– a board game for two participants, conducted on a chessboard (usually 8×8), black and white chips, which move according to certain rules.
As in all games belonging to the category of checker-type (go, wow, lattrunkuli, senet, backgammon, renju, etc.), checkers use equivalent chips, while in chess games (chess , Chaturanga, Xiangqi, etc.) the game is played by unequal figures. There are also chess-checker games – this category includes, for example, shashmas, combining features and chess, and checkers.
Many myths and legends have been created about how and by whom the checkers were invented. One of them, recorded by Plato, tells us that this game was invented by the god Hermes. Having played the checkers with the moon goddess Selena, he won and, as was agreed before the start of the game, received from her 5 days, which added to 360, up to that time making the year.
According to another Greek legend, checkers were invented by the usual Palamedes warrior, in order to pass the time during the siege of Troy, which lasted 10 years. The myths of Ancient Egypt also mention checkers, as one of the oldest games of the Gods, later found to be mere mortals.
Whatever it was, it was in Egypt that the game of this kind was very popular since ancient times, as shown by drawings depicting people playing a game reminiscent of modern checkers and checker 30-cell boards extracted from Tutankhamun’s tomb dating from around 1400-1390 year. BC. Now they are kept in the Louvre.
Historians and archaeologists also disagree about where exactly the first checkers were invented. Some researchers believe that checkers appeared in Ancient Egypt, from there they got to Greece, and later – to Ancient Rome, where they called “Latrunkuli” (from Rome “Latro” – the warrior) and was very popular both among the military and among the civil of the population.
However, most scientists seem to be the most appropriate version of reality: games of the checker type were invented many times by different peoples, and the currently known varieties of such games are stages in the evolution of checkers.
Books on drafts appeared in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, at first in Spain (the work of Juego de damas by an unknown author, the works of Torquemada (1547), Montero (1590)), then in France (“Le jeu de dames “- this book, containing about 450 game combinations, was published by the mathematician engineer Madle in 1668). The best work about Polish checkers is “Bal Damier”, containing about 10 000 diagrams and all publications about this kind of game, published before 1886 inclusive.
In Russia, the article “The New Checkerboard Game” appeared in the “Herald of Europe” in 1803, and in 1872 the first guide on this game was written in Russian (author – AD Petrov).
However, there were times when checkers were blamed, as vicious fun, equated to drunkenness and gambling. In Russia, for example, the game of checkers was banned by law on the initiative of Metropolitan Daniel from 1551, until in 1649 Patriarch Nikon abolished the aforementioned ban.
Types of checkers:
• Russian checkers – the game is played on a board 8 × 8 cells, each player at the beginning of the game has 12 checkers, located on the first three rows. Moving is carried out on black fields, diagonally, beat is allowed both forward and backward, and the move can continue as long as it is possible to beat the opponent’s checker from the new position of the chip. Transformation of the checker to the king occurs at the time of the achievement of the field (ie, any last horizontally), or if the chip beats through this field. After that, the chip goes according to the rules of the castle – it can move diagonally to any number of cells in all directions. If there are several variants of the move – the player has the right to choose any of them. It’s forbidden to skip passes. The goal of the game is to remove all the opponent’s chips from the board, or completely block them.There are 2 variants of the competition for Russian drafts: classical and tournaments with selective lots. In the second case, the first 2-3 moves players can choose only from the approved list. In addition, there are so-called “flying checkers”, suggesting in the beginning of the game a certain position of one of the checkers of each of the players.
