Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria was a prominent Soviet statesman, Stalin’s ally. He is considered one of the main organizers of repression. After the death of his patron, Beria was quickly arrested by his recent party comrades, who did not want to see so many powerful competitors in the struggle for power. Politics quickly accused of espionage in favor of a number of countries, in the falsification of many criminal cases, in moral corruption and numerous abuses. On December 23, 1953, Beria was shot.
More than half a century has passed … Beria remains symbols of all the horrors of the Stalin regime. But the birth of archival data allows and forces us to take a fresh look at this, of course, talented and active politician. It turned out that it was advantageous for someone to create an intimidating image of Beria. He was hated and cursed, not knowing that they were imprisoned in an artificial myth. So do not try to learn more about this policy, in order to really appreciate his contribution to the history of the country and actions?
Beria was an agent of foreign intelligence services.
In the 1930s and 1940s it was fashionable to accuse people of aiding foreign intelligence. Beria was considered an agent of the English, then the Musavat Intelligence. In this, he directly accused Khrushchev during his removal from power. But just what were the proofs of this? The same Mikoyan at the Central Committee Plenum in June 1953 said that the state has no direct evidence of espionage, but there is certainty about it. At one time, Beria worked in the counterintelligence of Azerbaijan on behalf of the Bolsheviks, which he described in detail in his biography, without hiding it. Talks about cooperation with the Musavatists of the promising communist went back to the beginning of the 1930s, when Lavrentiy Pavlovich made a successful career. So at one time Khrushchev simply put together long-standing rumors, which no one was going to check at that time.
Beria destroyed all of his benefactors in Azerbaijan.
They often write how Beria “thanked” those people who helped him to make his first steps in his career. They write that in 1938 the patrons of Beria in Azerbaijan were shot: Akhundov, Unshlikht and Musabsgov. But Beria became the first deputy People’s Commissar of the NKVD at a time when it was forbidden to enforce the earlier death sentences. Until August 31, Lavrentiy Pavlovich was in Georgia, where he handed over the cases to his successor. And the above-mentioned three Communists were shot by the beginning of 1938. Beria, who worked in Georgia, had nothing to do with his former colleagues in Moscow and Azerbaijan.
Beria perished in the confidence of Stalin.
To get in trust you need a long time and frequent meetings. And Stalin was not that simple at all. All the meetings of Beria with the Soviet leader were documented. From 1932 to 1938 they met 1-2 times a year. And Beria himself categorically did not want to leave Georgia and move to Moscow – he liked the economic work. Lavrenty Pavlovich won the trust of the leader by his work, organizational skills.
Stalin’s wife at once recognized Beria.
This myth was invented by Stalin’s daughter Svetlana, justifying a well-known photograph. On it, she sits on the lap of her uncle “Lavrika.” In fact, Nadezhda Alliluyeva and Lavrenty Beria were not even acquainted. On vacation Stalin did not take his wife, because in the country he worked even harder. And when Hope was still alive, Beria had not yet risen to the status to visit Stalin in his apartment or at the dacha.
In 1924, Beria artificially organized the Menshevik uprising in Georgia, which he himself suppressed.
According to this myth, Lavrenty Pavlovich was able to get favor in the Georgian Cheka and give impetus to his career. In fact, Beria arrested the emissary Dzhugeli, convincing him to speak out against the uprising. But his companions still raised a riot, for which they were severely punished. Maintenance would consist of a series of preliminary mass arrests and a report on the success and the prevention of a riot.And Beria tried to avoid the bloodshed to the last, using counterintelligence and convincing the conspirators.
In 1925, Beria set up a plane crash in which prominent members of the party from Transcaucasia perished.
In 1925 there was a crash of the Junkers service aircraft, which was investigated by Beria. The commission came to the conclusion that the reason lies in the technical malfunction. Similar conclusions were reached by the two following commissions. They included a representative of the OGPU USSR, as well as engineers of the manufacturer, aviators. Beria could not deceive them all. And this myth appeared thanks to the Armenian chekist Gazaryan, who after the Twentieth Congress accused Lavrenty Pavlovich of organizing a catastrophe.
Beria sat down as the head of the Georgian Cheka, taking his place.
