Alexander Andreevich Bezborodko
was born in 1747 in Glukhov. His father was the general clerk. He was a very energetic man, but he did not differ in wealth.
In 1765, Alexander Bezborodko graduated from the Kiev Theological Academy, and then joined the office of P. A. Rumyantsev, who was the ruler of Little Russia. Rumyantsev in many ways helped Alexander in his career. Naturally, contributed to this talent of Bezborodko himself. Alexander Andreevich in 1771 was already a colonel. Rumiantsev also recommended Bezborodko to the secretaries Catherine II.
In 1780, Alexander Andreevich was appointed Empress to the College of Foreign Affairs. Since 1784 Bezborodko became the second person in this college (after Osterman) – in fact the leader.
The post of Chancellor Bezborodko was received only at Paul I – April 21, 1797. At this time, Alexander Andreevich felt unwell. Two years later he passed away.
A.A. Bezborodko possessed extraordinary talents.
Thanks to him, he, the son of a general clerk, was able to rise high on his own career. Huge performance, the ability to clearly raise the question and formulate ideas were very useful to Bezborodko in his life’s path. And the excellent memory and ability to grasp everything on the fly were noted by his contemporaries while studying at the Kiev Theological Academy.
In the tenacious memory of Alexander Andreevich, Catherine II herself became convinced.
Once announced a law – so Bezborodko without delay could accurately tell him from memory. When Catherine the Great asked for the book in which this law was written, in order to verify the correctness of the foregoing, Alexander Andreevich accurately indicated to her the number of the page where it was printed!
Bezborodko was interested in the history of his country.
The free time that remained after the service, Alexander Andreevich gave history: his pen belongs to three works, which covered individual stories in the history of the country. In 1776 he finished writing his first composition. It was dedicated to the history of the Tatars. Bezborodko justified in him the following thesis: Crimea must be annexed to the Russian Empire, since the recognition of its independence is only a fiction. Proceeding from this, we can say that Bezborodko was the first person who openly expressed this idea. In its execution led G.A. Potemkin. The second essay concerned the history of Ukraine. The authors were Bezborodko and Rubak, they published it in 1778. The third work of Bezborodko was connected with the main achievements of the reign of Catherine the Great.
Catherine II very favorably treated her secretary.
Bezborodko was proud of this, sharing his success with his father. He calculated that in 1778 he had dined at the same table with Catherine II and other important dignitaries of the country (Potemkin, Vyazemsky and others) twenty times. In 1779, Catherine the Great expressed her benevolent attitude to Bezborodko materially: he was gifted with 1,220 peasants’ souls, and also elevated to the rank of foreman.
Bezborodko perfectly mastered the word.
To make a paper, it took one minute. As noted Gelbig, better than Alexander Andreevich with writing letters and decrees, no one could cope. In the shortest time, he brought the written paper, which was executed according to all the samples and rules. By the way, the Manifesto on the annexation of the Crimea was also drafted by Bezborodko.
Catherine II completely trusted Bezborodko.
He was able to smooth conflicts, find a middle ground, even in an extremely confusing situation; he was not stubborn. For all this the Empress greatly appreciated Alexander Andreevich, often with him shared his plans and secrets. In any case, Bezborodko until 1792 had full confidence from Catherine the Great. By this confidence Bezborodko in no way abused, did not use the available position for his own purposes, did not take bribes.
Bezborodko served as an important speaker.
A huge amount of information passed through the hands of Alexander Andreevich. All this information Bezborodko reported to the empress. To sustain the tremendous load helped the tenacious memory.
Bezborodko is an important government official.
In 1780, Alexander Andreevich was appointed to the College of Foreign Affairs. Then he received the rank of Major-General. It was a much more important position than a secretary. From now on, Andreevich Bezborodko could make completely independent decisions.
Bezborodko allowed to domestic affairs.
For example, in 1783 Catherine II organized a commission whose purpose was to increase the revenue side of the state. Bezborodko also joined the commission. The measures that the commission developed were reduced to an increase in the tax burden: for government, palatial and economic peasants, the rent was increased from two to three rubles; taxes levied on the peasants of some regions were equalized with taxes paid by Russian peasants. The commission also touched upon the merchants. For the supply of recruits, the recovered amount was increased from 360 to 500 rubles. Prices for some products have increased. For all the labors, Catherine the Great granted Alexander Andreevich approximately two thousand peasants in the territory of Ukraine.
In 1784 Bezborodko became the second person in the College of Foreign Affairs.
