Chile

Chile

(full name of the Republic of Chile) is a state located in the south-western part of the South American continent. The territory of Chile for four thousand three hundred kilometers stretches from north to south along the coast of the Pacific Ocean.

Two mountain systems stretch through the Republic of Chile: the first is the Andes mountains in the east of the country, the second is the coastal Cordillera in the western part of Chile. The Republic of Chile borders on Argentina, Bolivia, Peru. The waters of the Pacific wash Chile from the west and south.

On March 11, 1981 in the country after the referendum the Constitution was adopted. The president is the head of state. He also heads the government of the republic. The term of office of the president is limited to four years. The president can not be re-elected for a second term.

The National Congress is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of Chile. It consists of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate (National Congress bicameral). The Chamber of Deputies consists of one hundred and twenty members. Each of the sixty electoral districts in the Chamber of Deputies represents two people. Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a term of four years.

The Senate is composed of thirty-eight members. Half of the senators are re-elected every four years, and half are given powers for a term of eight years.

The highest executive authority is the Cabinet (headed by the president). The Spanish language is officially accepted. Eighty-nine percent of the population are Catholics, another eleven percent are Protestants. The national currency of the Republic of Chile is the Chilean Piso (equal to one hundred centavo).

In administrative terms, the territory of the Republic of Chile is divided into fifteen regions, which in turn are divided into fifty-three provinces and three hundred and forty-six communities.

The population of the Republic of Chile increased from 12.3 million in 1983 to 16 million in 2005. The average life expectancy of men is seventy-two years, the average life expectancy of women is seventy-eight years.

A diverse climate is a characteristic feature of the Republic of Chile.

This is due to the large length of the country in the direction from north to south. Chile stretches four thousand six hundred and thirty kilometers (two thousand eight hundred and eight miles) from north to south and only four hundred and thirty kilometers (that’s two hundred and sixty-five miles) 430 km from west to east. The northern region of the Republic of Chile is recognized as one of the most arid on the planet. True, due to the influence of the Humboldt Current, the temperature somewhat softens. In the city of Antofagasta, the average January temperature is about twenty degrees Celsius with a plus sign, and the average July temperature is equal to thirteen degrees Celsius with a plus sign. The January temperature in the city of Santiago varies from plus twelve degrees Celsius to plus twenty nine degrees Celsius, and the July temperature is between plus three degrees Celsius plus fifteen degrees Celsius. As we move south, the temperature drops. Moreover, in some places sometimes it happens to observe snowfalls. In Punta Arenas, the average annual temperature is approximately seven degrees Celsius with a plus sign. An even subtropical climate is typical for Easter Island. It’s pretty hot here. The amount of precipitation is also not the same in different parts of the country. In the north of Chile, in the year, only about 11 mm of precipitation falls, while in the south of the Republic, up to 2,500 mm of precipitation falls annually.

Santiago is the capital of the Republic of Chile.

Moreover, it is the largest city of the Republic. It is located in the central valley of Chile. The date of foundation of Santiago is considered February 12, 1541, the Spanish conquistador became its founder Pedro de Valdivia – the first governor of the country. The city was named after the patron saint of Spain, the Apostle St. James.However, the settlement, which appeared in the winter of 1541 in this territory, was practically destroyed during the battles with the Araucanians. July 14, 1810 in Santiago, an uprising took place with the participation of the masses. This uprising was the starting point for the Chilean War of Independence. The war ended only in 1818. Santiago became the capital of an independent state. The Chilean capital is located at an altitude of about five hundred and forty meters at the foot of the Andes. The area of ​​Santiago is about six hundred square kilometers.

Santiago is a city of numerous attractions.