There is a myth about how the Georgian Chekists fought with the military Turks. Beria allegedly stated that he had not seen the zavaruhi, in the epicenter of which was his chief Kvantaliani. This was the reason for the resignation of the latter. In fact, Georgian security officers have long proved themselves to be professionals, who obviously did not go down to the fight when recruiting. And Kvantaliani was filmed for something else, something secret. The Trotskyite Pavlunovsky, head of the Transcaucasian OGPU, had long whetted his teeth for him. The suppression of the insurgency of the separatists required revenge, and the main Georgian chekist on denunciation was not taken by Beria.
Beria sat down the head of the Transcaucasian Red Army GPU.
It was said that Beria sued Redens, leaving him in the street and spoiling his reputation. Stalin was forced to remove the disgraced figure. In fact, the wife of Redens was the sister of Hope Alliluyeva, so that he would not dare to raise his hand to the family member of the leader, a Bolshevik with pre-revolutionary experience, yet. Obviously, far from Moscow, Redens felt freedom, and in Tiflis there were no problems with vipivka. Beria himself drank a little. Redens also served further after his resignation, but was shot in 1940 and again without the participation of his former ward.
Beria personally organized the execution of a prominent Georgian Bolshevik Lavrentiev.
This myth was again launched by Khrushchev. He said that Beria had long been at loggerheads with Lavrentiev, which led to a falsification of the case. However, Lavrentiev / Kartvelishvili was arrested on June 22, 1937 and shot on August 22, 1938. Then Yezhov was in charge of the NKVD, and Beria was just appointed to the post. Naturally, he did not participate in interrogations, nor took decisions and could not falsify matters in any way. At the time of arrest, Kartvelishvili worked as secretary of the Crimean regional party committee, and before that – in the Far East in general. Beria worked in Georgia and had nothing to do with this person. A note of Lavrenty Pavlovich addressed to Stalin about Kartvelishvili’s participation in an anti-revolutionary conspiracy came after the arrest.
Becoming a prominent party member, Beria did not do anything useful for Georgia.
As soon as Beria became the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, he immediately began to strengthen agriculture. The republic had a fertile climate, but there was not enough land. The measures taken at the end of 1931 were decisive, and already in 1933 a rapid growth of the republic’s agriculture began. Local collective farms began to grow rich, at the time of Beria’s resignation 86% of peasant farms consisted of them. For example, the extraction of tea from 1932 to 1939 increased by 37 times! But in fact earlier this product was bought abroad. Georgia began to collect citrus fruits, food industry, winemaking. Even the critics of Beria had to admit that he was an amazingly talented manager who also raised the industry of the republic. Cursing Lavrenty Pavlovich, Khrushchev publicly declared at the XX Congress that the industry of Georgia is 27 times more than pre-revolutionary, not realizing that he pays tribute to his political rival.
Beria killed Nestor Lakoba. This myth was very popular in Abkhazia, and then in Georgia.
His artistic image was multiplied by writer Fazil Iskander.People willingly believe in another victim of a maniac, not wanting to check the facts. But Nestor Lakoba was friends with Beria until his very last days, which is proved by the documents. This Abkhazian statesman died of a heart attack. Myth is based on rumors about the testimony of witnesses, doctors, which has not been documented and documented.
Beria personally killed the first secretary of the Communist Party of Armenia Khanjyan.
Although Beria is considered a bloody maniac, personal murder is attributed to him only one thing. But there was no evidence for history. In 1936, the newspaper Zarya Vostoka reported on the suicide of Khanjyan, who was confused in his mistakes and was ill with the same severe form of tuberculosis. Myth was born after the death of Beria. He allegedly killed Khanjyan at home, then transferred the corpse, staging suicide. However, talk about this was only in the 50’s, wishing to blacken Beria. The facts known for today do not in any way allow us to establish its involvement in those tragic events.
Beria is guilty of the death of Sergo Ordzhonikidze and the persecution of his family.
Again, this myth was born, thanks to Khrushchev. Judging by the well-known facts, Ordzhonikidze actively defended Beria and maintained friendly relations with him, rewriting. Even his son Beria named in honor of his elder comrade. And the activities of these two people did not overlap. When Ordzhonikidze’s brother was arrested and the second one was injured, Sergo asked to help Beria, which he did. And the reason for Ordzhonikidze’s suicide lies in his poor health and nervous, impressionable character. Yes, and he saw that his narcot was tested, showing poor results, which was the cause of stress. So Beria had nothing to do with Ordzhonikidze’s death. Even when he came to Tbilisi, he stayed not at the brothers’ house, but at his friend Lavrenty.