Options of Russian drafts:
• Samoyeds – players have the opportunity to shoot down strangers and their checkers. Therefore, the main task is to place the chips so that they can not be beaten;
• Simple checkers – in this game simple checkers do not turn into queens, because the players do not make efforts to reach the dam field, but concentrate entirely on the strategy and tactics of the game;
• Two-way checkers – the first (single) move is made by white, in the future each of the players makes 2 turns in a row;
• Cylindrical checkers – checkers can move from the right side of the board to the left (from vertical A to H or in the opposite direction);
• Northern checkers – the shot down king is not removed from the board, but continues the game as a simple checker;
• Artamonov checkers – play with monochrome checkers located on black cells in a certain order, in which there is a free space of 8 black cells in the center of the board. The player has the right to walk with any checker, the exception is the counter that the opponent made the previous move. Simple checkers go only forward, the king – in all directions. Victory is credited to the player if his opponent can not make a single move. In the event that there are less than 5 chips left on the board, the winner is the one who brought down more checkers per game;
• Pillows (towers, pillars, multi-storey checkers) – a type of checkers game, which was popular in Russia for a long time. The main distinguishing feature is that beaten checkers are not removed from the board, but are placed under the chip that has broken them, forming a so-called “tower” that continues to move around the playing field as a simple checker or a king (after reaching the field). A variety of pillars are quark drafts – by agreement, only a certain number of checkers (“quark-part”) participate in the game, for example, 4 and royal checkers, conducted according to the rules of the game, checkers with one difference – the chips that fall under the battle are placed under the battered their checker;
• Stavropol checkers – the main feature of this game – the ability to make a move in place of the enemy. And you can move the opponent’s chips only to your side and beat them only with your checkers;
• Diagonal checkers – from ordinary Russian checkers differ only in the initial position of the chips – on black cells on both sides of the central diagonal, which remains free.
• Give-away (back checkers) – play on the field 8 × 8 cells (according to the rules of Russian checkers) or 10 × 10 cells (according to the rules of international drafts). The goal of the game is to get the board off or block all of its checkers;
• 80-cell checkers – the idea of creation belongs to Nikolai Petrovich Spancireti. The game is played on a board of 8 × 10 cells, each player has 15 checkers. One of the peculiarities of this type of game – 3 ladies always successfully fight against one, regardless of its position on the board;
• Dourage checkers (tribunes) – the game is played on a 8 × 8 board, each of the participants is the owner of 24 chips, which are placed on the black cells of the first three rows in the following order – on the first field – 3 pieces per cell, on the second field – 2, on the third – one. The game is conducted according to the rules of Russian checkers, the destruction of double and triple chips occurs gradually (double – for 2 moves, triple – for three), as in pillars. In addition, double (triple) checkers, reaching the field of a dam, turn into double (triple) ladies, and, falling under battle, change status – from triple domes become double, from double – ordinary ladies. The goal of the game is to beat or lock all the checkers of the opponent.
• International (hundred-cell) checkers – the most popular in Europe, conducted on the board 10 × 10 cells.In the starting position, each player has 20 checkers on the first 4 rows on his side of the field. A simple checker can beat forward and backward, into a king only when it finishes its course on the field of the field. And if the checker remaining on the field of the transformation can only be beaten like a lady, it remains in place and can use the opportunities of the castle only from the next turn. With several variants of the move, the player must choose the one that enables him to remove the largest number of enemy pieces from the board. The goal of the game is the same as in the Russian checkers. There is a variety of international drafts – German (Frisian) checkers, which are most widespread in Holland;
• Altaic checkers – differ in that at the player’s disposal are chips of any color located on his side. To beat he has the right to checkers of any color. The goal of the game is not to leave any chips on its side;
• Samara (diagonal-vertical) checkers – the game is played on the board of 10×10 cells according to the rules of international drafts, however the chips can move and beat in all 8 directions;