Historically, the Santa Lucia Hill is very important. Its decoration is a wonderful ancient castle. Santiago was founded in the valley of the River Mapocho at the foot of the hill of Santa Lucia. The central square of the Chilean capital is the Plaza de Armas, on which there is a monument to the founder of the city. The monument to Pedro de Valdivia was erected in 1960 in honor of one hundred and fifty years from the day of declaring independence of the country. The Plaza de Armas is surrounded by many important buildings. This is the Palace of La Moneda, the largest in the Republic Cathedral, the building of the Royal Audience, the Municipality, the House of Governors. On the hill of San Cristobal is a white stone sculpture of the Virgin Mary. On the lift, anyone can climb the mountain, which offers a stunning view of the local surroundings. For the citizens, Mount San Cristobal is the preferred place for walking. And this is not surprising, because there are swimming pools and a botanical garden, and there is a zoo, walking grounds, restaurants, townspeople, and a wine museum. For this place is quite suitable for the name of the central park. One of the best on the continent is the Municipal Opera and Ballet Theater, located in Chile. It was built in 1857. Many famous artists performed on his stage (including Placido Domingo and Anna Pavlova). This theater is one of the National Monuments of the State (since 1974). One of the brightest areas of Santiago is the Bellavista district. It is better known as the “Paris Quarter”. There is a fair of crafts and a huge number of restaurants for every taste. A large collection of paintings by both Chilean and European artists is represented in the Palacio de Bellas Artes. In the Chilean capital are a considerable number of museums. Among them are the Museum of Santiago, the Museum of Modern Art, the Museum of the Pre-Columbian Age, the house-museum of Pablo Neruda, a famous Chilean poet.

The Republic of Chile is one of the most interesting countries on Earth.

The reasons for this are the majestic mountains, the most beautiful landscapes, the richness of natural complexes, the country’s many thousands of years of history, and the colorful local population, and much more. The most famous and beautiful natural places of the Republic are the Chungara, Miskanti, El Tatio geysers, Atacama Desert, Parinacota volcano, the mysterious Easter Island, Paatonia. Archaeological monuments of Sapaouira and Copacillia are widely popular.

Arica is the northernmost city of the Republic of Chile.

The city is located near the border of Chile with Peru, on the outskirts of the desert area. The special attraction of the city for tourists is due to the unique combination of the nearby Atakaam Desert and the mild warm climate of the city itself. Among the local attractions, the following are especially popular: the picturesque Asap Valley Valley, the Morro Rock, the Alakran Fort, the Arica Fortress, the St. Marcos Cathedral built in 1876, the central square of the Plaza de Armas. In the immediate vicinity of Arica, there is the town of San Miguel de Asapa, characterized by its picturesqueness, the Peak Valley oasis, the outskirts of the Atacama Desert, Mamin hot springs. In the city of San Miguel de Asapa you can visit the amazing Museum of Mummies.

Ата The Atacama Desert is a natural landmark of the Republic of Chile.

But this is not only one of the most interesting places in Chile.The Atacama desert is one of the driest, and therefore lifeless, places in the world. Indeed, the desert for several centuries in a row can not know the rain. Despite all this, the region has gained a reputation as a region significant in archaeological terms, as a region rich in majestic landscapes and a unique animal world, and this despite the climatic conditions. It would seem that the climate does not promote life here. The average annual daytime temperature is thirty-six degrees Celsius with a plus sign, while at night the air temperature can drop to zero degrees. With all this, the air humidity is 0%. The flora of this region is represented by more than one hundred and six ten species of cacti, and the fauna – about two hundred species of animals. As for the animal kingdom, it is mainly represented by insects and reptiles. The smallest water mixture and fogs are all the moisture that can be counted by representatives of the flora and fauna. However, the main attraction of the Atacama Desert is the “flowering of the desert”. It is associated with a very short time in the arrival of moisture. The latter occurs, as a rule, in September or October with the arrival of moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean. The small oases that occur in the desert remind us of the ancient civilizations of Aymara and Chinchorro that once existed in these territories. Almost everywhere in the desert there are traces of their cultures.

Altiplano Highlands is one of the most beautiful places in the Republic of Chile.

