Cell phones

The reason for the occurrence of all kinds of conjectures and fictions is elementary ignorance. After all, not many of us even today can boast of being fully acquainted with the principles of the operation of cellular networks, as well as with the features of the functioning of their own mobile phone.

The communication range in the GSM standard can reach hundreds of kilometers.

The maximum possible communication range in a standard GSM network is not more than 35 km. Some GSM operators at base stations located on the seashore include a special mode, thanks to which communication is possible at a distance of up to 70 km. Often, on the seashore or in the mountains, you can find new GSM networks when searching for a network, but you will not be able to register with them due to too long distances. In the standards of mobile communication NMT, CDMA, AMPS limits for range does not exist. That is, communication is possible as far as “finishing” the phone and other conditions permit. With the use of external antennas and with a successful coincidence, communication can be established at a distance of up to 100 km. (For example, for NMT or DAMPS)

Within the radio coverage zone indicated on the map, the cell phone should function absolutely everywhere.

In reality, subscribers have to deal with situations when the phone “stalls” and within the zone of confident reception! But such are the features of propagation of radio waves: in an inhomogeneous space they can not create an electromagnetic field with uniform tension! Hence the appearance of “white spots” on the map of radio coverage, the so-called “radio zone”. As a rule, this is a problem of the first stages of development of a cellular network or its fragment. In the future, the operators are trying to equalize (as far as possible) coverage areas by increasing the number of base radio stations serving this territory. But this does not solve the problem completely and irrevocably! Within the zone of confident reception there are two “subzones”: a zone outside the premises, so to speak, “in the open air”, and a zone inside the premises (or transport). If the first is more or less clear, then with the second straight trouble! Buildings are brick, reinforced concrete, wooden and even metal (hangars, warehouses). And in all cases, the conditions for the penetration of radio waves into buildings are different: in some, waves penetrate with insignificant damping, in others damping is more intense, and in the third, penetration of radio waves is generally impossible in terms of physics (metal hangars and warehouses, safe rooms and bank vaults ).

The location of the owner of the GSM phone can be tracked to within a meter.

In a standard GSM network, it is really possible to find out the cell in which the phone is located and the distance to it (not more precisely 540 meters), which gives accuracy, in the center of a large city of 500-4000 square meters, on the outskirts of 2-25 square kilometers. This data can be seen even on the screen of NOKIA phones in NETMONITOR mode. To increase the accuracy of determining the coordinates, it is necessary for the operator to install additional expensive equipment. In this case, the accuracy of the determination is increased to a section of 50×50 meters. Abroad in some countries similar services are provided to all comers, for example, to search for a car or to monitor the child’s location.

A stolen mobile phone can permanently stop working after a while.

Indeed, the structure of any GSM network includes an EIR device (equipment identification register). There are several lists in this device. If the serial number of your phone is included in the “black” list, the network will not give permission for its operation. Very often it happens that the phone working in the CIS countries when traveling abroad refuses to register in the network, which means that it is simply added to this country in the “black” list. There are no computer databases of stolen phones. That is, to check the phone “to steal” is impossible. The phone’s serial number is sewn up inside the phone and sent by the phone every time it rings to recognize the network.Is it possible to change this electronic number inside the phone with a hacker method? Answer: Yes, but not for all models. Currently, specialists of all phone manufacturers are working to eliminate this possibility.

GSM talks are possible to listen on an amateur level.

This myth is also not true. Let’s start with the fact that the information is transmitted in digital form. If you tune the receiver to GSM frequencies, you will hear only crackling and squeaking. This is how the digital signal sounds. In addition, special encryption algorithms are used in this area, for example A5.2, A8. This algorithm is complex for describing at the user level, it is not just transmitted, but also encoded. In most networks, the Frequency Hopping function is used, its essence being that the mobile jumps between several frequencies at a rate of 217 times per minute, which makes it even more difficult to listen. When you move around the city, your phone “jumps” from cell to cell, which further complicates the tracking of your conversation.

To replenish the deposit in the prepaid cards (for example Beeplus) a 14-20-digit code is used. It is possible to select or generate a counterfeit code to replenish the deposit.

This is not true. Purely mathematically, the combinations of 14-20 digits give a variety of options. The full numbers of the operators are generated by the random number method. And they have no regularity. To guess the number is a paltry probability.

It is possible to remake the phone or reprogram the SIM card to use the GSM phone for free.

These rumors come from the United States. The main US standard AMPS, indeed, with some trick, allows you to do such things. According to some estimates, up to 10 percent of the phones working in the US are illegal. With a huge volume of traffic, mobile operators in America do not consider this a serious problem. In addition, these phones “live” not for long. In the GSM standard, such things are not yet possible.

The myth of remaking the phone.

The calculation of the number and duration of calls does not occur in the phone or SIM card, as many believe, but in the GSM switch (with the exception of cards of the same type). The billing system calculates the cost of calls, which takes data from the switch. A mobile phone can not make the switch stop monitoring calls.

The myth of cloning (creating a copy of the SIM card).