• Brazilian checkers – the game is governed by the rules of international drafts on an 8 × 8 board, each player has 12 chips;
• Canadian checkers – a game according to the rules of international checkers is conducted on the board 12 × 12, each player controls 24 chips;
• English checkers (Checkers) – are conducted on the board 8 × 8, each player in the starting position of 12 chips, located on the black cells of the first three rows on each side. The party begins black. Simple checkers go diagonally to one square and only forward, the king has the right to walk diagonally forward and backward, and also to beat through one cage in any direction;
• Pool Checkers – the most popular in the US (especially in the Western and South-Western states). The game is played on the board 8 × 8, each player – 12 chips. The rules are similar to international ones, however, the maximum possible number of checkers is not required;
• Italian checkers – the game is played on a standard 8 × 8 checkerboard, which is rotated 90 ° against the normal position. Players’ chips occupy white cells on the first three rows on each side, respectively, moves are made over white fields. The game is played by rules that are generally similar to the rules of American drafts, but there are exceptions. For example, simple checkers go only forward and can not beat the king; The player must hit the maximum possible number of enemy pieces, or (if the moves are equivalent), the largest number of swords;
• Spanish (Algerian) checkers – the game is played on a standard board, the location of which, as well as the positions of the chips, corresponds to the position of the inventory in the Italian checkers (the board is rotated by 90º, the checkers on white squares). The rules of the Spanish checkers coincide with the rules of the Brazilian in almost everything except one – simple checkers can only beat forward;
• Portuguese checkers are the most widespread in Portugal, Brazil, and also in Africa. The game is played on a 64-cell board according to the rules of Spanish checkers, differing only in that if there is a choice between beating a simple chip or a lady – the player must beat the king;
• Turkish checkers – the game takes place on a standard 8 × 8 board, each player has 16 chips, which are placed on all cells of 2 and 3 rows on each side (the first row remains free). The checkers do not move diagonally, but horizontally and vertically, and the simple checker can walk and beat only forward and sideways, and the king has the right to move in any direction. A simple checker becomes a king only after reaching 8 horizontals, and begins to act as a king only after the end of the stroke. Also in this form of checkers are the “gentlemen’s rules”, which consist in the fact that the player warns the opponent about the consequences of one or another of his moves, as a result of which the opponent’s checkers may be under attack.You should also notify your opponent that one or the other checker has reached 7 (“soon lady!”) Or 8 (“lady!”) Of the field;
• Armenian checkers – the game is conducted according to the rules of the Turkish checkers, however the board is rotated 90 °, as in the Italian checkers and the chip, in the course of the move reaching the 8th line, immediately starts acting like a lady;
• Senegalese checkers – the game is played on a board of 5 × 6 cells, each player has 14 chips that are located on all cells of the first two rows and on 4 cells of the third row in such a way that 2 cells remain in the middle of the board. The chips are moving vertically and horizontally forward and sideways, moving diagonally and backward is prohibited. If the checker reaches the last horizontal line, it is removed from the board. The goal of the game is to shoot down the maximum number of enemy pieces. The game ends when all the chips of one of the players move forward and, thus, are blocked.
• Shashmas (English cheskers) – a board game that was invented in 1948 by S. Glombe (USA). It is played on a standard chessboard, each player has 12 pieces (8 pawns, 2 kings, an elephant and a camel – this figure is successfully replaced by a chess horse moving 2 fields further than usual). In the initial position, the figures are located on 3 lines of black cells, they move and they also strike only diagonally; The pawn acts as a simple checker, the elephant acts like an ordinary rook in chess; The king can move one square in any direction. And if a player can make a move as a pawn or a king – he must beat, and if an elephant or a camel – is free to evade the use of these figures. A pawn that has reached the last horizontal can turn into an elephant or a camel. The goal of the game is to remove the kings of the opponent (mat) from the board or block his figures (the stalemate).