The average height of the uplands, which occupies the eastern part of the Aatkama desert, is four thousand meters. At an altitude of about two and a half thousand meters, the desert vegetation on the slopes of the mountains is gradually replaced by grasses. Thus, it is felt that the rocks are covered with some wonderful carpet. It is he who gives the area such a colorful appearance. The Altiplano region is distinguished by an unusual, adapted to the highlands, the animal world. In view of this, it is not surprising that a large number of nature conservation zones and national parks are located here. The main natural attractions, which are visited by numerous tourists, are Lake Chungara, volcanoes Chungara, Parinacota, Sahama and ever smoking Guyatiri, National Park Ishliga, Biosphere Reserve Lauka. Lake Chungara is one of the highest mountain lakes in the world. It is located at an altitude of more than four and a half thousand meters and covers an area equal to twenty-one and a half square kilometers.

The city of Valparaíso is the main port of the Republic of Chile.

In addition, Valparaiso is the second largest city in the Republic. Local residents “remade” such a long name in a more simplified version – they call the city not otherwise than Valpo. This city is located Valparaiso in a hundred and twenty kilometers northwest of the Chilean capital. It can be said that Valparaiso is the starting point for the colonization of Chile. The ships departed from the port to new countries and islands. At present, the city is a place where the mixture of cultures and peoples is very clearly traced. But this feature is more or less characteristic of the whole territory of the country. At the present stage, Valparaiso is a typical city of the Republic of Chile. However, the city is also one of the most intriguing places of the South American continent. The territory of Valparaiso is limited by a narrow strip between the hills and the coastline. Despite this, a huge number of winding streets fit into the city’s historic center, which is very intricate. The latter is surrounded by houses of the outskirts that lie on the slopes. A lot of stairs, small pedestrian paths lead visitors and townspeople to these houses. The center of Valparaiso is rightly recognized as Sotomayor Square. On it there is a monument to Captain Arturo Pratt.Among the main local attractions are the city pier Muele Prat, the Maritime Museum, the Museum of Art, the Museum of Natural History, the Parliament building, the Victoria Square fountain, the Cathedral, numerous funiculars. In the city there are a lot of restaurants for every taste, and on the aforementioned pier, the rich market is almost always rustling.

Viña del Mar is the main beach resort of the Republic of Chile.

It is located ten kilometers north of the city of Valparaiso. “Garden City” – so, as a rule, this place is called. The reason for such a beautiful name lies in its natural attractions (and this is a huge number of avenues of banana trees and palm trees, and also wonderful landscapes) and a subtropical climate that is very conducive to recreation here. Indeed, the main attractions of Viña del Mar are a lot of parks, beaches with clean white sand and stunning ocean water. In the restored colonial mansions there are numerous museums. In this resort there is a national botanical garden of the country. In an area of ​​sixty one hectares, hundreds of species of exotic and native plants grow. There is also the Museum of Culture, and the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Municipal Theater, and the Castle of Wulf, and the Vergara Palace with a luxurious garden, and the unique “Flower Clock”, and even the casino.

Puerto Montt – the gates of the Lake District.

This city is one of the most interesting cities in the country. Why the “gate of the Lake District”? Because a little to the north of this city is the region of the “Seven Lakes”. But the lakes here are not seven, but a whole system. Lakes have different sizes: from small to large. The most famous are the following lakes: Liankiue, Villarrica, Rinco, Pangipului, Calafken, Pellaife, Rinuway, Rango, Rupango, Lakar, Pireuiko, Neltume, etc. The first three lakes enjoy the most popularity. Villarrica is not only a lake, but also a volcano. At its foot rests the resort village of Pucon. This place is ideal for yachting, thanks to which Pucon was chosen by the wealthy citizens of the Republic of Chile. In the immediate vicinity of Lake Neltume, a tourist can admire the waterfall of Wilo-Uilo, the highest waterfall in the country. The city of Puerto Montt was founded in the middle of the nineteenth century. The founders of this city were German colonists, in view of which its appearance is in close relationship with German architecture. The pointed tiled roofs of the “beam” houses, the characteristic weathercocks, their crowning, wrought iron lattice of decorative balconies, impeccable cleanliness in the streets – all this proves the aforementioned feature of the city. The main sights of Puerto Monta are the wooden port and, of course, the cathedral erected in 1856. The cathedral is made of mahogany. The cathedral is located on the main square of the city. However, a significant part of tourists arriving here have their purpose to visit not so much the given city as its surroundings. And this is not surprising. Their landscapes are famous throughout the country. We are talking about lakes. The reason for their formation is in the ancient tectonic processes. When there were huge glaciers here, and now surrounded by coniferous and deciduous forests, a lot of lakes, supplied with clean water, please the eye of their visitors. Local landscapes are so stunning that they create associations with the lakes of Finland and Karelia.

