Bears (Latin Ursclassae) – a family of mammals of the order of predators. They differ from other members of the pspos by a more chunky physique. Bears are omnivorous, climb and swim well, run fast, can stand and pass short distances on their hind legs.
They have a short tail, a long and thick coat, and also an excellent sense of smell and hearing. They hunt in the evening or at sunrise. Usually they are afraid of a person, but they can be dangerous in places where they are used to people, especially the polar bear and the grizzly bear. Immune to bee stings. In nature, natural enemies have almost no.
Bears appeared more than ten million years ago – in the middle Miocene. The most famous cave bear, which at that time lived in the mountainous regions of Eurasia. They found shelter in caves (hence the name). The structure of the teeth of these bears indicates that the diet of their food included only plant food. The sizes of modern species of bears vary widely, but they are all similar in appearance. With other animals you will not be confused!
Bears have strong jaws with huge fangs. On the claws there are claws. The main number of bears are omnivorous. But there are fastidious. For example, a polar bear eats seals, and a bear-sponge likes to eat ants. In the family of bears in our time there are only 7 species. The distribution zone is all of Eurasia, the Arctic, and also America. 3 species of bears – spectacled, spongy and Malay – have so different characteristics that all three belong to different genera.
The weight of the smallest adult bear is about 50 kilograms.
It’s a Malay bear. With this weight, how can you call it small?
The weight of the biggest bear can reach a ton.
It is a large predator – a polar bear.
Panda is a member of the bear family.
Until then, until the time it was considered. But the studies carried out on this subject gave all grounds for isolating pandas into an independent family. The similarity between pandas and bears is only external.
The brown bear is most famous.
Different peoples made him a character in his fairy tales and legends. The brown bear has a fairly high level of intelligence, which is why his performances are often included in the circus program. It is known that among the other wild animals the psychology of the bear is closest to the human. On average, the weight of this bear is three hundred kilograms. However, there are both smaller individuals (weighing from 80 kilograms) and larger representatives (up to 800 kilograms). The body length of brown bears is usually about 2.5 meters. Its name is due to the brown color of fur.
There are many differences between representatives of brown bears.
Once they were even divided into a large number of independent species. But now all varieties of brown bear form one species.
The brown bear is the owner of the taiga.
Representatives of this species inhabited the entire forest zone of Eurasia and North America. The favorite place of life for a brown bear is the old forest with streams and streams in it. For most regions of the Russian Federation, dwelling in the forests of brown bears is considered a common occurrence.
Brown bears are saddled.
Unlike whites. Behind every beast is a certain piece of land. In its limits, there are special places in which the bear finds shelter, feeds, lies in the den. It is easy to find here bear tracks – the ways of the most frequent movement of bears.
The brown bear is clumsy.
But only in appearance. With the speed of movement they are all right – running brown bears quickly – develop speeds of up to 55 kilometers per hour.
The main nutrient base of the brown bear is plant food.
It can be a variety of fruits, rhizomes of plants, juicy greens. To diversify their diet representatives of this species prey on fish, eat insects. And in the springtime, the object of his hunting can be deer, moose and wild boar.It happens that the brown bear with surprising patience sits in the marmots and gophers, waiting for their appearance.
The brown bear falls into hibernation.
It lasts from 75 to 195 days a year. They sleep in the den, which they set up under fallen trees. Before hibernating, brown bears must accumulate a sufficient amount of fat. There are times when brown bears can not fall asleep. Then they wander through the taiga – they stagger – hence their second name – bears-rods.
A brown bear can bite a female together with cubs.
May-June time is ridden by bears. When two males compete with each other, the case often turns into a fight. But here’s what’s interesting: after the rut the male does not want to know the female any more. Having met her along with the kids, they can bite them.
The brown bear is included in the red book.
His status in this book sounds like this: “threatened species”. According to rough estimates, the number of all brown bears is about 200 thousand individuals, most of which live in Russia.