• Belarusian chess – this game is played according to chess and draft rules on a standard chessboard. At the disposal of each player are 11 checkers, arranged on black cells of 3 rows, as well as 13 chess pieces (rook, elephant, horse, king, queen, 8 pawns), located on white squares of the same rows (the exception is the king occupying the central black cell of the first row). Checkers can beat both checkers and opponent pieces, checkmate and checkmate can be bet by a king or a king. There is also the possibility for a triple (or more) shah and a closed mat (without a shah) to the opponent’s king;
• Belarusian checkers – on the board 8×8 cells are played checkers (12 pieces for each player, located on the black cells of the first three rows) and pawns (13 each, are located on white cells of the same rows). Checkers move and beat according to the rules of the game in checkers, pawns – in accordance with the rules of the chess game. The figure that reaches the last diagonal turns into either a king (if it’s a checker), or any chess piece (if it’s a pawn). Regardless of what changes took place on the board as a result of the achievement of the dam field by one or another figure (checker), the goal of the game does not change – you need to lock or beat all the enemy’s pieces;
• Shabel is a game (created by L.Samutin) on a standard 64-cell board, each player has a full set of chess pieces, however, instead of pawns and 2 and 3, rows are occupied by checkers. Keeps checkers (for checkers) and chess (for figures) rules. In addition, some features (mat king, triple check, etc.) comply with the rules of Belarusian chess. The goal of the game is to checkmate the opponent’s king;
• Estonian chess is a game, the idea of creation of which belongs to V.Lillipuu, is conducted on a board of 10 × 10 cells. To the set of standard chess pieces on the first line (2 rooks, 2 horses, 2 elephants, queen and king) a new dragon (Dp) is added, located between the rook and the horse. Moves and it beats like a chess horse, and at the same time can be turned into a king at any time (D), however, once it reaches the campsite, it becomes a dragon again.In addition to pawns, each player also has 10 checkers located on each square of the third row, in front of pawns. The goal of the game is to checkmate the enemy’s king.
The World Federation of Drafts was founded by the federations of France, Belgium, Switzerland and the Netherlands in 1947. Today she is a full member of the General Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF) and is responsible for hosting international, Russian, Brazilian and English checkers and their varieties.
Italian Drafts Championships are held by the Italian Federation of Drafts (Federazione Italiana Dama, FID), and the Canadian drafts competition is held by the Association of Québécoise des joueurs de dames (AQJD). The title of international grand master in drafts was established in 1947.
World championships for this sport (namely, international drafts) have been held since 1948. The European Confederation of Drafts (EDK) has been holding European championships since 1965 (at the beginning, the European Cup), the Confederation Cup, the Champions Cup among the men-shashists.
Team checkers in checkers are held since 1967, junior competitions – since 1971. Women participate in competitions since 1973, girls – since 1989.
These days, not only face-to-face competitions of the players, but also correspondence tournaments (by phone, by correspondence, by e-mail and online), as well as competitions between a person and a computer, as well as between computer programs (since 2008 ).
Homeland of Checkers – Ancient Egypt.
There is no single version of the origin of this game, which all scientists would agree with. Some researchers really believe that the checkers appeared in Ancient Egypt, while others argue for the Aryan-Norman version, arguing that the checkers (in Russia – valei or tavlei, from the Latin tabule – “board”) – the invention of the northern peoples. Turned out of stone, amber or horn checkers were found in the territory of Kievan Rus, Denmark, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, which allows to state that they were invented in the era of the Vikings, which obviously contributed to the distribution of drafts all over the world. In Europe, this game, through which you can find the skills of strategy and tactics of the duel, necessarily studied knights. By the way, in many European languages, in the title of the game of checkers, the word “lady” is used (juego de damas, French jeu de dames, English dams, German dame, Italian dama), which indicates that, when this game was extremely popular, women enjoyed attention and respect. This game is mentioned in such famous works as “Decameron” by J. Boccaccio and “Don Quixote” by M. Cervantes. There is also a version of the Slavic, or rather Scythian, origin of drafts, based on the results of excavations and discoveries of recent years.
Checkers in Russia appeared in the time of Vladimir Monomakh (1053 – 1125 gg.).
Indeed, most often the appearance of this game is associated with the name of the above-mentioned Kiev prince. However, as evidenced by archaeological findings, a similar game appeared in the Rus in the III – IV centuries AD. (and according to some scientists even earlier – in the VI century BC). In addition, many epics and legends tell us that it is a game of this kind – one of the favorite pastimes of Russian heroes.
The game of checkers assumes in the starting position an equal number of pieces and the same goal of the game for both players.