Punta Arenas is one of the most amazing cities in the Republic of Chile.

Punta Arenas is located in the hills on the shores of the Straits of Magellan. Once upon a time this city was among the largest American ports. However, with the opening of the Panama Canal, the situation has changed somewhat. Currently, Punta Arenas is known as one of the most colorful cities in Chile. Luxury palaces and mansions retain their imprint of the former greatness of the city. Of particular interest are the economic zone of Zona Franca, the business district, as well as the Regional Museum of Local History.Among the natural attractions, the Milodon Cave, the penguin colonies in Otway, the famous Great Falls, La Cruz Hill are especially notable. From the top of the last one you can see the stunning panorama of Punta Arenas. The northern part of Tierra del Fuego and the strait are also visible from the hill of La Cruz.

Patagonia is a heavily populated area.

To the contrary. Two inhabitants per one square kilometer – this is the average density of the population of Patagonia. Patagonia occupies part of the South American continent. This area lies south of the Bio-Bio River in the Republic of Chile and Rio Colorado in Argentina, includes in the east low plains, plateaus, in the south and west of the Andes Mountains. There is no precise definition of its boundaries. Some scientists in the territory of Patagonia also include Tierra del Fuego. Approximately thirty percent of the territory of Patagonia is now national parks and reserves. This fact does not cause a sense of surprise. To the formation of unusual life forms resulted almost complete isolation from other regions of the South American continent. Save the unique species allowed a fairly late colonization of Patagonia. The National Park of the San Rafael Lagoon is one of the main attractions of Patagonia. The height of the ice tongues – the “children” of the San Valentín glacier, descending into the bay, reaches several tens of meters. Other pearls of Patagonia include the islands of Guamblin, Magdalena, De-Wallallon Alakaloufes, Bernardo O’Higgins, Alberto-Agostini, Keulat National Parks, Torres del Paine National Park. The latter is listed in UNESCO and is famous throughout the world. The islands of the Thermas de Puigiuapi, Risopatron, General Ibanez and others are also unusually picturesque, a stunning view created by floating icebergs. Patagonia is among the best places on Earth for sport fishing.

1520 is the year of the discovery of Tierra del Fuego.

Magellan became the discoverer of this archipelago. However, in view of the severe climatic conditions, the colonization of Tierra del Fuego began only in the late nineteenth century. The first ranches were built on the territory of the archipelago by settlers from the Balkans and the British Isles. Currently, Tierra del Fuego is the largest sheep breeding center in the country. The largest city of the archipelago is Porbenir. The name of the city is translated as “fate”. Porbinir, perhaps, can be called the most isolated settlement on the planet, moreover, it retained the external appearance of the beginning of the last century. The city lives thanks to fishing and sheep breeding. There is a museum of local lore and a beautiful canal Beagle. From its shores you can look at the harsh waters of Antarctica and the island of Navarino.

Easter Island is a famous island in the Pacific Ocean.