There are various information inside the SIM card, such as PIN code, PUK code, subscriber’s address book. But there is also service information not available to the user. The basis of SIM card security is Ki code. This code is stored in the card and the operator. Based on this code, the authentic authentication processes of the subscriber are performed, according to the algorithm A3. It is impossible to select or read this code to a simple user. The code is stored in the area of ​​the SIM card that is not readable. In addition to this code, it is necessary to know the IMSI (identification code) of the card, this code is open. A year ago a group of Western programmers managed to read the code data and simulate a SIM card with a computer program. On reading Ki code they took about 6 hours of work with someone else’s card. They failed to create a clone (copy) of the SIM card. Thus, the standard developed in the 70s still provides reliable protection.

Phones that have been decoded, do not work well, and may eventually fail completely.

If the phone has been decoded, you lose warranty service in the service centers, and the manufacturer is not responsible for the quality of the phone. At the same time, as the phone works after decoding, it will work in the future, and nothing terrible should happen. Sometimes, after incorrectly decoding, some menu items are missing in the phone, the phone settings are deteriorating, some functions are not working correctly, it rarely happens.

If the phone “pour” a newer version of the software, it will work better.

Changing the phone’s firmware is similar to changing the operating system in the computer. The manufacturer, creating a model of the phone, created and software for him. Over time, the phone can detect small problems, they can be called “glitches.” For example, at some point in the menu your phone “hangs”. A new, more recent version of the firmware, eliminates these shortcomings. Sometimes fresh firmware contains new languages, for example, Russian. The Ericsson T10 is often “poured” the firmware from Ericsson T18, and a voice dialing appears in the phone. On the reception parameters, the firmware is usually not affected. If your phone often hangs or turns off, the firmware can be changed. If it works fine, for example, because of one new melody, upgrade the phone’s software. Anything can happen.

Mobile phone is harmful to health.

A mobile phone as a transmitting device emits radio waves at a frequency of about 900 MHz. The maximum power of a portable phone varies for different models from 1 to 2 watts. But GSM phones do not constantly radiate this power. Approximately every 4-6 seconds (this depends on the network settings) the phone changes the output power. And he tries to keep it as low as necessary for communication. This function saves your battery, protects your health and improves the quality of the network as a whole. You probably have often heard interference from the phone, for example, in the speakers or the radio. Make a call and you will notice how the interference will gradually disappear within 10 seconds. Here’s a simple proof of power adjustment. Naturally, the power of 20 milliwatts is much less harmful than 2 watts. In older standards of cellular communication, there was no such function, nor is it in powerful radio extenders.

Mobile phones cause cancer.

A study published by the Royal Society of Canada suggests that talking on a cell phone can not cause cancer or other diseases. A group of eight scientists examined numerous studies on the safety of cellular phones, and found no evidence for the emergence of diseases associated with exposure to radio waves. The scientists established that the evidence “does not support the conclusion that irradiation with radio-frequency fields of the type and intensity that is created by radio communication devices contributes to the appearance or development of tumors in animals or humans.” The report of the British Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones also acknowledges unlikely that mobile phones can cause cancer or any other diseases.

Mobile phones affect the operation of the pacemaker.

In the world, more than 1 million people live with implanted pacemakers. In cases where the heart rhythm is intermittent or too weak, this device sends the electrical impulses necessary for the normal operation of the heart. German scientists have studied whether a cell phone can cause a malfunction in the work of the heart stimulant. Three cellular standards were tested: C-net (NMT 450), D-net (GSM 900) and E-net (GSM 1800). In the experiments, 231 pacemakers of various manufacturers were tested. The results are as follows: 31% of stimulants experienced interference from radiation from C-net phones and 34% from D-net. When using telephones working in the E-net standard, there was no malfunction in the pacemakers. Despite the above data, it is not recommended to carry the mobile phone next to the pacemaker, the more you can not bring the terminal working in the active mode (that is, during a call) to this device. However, this, as well as the fact that the phone must be turned off at the entrance to medical facilities, is said in the instructions on any mobile terminal.

Mobile phones cause explosions at gas stations.

The danger is associated with the possibility of an explosion, which can occur as a result of a malfunction in the operation of the electronic equipment of the filling station under the influence of the magnetic field of the cellular phone, as well as the explosion of petrol vapors from a possible spark in the event of a drop in the apparatus to the ground. The reason for concern was the explosion at the gas station of Esso in Malaysia. Necessary clarification: there is still no direct link between the catastrophe and the use of mobile phones. At the time of the explosion many people who were on the territory of the gas station were talking about them. Since there was no other explanation for the explosion, the management of most filling stations decided to take precautions and forbade the use of mobile phones on their territory.

Mobile phones interfere with the navigation equipment of aircraft.

According to research carried out by manufacturers of Boeing and Airbus aircraft, the ban on the use of mobile phones in aircraft has no scientific justification. The same conclusion was reached by representatives of the American and British Civil Aviation Services. Research conducted by Boeing showed that 20 mobile phones operating in the Boeing 737 show no interference. Similar studies were conducted by Airbus. Analysis of 70,000 aircraft crew reports did not reveal any cases of interference with the use of mobile phones. Despite this, no airline in the world allows the use of a cellular phone on board its aircraft.

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