Indeed, almost all forms of checkers have such a rule. However, the game “Wolf and Dogs”, held on a 64-cell board with checkers, assumes an unequal number of chips for players: white checkers (“dogs”) on board 4, and black (“wolf”) only one.White checkers are located on black (or white) cells of the first line and go diagonally on one cell only forward, black – on one of the black (white) cells of the 8 line and can move one cell forward or backward. The goal of the game for the players is different: the task of “dogs” is to block the “wolf”, the “wolf” aspires to be in the rear of the “dogs”. The game “Wolf and Sheep” is constructed on the same principle: one player has 4 white simple checkers (“sheep”), the other has one black lady (“wolf”), which can walk and beat in all directions.
The checkers are played on boards of the same size.
Yes, basically 8 × 8 cells are used for this game, but for international drafts, a 10 × 10 field is required, and for a 12 × 12 Canadian box. There is also a board for 80-cell checkers – 8 × 10 cells. To play in “Checkers Tamerlane” you will need a 36-cell board, and for Senegalese checkers – 30-cell.
To play a checker board or set as standard, or rotated by 90 °.
Yes, this is often the case. However, there are some types of checkers for playing in which the board is angled to the player. For example, the so-called “Corners” (“Galma”) – on the corners of the standard 64-cell board (both black and white) is 10 chips. Players can walk in any direction, by squares of any color, jumping over one (or several) of their opponent’s pieces or chips. The goal of the game is to take your opponent’s corner with your checkers. By the same principle (in the corners of the board) are placed chips when playing in the Neva checkers, and the players occupy seats opposite each of the corners of the board.
Checkers – a game for two.
This statement is true, but there are exceptions. For example, in Chinese checkers can play from 2 to 6 people. For 4 players the variant of the game “Corners” (“Galma”), called “Galma-bis” or Neva checkers, for 3 – Novgorod checkers is suitable.
The checkers are played on a board divided into black and white squares.
Most checkers games are really played on a two-color board, however, for example, a board with squares of the same color is suitable for playing Armenian, Neva or Chinese checkers.
The game of checkers takes place on a square board using chips (and in some cases – figures) black and white.
This is true – most types of checkers are played on a 64-cell, 80-cell, 100-cell square or rectangular board. However, there are exceptions. For example, to play Chinese checkers (called “halma”) you will need a 6-corner board and chips (“stones”) 6 colors (blue, yellow, red, green, white (blue) and purple (black)). In the game can participate at the same time from 2 to 6 people, the goal – to move their chips into the corner of the opponent. A hexagonal board (for 3 players) and chips of black, white and red colors are also needed for playing Pskov and Novgorod checkers. For the party in the Neva checkers have to get a board with monochrome cages (however, the standard chess, if you do not pay attention to the color difference of neighboring cells) and chips of four colors symbolizing different times of the day: black (“night”), white (“morning “), red (” day “), green (” evening “). And playing in the “Checkers of Tamerlane”, in addition to the non-standard board of 6×6 cells and chips of black and white, you will also need cubes, dropping which players determine who will become the owner of white checkers, and also coordinate their further actions. And, finally, a very special inventory (stacks or glasses and alcoholic drinks of different colors, for example, white and red wine) will be needed for playing “drunk” checkers. In this game on the 64-cell board are placed half-filled (and when the “chip” reaches the mold field – filled to the brim) a light or dark glass drink. When the “checker” falls under the fight – the player who makes the coup, drinks its contents. All the glasses left on the board after the end of the game are required to empty the loser.
During the game of checkers, enemy chips are either removed from the board or placed under the checker that has broken them.