Actually, it was Alexander Andreevich who became its leader. The fact is that the president of this department was I.A. Osterman, who was known in nature is very colorless – he did not exert any significant influence on the matter. That is why the control threads were in the hands of Bezborodko, who, among other things, expressed dissatisfaction about being in this situation in a subordinate position.
Bezborodko indifferent to receiving material rewards.
Rather, vice versa. He loved when his hard work was celebrated by awarding titles, receiving another rank, material rewards.
Bezborodko reached the zenith of glory in the eighties of the XVIII century.
After Potemkin, he held an honorable second place among the nobles of Catherine the Great. However, if we take into account the fact that Potemkin was absent most of the time in the capital, Alexander Andreyevich played the role of the main grandee under the empress.
Bezborodko had very tense relations with the favorites of Catherine II.
Complicated relations were between Alexander Andreevich and Dmitriev-Mamonov, so complex that Bezborodko counted the time for the report to the Empress so as not to catch Mamonov from her. Bad relations with Bezborodko were with Platon Zubov.
Bezborodko headed the Russian delegation for the conclusion of the Jaska Peace with the Ottoman Empire (1791).
Before Alexander Andreevich were rather difficult tasks, but it was in their decision that the full-scale diplomatic abilities of Bezborodko were revealed. The goals that Alexander Andreevich was supposed to govern were reduced to two: the world must be concluded as soon as possible and the world should be profitable for the Russian Empire. With all the actions taken Bezborodko introduced Catherine II. The head of the delegation held talks firmly, declaring to the Turks that Russia wants peace, but, nevertheless, has sufficient potential for the continuation of the war. Thus, in this Russian-Turkish war, the diplomatic gifts of Bezborodko were expressed in that he was the author of the Manifesto about the beginning of the war, and also the head of the delegation for signing the peace treaty (the Jassy Peace Treaty). However, Bezborodko’s merit in the conclusion of peace was very modestly noted by Catherine the Great. Alexander Andreevich was awarded the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called and fifty thousand rubles. Probably, the behavior of the Empress was due to the influence of the favorite Zubov, who assured her of not very good results of the talks. However, given that Russia did not have the resources to continue fighting, the world was, indeed, profitable for the country.
After the conclusion of the Iasi Peace, Bezborodko’s situation worsened.
In St. Petersburg, he was hurried to inform him about Zubov’s appointment in his place, and of Bezborodko himself, to serve as a favorite. Former position, Alexander Andreevich no longer had. He did not recognize the merit of the empress: she included him in the list of those people who played almost an ordinary role in the diplomatic field.
After Bezborodko returned to Petersburg, his reconciliation with Catherine II was only of a formal nature.
The Empress redeemed the cooling in the relationship with generous gifts: Bezborodko in 1793 was granted to seven thousand peasants and the rank of chief governor – the highest rank at court. But all the same Alexander Andreevich was indignant with the fact that Zubov, the favorite of the empress, appropriated his services to himself.
Under Paul I, Alexander Andreevich’s position became stronger.
About the precariousness of the situation Bezborodko speech was no longer on the contrary, the emperor paid him such attention, which Bezborodko did not even have under Catherine the Great. In part, this was due to the fact that Paul I aspired to imitate his mother as little as possible (from the early age of Paul, they had complex relationships).
Bezborodko was gifted by Paul I.
In honor of the coronation of the new king (April 6, 1797), A.A. Bezborodko received so much favors from him that he himself realized, “how much they exceed any measure.” Among the gifts were: a portrait of the emperor, studded with diamonds; more than 10 thousand peasants; Bezborodko also received princely dignity; and on April 21, 1797, Alexander Andreevich became Chancellor. Such generosity is connected with the persecution of Bezborodko in the time of Catherine the Great: partly on the part of the empress herself, mostly on the part of her favorite, Zubov. Bezborodko wanted to thank Paul I with his hard work. However, in the first years of the reign, the new emperor did not carry out any important foreign policy acts. And the forces of Alexander Andreevich Bezborodko were no longer the same as Catherine the Great.
Bezborodko how he could resist illness.
The effect of the drugs was negligible, there was no improvement in the state of health. However, Alexander Andreevich prevailed over the pain. On February 20, 1799, he was present at the palace – the ceremony of betrothal of the daughter of Pavel I Alexandra took place, in the beginning of March, in honor of it, he gave a magnificent ball. April 6, 1799 he had a stroke, this year he died.