Beria repressed the leading officials of Ukraine.
We are talking about Postyshev, Kosior and Chubar. First, they themselves were quite brutal leaders who carried out mass repressions. So, Postyshev in general signed not even lists of convicts, but lines with their numbers. In January 1938, at the Plenum, he demonstratively declared that he would continue the arrests and destruction of the enemies of the people. Almost immediately Postyshev was removed from the candidates for membership in the Politburo and arrested. And then at the head of the NKVD was Yezhov. Until Beria arrived there for another six months. The case of Postyshev was checked personally by Molotov and Voroshilov, and the politician was shot for the complete destruction of party members and innocent people. Kosior and Chubar were also not saints, they stood for collectivization in Ukraine and the subsequent famine. Kosior was arrested on May 3, 1938, again long before joining the NKVD of Beria. And the verdict was handed down to the criminals by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court.
With the advent of the post of Beria repression against the commanders of the Red Army began.
This is not even a myth, but a direct fraud and forgery. Not only that Beria had nothing to do with the repression of commanders, he also carried out the restoration of law in relation to the military. Lavrenty Pavlovich came to the Lubyanka on August 22, 1938, having headed this department only in November 1938. Immediately, the repressions went into recession, the execution of the sentenced executions was stopped, all cases were checked. Instead, Beria is accused of being the one who “decapitated the Red Army”. But for the first time such words sounded from Trotsky in 1937 after the verdict of Tukhachevsky. Beria is credited with 40,000 destroyed commanders, although in the sources it is only about those discharged from the army in the period from 1936 to 1940. So the Red Army was cleared of drunkards, politically unreliable and foreigners. With the arrival of Beria in the NKVD, dismissals for political reasons fell 61 times, and arrests 10 times. In 1939 and the first quarter of 1940, thanks to the People’s Commissar, 380,000 innocent prisoners were released.
Beria built up the disaster Chkalov, who was appointed to the post of People’s Commissar for Internal Affairs.
It was even said that Beria fulfilled the order of Stalin, who could not forgive the national glory of the pilot. Chkalov was a high-quality test, who had enemies outside the USSR. It was advantageous for the Western countries that experienced Soviet prototypes of aircraft crashed with the pilots, this would direct the development in the opposite direction. In the past two years, seven attempts have been committed against Chkalov. Someone saw in him a symbol of the Soviet power, others – banally envied. Stalin and Beria in every way saved a class professional, forgiving him insolence and debauches. During testing of the new I-180, the secret control over the obstinate Chkalov was intensified. He was warned about the inadmissibility of flying on an unfinished machine. Even the general designer Polikarpov did not sign assignments for departure. On a frosty day on December 15, 1938, Chkalov flew out, despite all the prohibitions. Who “provided” a malfunction in the technology remains a mystery, because the materials of the investigation remain classified. And the fact that Chkalov was labeled as a People’s Commissar, can not be trusted. First of all, because the pilot was at the reception of the leader for the last time back in May 1937! Yezhov was just beginning to unfold a wave of repression, his replacement was irrelevant. Yes, and Beria himself resisted his appointment to Moscow, moving away from the Chekist cases back in 1931.
Beria was the initiator of the creation of sharashek.
Under this name are known scientific laboratories, which put talented scientists. There they created, in particular, new types of weapons. In fact, “sharashka” existed long before Beria, at the time of Menzhinsky and Yagoda. And scientists got there mainly thanks to denunciations and slander of colleagues. The same Korolev lost his freedom because of the denunciation of engineer Langemaku. But Tupolev was accused of causing economic damage to the country, which was proved. In 1938 a series of articles on the position of Soviet aviation was published in the German military journal. The author has painted all the nuances of production, which could not be left without attention of the state security and Stalin. It became clear that the defense industry was not provided with secrecy. Beria decided to take advantage of the situation and save the unique specialists, removing them from heavy work and using labor for their intended purpose. So the Special Technical Bureau was created. It was not promised a free life, but it was much better than work on the Kolyma. Among the rescued scientists can be identified the Queen, Tupolev, Glushko, Myasishchev, who were grateful to Beria for liberation.
Beria organized the abduction and murder of Marshal Kulik’s wife for refusing to become Stalin’s mistress.