It is located about three thousand eight hundred kilometers west of the coast of Chile. The area of ​​the island is one hundred and seventy-one kilometers. The island was opened in 1722 on the day of Easter, which served as the basis for its name. The discoverer of the island of Easter was Dutchman Jacob Roggeven. Easter Island is the peak of a huge underwater mountain rising above the ocean waters. There are as many as three volcanic craters and not a single lake or river. His story is rich (which is the main asset of the island) and at the same time tragic. In fact, on the territory of the island of Easter, there are more peoples of Oceania than Chileans. How could this happen in such a way that Pacific Islanders turned out to be in this isolated part of the world, is still a mystery. Another mystery is the mystery of “moai” – the mystery of colossal statues. The material for their creation was tuff and volcanically basalt. The weight of many “moai” exceeds two hundred tons, and the height exceeds twenty-one meters. The mystery remains the way of transportation of these statues from the internal quarries to the coast. “Moai” are established in a certain sequence, but what this sequence is, modern science is unknown. Currently, Easter Island is in fact an open national park for everyone.Annually, it takes a large number of tourists-lovers of the unknown. The island is all natural and simple, it is hardly possible to find five-star hotels and luxury beaches on its territory. However, this circumstance is not the reason that will stop the flow of visitors. There are so many interesting places on the island! Among the attractions of the island (with the exception of “moai”) are the following: quarries on the slopes of the volcano Rano-Raraku, Ahu-Akahanga, Akhu-Tahai Fortress, Rano-Cau Volcano, Apu-Vinapu Temple, Orongo Ceremonial Village, Anakena Beach. And although the beaches on the island are deserted, for many – it’s more of a dignity than a flaw. Moreover, these beaches with unusual pink sand.

Chileans wear national clothes every day.

The overwhelming number of local residents (and Indians are no exception) prefer modern European clothes. Sometimes it is only supplemented by a Chilean variety of poncho, which is called “chamanato”. Chamanato is a short cloak. Woolen cape is very bright and is endowed with a variety of patterns. Actually, the national costume is worn only by participants in the rodeo competition – young people. The essence of these competitions, to which residents from all districts are drawn, is to show their ability to own a lasso. Thus, young people demonstrate their skills how to crouch a bull in a gallop.

Decorative folk art is a subject of special pride for Chileans.

Artisans of the Republic of Chile make metal ornaments, carpets, blankets, woolen ponchos, woodwork and ceramics (especially beautifully painted little sosudas and animal figurines). Ornaments and trinkets are very elegant, in view of which they are in demand.

Chileans are very friendly.

This is so. And this fact applies even to mountain Indian tribes. Their excessive cruelty is untrue, which for a very long time was attributed to the Indians. Residents of the Republic of Chile are very friendly to the tourist. Moreover, they differ in character, restrained by nature. Chileans, if necessary, will help both in the case of language difficulties, and in the case of domestic difficulties (for example, in search of a hotel).

Chilean cuisine is unique in many respects.

This peculiarity comes from their combination of primordially national recipes with recipes brought here by migrants from different countries at different times. And the topographic diversity of Chile is also reflected in the Chilean cuisine. The basis of the national cuisine is fresh fruit and vegetables, beef, seafood (and local marine products are rightly considered to be the most delicious on the planet). More noticeable is the influence of European culinary traditions in the Central Valley, while the variety of ingredients for cooking in mountain areas is quite small. Common in the cooking for the whole territory of the Republic of Chile is the abundance in food of corn, yams, potatoes, peppers, garlic, with potatoes and rice acting as important ingredients of the overwhelming number of Chilean dishes. Seafood and fish are another basis for local cooking, especially in coastal areas. To the exotic dishes of the Republic of Chile are the following: huge lobsters, baked in cheese shells, soup from sea urchins.

Tea is a traditional drink in Chile.

In any institution of the Republic, if desired, you can try mate, green or black tea. “Pisco” is a traditional alcoholic drink. “Pisco” is prepared according to old recipes from grapes, specially grown for this drink, and is a kind of liquor. “Pisco”, as a rule, drink with a lot of ice, with Coca-Cola, whipped egg or sugar powder. Chilean wines, made from selected grapes, also enjoy wide popularity.

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