia.
There are a lot of Colombians among smokers.
Active fuming Colombians can be found almost everywhere, and therefore on the territory of Colombia is conducted anti-nicotine company. The latter is especially necessary in connection with the fact that smoking of the vast majority of the population has a negative impact on the rest of the inhabitants of Colombia. It is interesting that there are even non-smoking zones. Special plates fence them in a number of institutions in the country. Tobacco potion is consumed by many women, although there is a rule in the country in the presence of children and women not to smoke.