About the strong feelings for his wife Kulik says the fact that he married right after her funeral. His third wife was a ninth-grader, daughter of a daughter. Yes, and Kulik Kira Simonich missed only three days after the disappearance, which is clearly abnormal. Beria immediately reported the loss to the Central Committee and announced a public search. Would he have done this if he had been involved in the abduction? Beria actively followed the search, three volumes of the case were gathered. Kira Simonich was found, perhaps, she was a spy who disappeared after completing her assignment?
Having become a People’s Commissar, Beria immediately arranged a staff purge on the Lubyanka.
In fact, that personnel cleansing has long been overdue – the device required young and new employees, untainted by past repressions. It was this wave of Beria’s call-up that later became the gold fund of Soviet intelligence and counterintelligence, ensuring the country’s security for decades. Under Beria, there was a sharp rejuvenation of the central apparatus, while Georgians, it is believed, were only 0.7%.
Beria stood behind the decision to shoot thousands of Polish prisoners in Katyn.
The very story of the execution of Polish officers under Katyn is considered by many to be a myth. Known and its creator – the Minister of Propaganda of Germany Josef Goebbels.And this legend appeared in 1943, becoming a kind of response to the Battle of Stalingrad. The myth brought great harm to the Soviet Union and relations with Poland. Unfortunately, the country’s leadership has not tried to find out the truth for a long time, although historians have long discovered it. The impartial evidence that the USSR did not execute executions is the archives of the special services. Before the war, many agents were neutralized and many reports were intercepted. But the saboteurs never reported to Berlin about a kind of reprisal over the captive Poles. But the Germans would certainly use this story in an ideological struggle. And in the documents of the Polish pre-war intelligence that came into the hands of the Soviet army, nothing was reported about the massacre in Katyn. The appearance of the myth in 1943 was to reassure Poland and show her who her real enemy was. Popular among the falsifiers is a certain note from Beria, which initiated a meeting of the Politburo on March 5, 1949. Ostensibly in it the People’s Commissar and has suggested to shoot 25 thousand captured Poles. But judging by the logs of Stalin’s visit, neither Beria nor any of the members of the Politburo for the meeting had him. Yes, and the note itself looks strange – different indents on different pages, there are no initials of the typist. Working with Beria recall that he was very attentive to the figures, then in one document the numbers vary greatly. And the resolutions of the leaders are written in an unusual way. All this suggests a deliberate falsification of the document and the artificial appearance of the myth about the role of Beria in the shooting of Polish officers.
Beria stood behind the murder of Trotsky.
They say that back in 1931 Stalin promised to “rub on the head” of his main opponent. In the future, the leaders of the Lubyanka tried in every possible way to fulfill the leader’s wish. In fact, this phrase was launched by DA. The Volkogonovs. And Trotsky himself, from the moment of his expulsion from the USSR in 1929 to 1939, did not interest Stalin at all as an object of liquidation. He was followed, but no more. Over time, it was decided to destroy the main enemy of the Soviet Union. But the initiator was Stalin, and Beria became just a performer. The perpetrator of the murder, Ramon Mercader, said that Trotsky lived in a real fortress, which was not cheap. Once a week he met with the German consul, receiving funds and instructions for action for his accomplices in the USSR. Stalin had no other way out than how to deal with the Trotskyite movement by destroying the leader himself. Western countries planned to implant Trotsky to Russia during the First World War, as they did with Lenin in 1917. So Beria simply fulfilled his duty to defend the Fatherland.
Under the leadership of Beria, the internal affairs agencies allowed mass espionage of German intelligence services, which in many ways caused the tragedy of June 22.
Debunk this myth easily, if you turn to the professional opinion of the Germans. At the Nuremberg trial, the Chief of Staff of the German Armed Forces, Field Marshal Keitel, said that information about the Soviet Union and the Red Army was extremely meager. These agents related to the tactical zone, but never received information that seriously affected the course of hostilities. One of the Abwehr leaders, General Pikkenbrock, said that military intelligence in the USSR had not fulfilled its tasks. But this was not due to the lack of professionalism of the staff, but due to good counterintelligence, the vigilance of the military and civilians. And there was a lot of similar evidence – German intelligence was failing, not revealing our secrets. On the eve of the war the Germans did not know how many divisions they were facing, nor how many tanks could be produced for the war. And the tragedy of June 22 is due primarily to military misses and the violation of banal camouflage.
On the eve of the war, Beria defeated Soviet intelligence.