Much depends on what the goal of the game is. In some cases, rivals tend not to beat the checkers (and in some cases – the figures) of the opponent, and arrange the chips in one way or another. This state of things takes place in the game “Corners”, “Halma”, “Wolf and Dogs,” etc., and in the game “Salta”, conducted on the 100-cell board on the chips (each player has 15), certain characters. The goal of the game is to place your checkers with this or that symbol (“star”, “moon”, “sun”) on the same place where the opponent’s chips were placed, marked with the same signs. In the game “Millstone” (the creator – VA Zhernov) checkers that fall under the fight, change color, and are exposed on the board as checkers of the player who beat them.
A simple checker turns into a king only after reaching the field of a dam.
This is true, and in different versions of the game, it can either start acting immediately, like a lady, or enter into its own right from the next turn. However, in the game “Safonovka”, named so in honor of the legendary pilot, there are initially 8 dames (“airplanes”) on the board and 4 regular checkers (“pilots”) for each player. The game is conducted according to the rules of Russian checkers, the difference is that the mistaken lady is transformed into a simple checker. And in the Senegalese checkers, when the last diagonal is reached, the checker does not turn into a king, but is removed from the board.
The World Checkers Championships have been held since 1948.
Indeed, the official status of these competitions were in 948, but the world champions for this sport was defined in the XIX century. For example, the world championships in the form of hundred-cell checkers have been held since 1894, and championships in Russian drafts since 1896. And in 2008, the first world championship on Russian drafts was held among computer programs.
Movements in checkers – the action of one of the players.
No, during the recording of the official game the checkers are considered to be a move, and two half-tracks are recorded under the same number (white and black).
All the games played by the checkers on the chessboard are similar to the checkers, and one round is played.
Yes, it is. However, one of the table games, named “Chapaev” (Chapaevtsy), in honor of the legendary Vasily Ivanovich Chapaev, the hero of the Civil War, is closer to billiards (especially such varieties as crokinol, carr and novus). The game is played on a standard 64-cell board, each player at the beginning of the game has 8 chips, which are arranged in 2 rows opposite each other, or they form certain figures representing different kinds of troops (“infantry”, “tanks”, ” “cavalry”, etc.). Then the player clicks his fingers on his sword so that another’s checker is outside the playing field, and his chip is left on the board. After one of the party members knocked out all the pieces of the opponent – he puts his chips on one line ahead, the loser retreats to the line back. The game can last 7 or more rounds, the winner is the one who knocks out the opponent’s chips from the last line of the playing field.
You can play with pillboxes with plastic chips.
For this type of checkers it is best to use chips made of wood (produced before 1975, the best were considered large flat checkers cut from birch), allowing you to make “towers” of almost any height and move them around the playing field. But the “pillar” composed of ordinary checkers is extremely unstable. However, resourceful players quite successfully overcome this obstacle – they use cloth cladding. Having equipped ordinary checkers with such a “bottom” (for the first time this method was proposed by VM Pakhomov), one can not fear for the integrity of the “pillar.”
“Flying checkers” are better than classic Russian checkers.
This is not quite true. The reason for the appearance of “flying checkers” was the disappointing statistics of games in Russian drafts, promulgated in 1983.According to the findings of the researchers, 4 out of 5 parties ended in a draw, and only one won the victory of one of the chasists. To change the situation for the better, it was suggested to draw lots for debuts, and several variants of initial moves were introduced, at first the schemes were not particularly successful, since at times the position of one of the tournament participants was strengthened. Since 1995, players are invited to choose the game option – either classic Russian checkers, or “flying.” Most of the players preferred the draw and mandatory moves, because, in their opinion, there are many opportunities for creativity – after all the resulting variants of positions (most often unexamined) introduce an element of novelty into the game. However, supporters of classical drafts argue that, firstly, the mathematics of the game is violated, secondly, the creativity of famous classics is losing significance, and thirdly, the number of new variants of positions formed as a result of the draw is also certainly possible. So, innovation is only a temporary measure that will exhaust itself over time.
The computer can not win checkers, because all moves and positions have already been calculated and entered in the database.
This is not quite true. Completely scheckers is one of the simplest drafts. And if the time limit is applied, the draw and “flying checkers” – a win-win algorithm and completely lose its significance.