Until 1937, military intelligence was a sad sight. The failures followed one after another, there was a mess. Among the agents there were many suspicious personalities, the employees were foreigners with relatives abroad.In addition, Trotsky’s supporters were sufficient in the composition. On whom such a structure worked, that’s another question. Beria only completed the process that had begun under Yezhov. With him, the age and national composition of the service changed. As a result, during the Second World War, Soviet intelligence began to be considered the strongest in the world. On a post there were professionals who served not for ephemeral ideas of world revolution, and for the Native land. Beria regained legitimacy in the activities of special departments, helped to improve the effectiveness of the service, its interaction and coordination.
On the eve of the war, Beria deliberately concealed intelligence from Stalin.
Not everyone knows that since February 3, 1941, the NKVD was divided into two commissariats, while external intelligence no longer submitted to Beria. He physically could not work on it. Merkulov provided information to Stalin, as, by the way, and Beria. At the disposal of the NKVD, however, was the intelligence of the border troops. Beria herself essentially recreated it, making it extremely effective. In the archives there are many notes from the People’s Commissar Stalin to the movements of German troops in the frontier zone before the war.
On the eve of the war, Beria initiated deportation of the population of Western Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, the Baltic States.
The archives have very clear figures on the deportation of the Balts on the eve of the war. Of the 4 million people, only 40,000 people were arrested and evicted, including prostitutes and criminals. State security agencies had accurate data that in the event of war, the fifth column would be deployed in the new territories. Merkulov prepared a memo to the Central Committee for clearing the Baltic states of counter-revolutionaries, former guards, gendarmes, officers, landlords. This measure was cruel and in no way democratic. But in fact the state aspired in such a way to strengthen its security. And the signature on the document was left by Merkulov. Similar measures have been taken in Ukraine. Belarus and Moldova. Not all were evicted, but those who had already been compromised and were giving potential dangers.
Beria invited Stalin to set up detachments to shoot the retreating.
Actually, detachments have been known since ancient times, they were used even before ancient Rome. But in the Russian army, such measures were not applied. During the Civil War, detachments were created at critical moments in order to avoid escaping from the front. There were 27 such entities during the Soviet-Finnish war, thanks to the orders of the People’s Commissars Voroshilov and Beria. And during the war, the directive on the establishment of detachments was signed on June 27 by Tymoshenko and Zhukov. By the order of the Stavka, this practice was extended to all fronts. Protective detachments of the NKVD caught stragglers and fled from the front, detaining only until October 10, 1941, 650 thousand people! Thus, the parts of Beria solved the strategic task, not allowing the front to fall apart. Of this number, only 25,000 were arrested, while the rest returned to the front. So what kind of atrocities can you talk about? There are orders Zhukov, who offered to shoot all without parsing deserters.
NKVD troops lived in the rear, while all the people were fighting the Germans. On the eve of the war, these troops guarded the railways, important enterprises, and carried out an escort. In the first days of the war, the internal troops immediately underwent a reorganization. They set the task of establishing order in the rear, clearing roads of refugees, catching deserters and saboteurs, ensuring the smooth operation of transport services. At least figures speak about the fact that these troops carried their heavy service. It was conducted 9,300 operations to combat bandits, about 150 thousand of them were neutralized. During that time, internal troops lost about 5,000 people killed and wounded. So the service unnoticed by the eye was extremely necessary for the state. Also from the NKVD already on June 29, 15 divisions were formed, sent to the front.
Beria stood for the creation of military censorship.
The regulations on military censorship appeared due to the joint order of the People’s Commissariats of Defense and the Navy on July 13, The controllers were distinguished from the staff of NKGB, NPO and NKVMP. Already in August, the control was transferred to the special department as part of the NKVD. So there is no merit in the organization of military censorship of Beria.
The special departments headed by Beria prevented the commanders of the Red Army from effectively denouncing their fight against them.
This myth was profitable for Soviet military commanders, who blamed their failures on Beria and the NKVD. From the notes of the same Abakumov, it can be seen that the command made many mistakes, including a tactical plan, losing personnel. Obviously, these remarks went up, helping to correct the shortcomings.
Beria planned to surrender to Hitler the Caucasus.
And this myth was invented by generals, they could not recognize that the Caucasus was preserved, it was thanks to Beria. True, there are few scientific materials about his participation in those events, we must content ourselves with the memoirs of biased contemporaries. For example, AA Grechko wrote that the arrival of Beria in his army caused harm, he introduced nervousness and disorganization. In fact, the 46th Army was unable to provide protection for the passes, and a member of GKO Beria was sent there at the most crucial moment. The defense of the Caucasus was carried out poorly from a strategic point of view. Beria immediately placed key officers in the position of reliable officers, removing Budyonny and Kaganovich from the command. At the initiative of Beria, 175 passes were urgently studied, their protection and defense were organized. On the Military Georgian and Military-Ossetian roads, the construction of defensive structures has begun, and the protection of communications has been strengthened. Beria organized an anti-aircraft defense of the Baku oil field. Yes, and the NKVD troops under the direct leadership of their people’s commissar excellently showed themselves in the worst of days.
Beria sent the liberated Soviet prisoners of war to the Gulag.
It turns out that even in the edition of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR of 1938, an article appeared on which the surrender to an enemy in an inappropriate situation was punishable by execution with confiscation of property. First of all, it should be noted that there is a myth that the Red Army massively surrendered, especially in 1941. Figures range from 4.5 to 6.2 million people. The Germans themselves scrupulously calculated that in 1941 they were captured 2.5 million soldiers. On August 16, 1941, the Stavka issued a strict order, which allowed punishing deserters and those who surrendered. These were cruel measures, but the country was on the brink of disaster. In December 1941, the GKO and Stalin’s orders created filtration camps to check those released from captivity. In fact, it was an absolutely necessary measure. There is a document of October 1, 1944, according to which 350,000 out of encircled and released servicemen were checked. 250 thousand people were transferred back to the army after the inspection, another 30 thousand were sent to work in industry. Arrested by the same SMERSH authorities only 11,500 people. It follows from the document that over 95% of the former prisoners of war were inspected, but according to the results of the war, the figure fluctuates at the level of 90%. With the end of the battles, the number of people in the filtration camps has increased dramatically. Out of 1.8 million people, 1 million successfully passed the test, these people were returned to the army. Another 600 thousand sent to work in industry, to restore the economy. In the camps, there were 340 thousand people, that is, only about 18% of the audited. There is an interesting GKO document of August 18, 1945, in which the “fierce” attitude towards former prisoners is refuted even by permission to take their families to their place of work.
At the initiative of Beria, a mass deportation of Chechens, Crimean Tatars, Ingush, Kabardians and other small peoples was carried out at the end of the war.
From the point of view of Soviet laws, representatives of these peoples committed such crimes that almost all of the male population would have to be shot.This would be a real genocide. So the Soviet government chose a much softer path for retribution. The peoples who collaborated with the Germans were evicted to where they could not bring harm to the country. It is not worth talking about genocide, for the deported peoples in demography have surpassed others, especially the Slavs, the peoples of the country. The lie is also the statement that Beria received the Order of Suvorov for such an action. Rewarding took place on March 7, 1944, so the head of the NKVD was noted by the leadership for participating in making a break in the course of the war. And the eviction of Chechens and Ingush began only on February 23, which can not be connected with the award. And the cooperation of these peoples with the fascists is a proven fact – the Germans understood the importance of the Crimea and the Caucasus and were preparing to deploy a civil war there, cooperating with indigenous peoples. And often the initiators of the eviction of peoples were not Stalin and Beria, but commanders of the fronts. They had to attract up to 15% of the forces to fight with the bandit formations in the rear. So the problem required a solution.
Beria personally is to blame for the repression against Molotov’s ex-wife, Polina Zhemchuzhina.
This myth appeared thanks to Molotov himself. There is a legend about how immediately after the appointment to the post of the People’s Commissar Beria asked Molotov what could help. Ostensibly the Minister of Foreign Affairs asked to return Pauline the Pearl. Based on the statement of words, you might think that it was Lavrenty Pavlovich who put her behind bars. In fact, Beria had nothing to do with this, since at the time of the arrest of the woman, the investigation and the sentencing of the MGB, he was not in charge. Abakumov sat on this post, who acted on Stalin’s direct orders. He knew that the Pearl was passing the secrets of Molotov to the Israeli ambassador, and other of her actions spoke directly about espionage activities. Pauline herself never angered Stalin, remained faithful to his devotee. And they released Molotov’s wife the day after Stalin’s death, on the orders of Beria, and immediately rehabilitated and reinstated in the party. So Lavrenty Pavlovich played only a positive role in the fate of the Pearl.
Beria together with Avakumov concocted the false Leningrad business.
On December 29, 1945, Marshal Beria was released from the duties of the People’s Commissar, starting to implement the atomic project. So in the state security agencies he had no relationship, except for atomic reconnaissance. The ministry was under the control of Abakumov, who launched a big deal. And the executions were carried out by the MGB.
Beria was an immoral person, raped many women.
This myth is best known about Beria. Not only was he blamed for millions of innocently murdered people, he was accused of immoral behavior. It was said that Beria was killed by rape victims, dissolving corpses in sulfuric acid or destroying them in a stone crusher. First of all, it should be noted that “raped” differently describe the bathroom in the house of Beria. And how did strange women find themselves there unnoticed by the wife of an all-powerful politician? And sulfuric acid is a toxic explosive substance that can not be stored at home. If Beria killed his victims, then where did the numerous witnesses come from? Doubts are caused by a huge list of politicians raped by a politician. Strangely, it completely coincided with the list on which the chief of Stalin’s security, General Vlasik, was accused earlier. In other words, by order the list was transferred from the old case, having been diluted for decency by several new names. In total, Beria was credited with raping two hundred women.
Beria overheard Stalin in the Kremlin.
This myth has appeared already in our time. With the recent reconstruction of the Kremlin, there was evidence that Stalin’s office was auditioned. They immediately accused the “gray cardinal” of the Soviet Union, Beria, of everything. Journalists seized on a famous name, realizing that a smaller figure would not be of interest to anyone.In the structure of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) – CPSU, there was a special service department, which in 1952-1953 was headed by Deputy Minister of State Security I.Savchenko, a close friend of Khrushchev. It was she who had every opportunity to listen to Stalin’s office. In the last year of his life he was alarmed by Khrushchev’s activities. Install the same wiretapping was not difficult – the leader in the last months of his life rarely came to the Kremlin.
Beria killed Stalin, who ceased to trust him.
The question of the transfer of Beria to Lubyanka was decided even during Stalin’s lifetime. Would he have appointed a person to whom he did not trust as head of the special services? This decision was due to the mess and violations that have appeared in the MGB in recent years. And Khrushchev was in charge of the ministry, Beria immediately began to fire his henchmen from the bodies. Lavrenty Pavlovich already had experience in restoring the work of the state security and internal affairs bodies. He even managed to seek the sanction of the Central Committee for the arrest of former Minister of State Security Ignatiev, setting the killers of Stalin. But they did not give the matter to the end of Beria.
Beria killed Stalin, saving the Politburo.
Molotov expressed this version in his conversations with journalists. Beria himself bragged about his act before the Politburo in May 1953. First of all, it is worth recalling that on Lubyanka, Beria came on March 5, 1953, that is, after Stalin’s death. Among the security officers loyal to the new minister was practically none – they were dispersed by their predecessors. On whom did Beria rely, organizing murder? Molotov called witnesses of the recognition of Malenkov and Khrushchev, the deceased already. The Politburo was really afraid of Stalin, because he was going to transfer the country’s administration to the Council of Ministers under the leadership of Beria. So he certainly did not have the need to save party members losing power, or to destroy their patron.
After the death of Stalin, Beria developed a violent activity, wishing to seize power.
After Stalin’s death, Beria lived a little more than a hundred days. There is a rather large list of Laurent Pavlovich’s memorandums to members of the Politburo for this period. He dealt with issues of robberies, employment of amnestied people, appointment of heads of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, construction of buildings, disputed border areas, loans, fires … It is obvious that a person worked on purely practical matters within his competence. Beria not only held a broad amnesty, but also monitored the observance of the rule of law. What were his concrete attempts to seize power, remains a mystery.
For the sake of public relations, Beria rehabilitated convicts in the case of “killer doctors”.
April 3, 1953, a resolution was adopted by the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee on falsifying the case of pest physicians. So Beria simply faithfully carried out the instruction on the rehabilitation of undeservedly convicted persons.
After Stalin’s death, Beria made a broad amnesty, seeking to intimidate all the criminals.
Almost immediately after his appointment, Beria initiated the creation of investigative groups to review cases. In his note of March 26, Beria wrote to Malenkov about the state of affairs in the correctional labor system. He proposed an amnesty, releasing about a million convicts for up to five years. These people served a sentence for official, economic crimes, among them were women with children, elderly and sick. Amnesty should not have touched precisely gangsters, counter-revolutionaries and big thieves. It was intended to revise the criminal legislation, so that some economic crimes were punished not criminally, but disciplined or administratively. And already in May Beria sent Khrushchev a note stating that the employment of the amnestied people does not proceed as smoothly as one would like. It would be superfluous to recall that in 1938 the head of the NKVD likewise immediately proceeded to reconsider numerous unjust cases.
Beria, being an agent of Western intelligence services, advocated the unification of Germany.
This accusation was presented to Beria in hindsight, after his execution. The most interesting is that the story confirmed his rightness.In 1989, Germany united thanks to Gorbachev, although this could happen much earlier and on the initiative of a completely different person. The very idea of the disintegration of Germany belonged to the Americans and the British, who did not want to see a powerful competitor in the center of Europe. Stalin repeatedly stressed that in the future he sees a single and strong democratic Germany, and its dismemberment is seen as an extreme measure. Back in March 1947, riots broke out in the American zone, in view of the robberies of the occupiers. Western propaganda loudly trumpeted that in the Soviet half they live not so well and democratically. The USSR closely followed the riots that had arisen in the GDR, not without the participation of Western special services. Molotov at a meeting of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers proposed the introduction of Soviet troops in this country in order to support the regime. Suddenly, Beria made a speech, which stated that the main thing was peace in Germany, and what form of government would already be unimportant. He explained his position that a single country, even a bourgeois one, would become a serious counterweight to America. Thanks to harsh measures and the introduction of troops, unrest in the GDR was suppressed. And Beria’s principled position was misunderstood, but prophetic.
Because of Beria in the USSR in 1953, potatoes, vegetables and herring disappeared.
Beria looks like such a demon that he was even credited with problems in agriculture. Allegedly he at the Presidium of the Central Committee sent a draft solution to the problem with vegetables for revision. But in fact there were 10 people in the Presidium who could decide by overwhelming majority. In fact, it was Beria who most of all understood the politicians in agriculture, closely dealing with this issue in the 1930s in Georgia. He essentially demanded a revision of the crude project. And later Mikoyan laid on Beria and blamed the lack of herring, which in general has nothing to do with reality.
Beria was arrested in the Kremlin and shot on December 23, 1953 after the trial.
The stories about the arrest of Beria and his execution differ. Bulganin, Zhukov and Moskalenko argue that they were carrying the arrested person in their cars. There is evidence that Lavrentiy Pavlovich was shot in his house by a group of high-ranking military men led by Zhukov. Khrushchev thanked the murderers with titles and posts. Zhukov became a member of the Central Committee, and the murderer, Batitsky, from the Major-General quickly rose to the rank of marshal, becoming the Hero of the Soviet Union. The fact that the murder was committed was told by Academician and General Burgasov. In June 1953, he met with Sergo Beria, who in a dark whisper told about the shooting of his father right in his office. Eight days later at a meeting of the Central Committee Plenum, long before the official execution, Kaganovich bluntly stated that “the adventurer Beria was destroyed.” About him in general at that meeting all spoke in the past tense. And Khrushchev himself openly said that his opponent “released the spirit,” that he planned ahead of him “to press his tail.” The leader of the trade unions, Shvernik, said that at the trial there was also not Lavrentii Pavlovich, but someone else.
The atrocities of Beria were thoroughly investigated and transferred to the court.
The Beria case consisted of 45 volumes, which were collected in six months. But 90% of the materials are not original documents and interrogation protocols, but typewritten copies certified by the major of the Prosecutor’s Office Yuryeva. What kind of prosecutor does not require originals? And were they anyway? In the case of Beria there were many violations. If he was arrested on June 26, then on what grounds, because the case was opened only on June 30? In the decree on the deprivation of Beria’s parliamentary immunity of June 26, there is a reference to a case that was not yet open! They did this, obviously, in hindsight. In the case there is not a single, even in the form of a certified copy, the protocol of the confrontation of Beria with other arrested persons because of him. This suggests that there was already no one to meet “members of the gang”. Arrested, realizing what it means, began to bring everything to the chef. In the case there is not one examination, not one investigative experiment, no judicial photograph was used.A lot of references were to long-dead persons who could not refute their words.
Beria was able to escape from the USSR to Latin America.
This myth was born on the basis of Sergo Beria’s book about his father. He wrote that somebody had allegedly seen Lavrenty Pavlovich in Latin America. But in the same place, Sergo himself pointed out that this could not be in sight. He has no doubt that Beria was killed on June 26 by conspirators.