Compared to the weight of adults, cubs are born completely crumbs.
Their body weight is only half a kilogram. In the light they appear blind (they see it only in a month) and deaf. For three years the cubs live next to their mother, who takes care of them.
Senior cubs help to care for younger ones.
Usually, the she-bear gives birth every two years. Senior cubs (mostly sisters) often look after the younger ones.
The grizzly bear is one of the varieties of the brown bear.
The Grizzlies inhabited the territories of North America. It has a lighter coloration, which also has a gray tinge. Vegetable food for him receded into the background. The main source of food – hunting for ungulates and catching fish. On the island of Kodiak, which is closest to Alaska, the largest subspecies of grizzly bears lives – some individuals weigh seven hundred kilograms.
The black bear (baribal) refers to the most numerous species in the world.
He settled the forests of Canada and the United States. The weight of these bears reaches 150 kilograms. The black bear is omnivorous. In the diet of his nutrition includes fruits and leaves of plants, insects, and sometimes small vertebrates. Bear cubs of this bear are born in a den, their weight barely reaches three hundred grams. The number of young people varies from one to four. With the advent of spring, the bear with the babies leaves the den. About a year later, the young are separated from the mother. At the same time young females live on the territory of the mother. And young males are forced to look for a different place for themselves. It is known that only 15% of young males survive and reach sexual maturity.
A polar bear has several names.
The first is polar, because it lives very close to the North Pole. The second is naval, since this bear swims well.
White bears have white fur.
Several erroneous judgments. The fur itself is colorless, formed by a number of colorless tubules. Just the inner surface of these tubes is uneven, so it breaks the light, reflecting it under all sorts of angles – hence the feeling of white.
The species of the polar bear was formed relatively recently.
Paleontologists attribute the occurrence of polar bears to 250,000 years ago.
The polar bear originated from the same ancestor as the brown one.
Only the polar bear has adapted to life in severe conditions among the ice. The population of polar bears is not numerous, therefore this species is included in the Red Book.
The polar bear’s distribution zone is limited to the Arctic.
It inhabited the territory to 88 degrees north latitude, most often it lives between ice floes and icebergs. Individual individuals can be seen more than one hundred kilometers from the land. Polar bears perfectly swim, without rest absolutely easy can swim up to sixty miles.
The polar bear is a predator. On predation he specializes.
It hunts sea hares, ringed seals and even walruses.In patience and you can not refuse! A polar bear can be for a long time at the breathing holes of seals and, when they appear, attack them. But the time is worth it. After all, seal fat and its hide are the beloved dish of polar bears. It is interesting that a polar bear can eat just such an amount of food in just one hour, the mass of which is 10% of the weight of the bear itself.
The polar bear often wanders.
Indeed, he commits seasonal migrations, which are very time-consuming.
Pregnancy of the white she-bear lasts up to 250 days.
Interestingly, the polar bear gon falls on the first months of spring, and the fertilized egg “waits” for the bear to reach the dry land (this happens in autumn) – until this point its development has been suspended.
Polar bears have “maternity homes”.
Births occur in strictly defined places – here polar bears build snow lairs in the snow. Babies (weighing up to 800 grams) are born between January and April.
The polar bears have relatively short hibernation.
On average, two months. Yes, and hibernation, it can be called with a little stretch. Polar bears do not fall into a complete numbness, the bear can wake up, watch what happens in the den, lick their babies.
Polar bears are sociable.
They can often be found playing, they are friendly to each other. Communities do not form polar bears.
Himalayan bear (aka white-chested and Ussuri) is relatively small.
Males weigh, on average, 130 kilograms, females – 70 kilograms. These bears have noticeable wide and long ears. One of the names of the Himalayan bear was due to the presence of a light spot on the chest. The rest of the fur is black and slightly shiny. In Russia, these bears live in the Far East, with a desire to settle in river valleys.
Himalayan bear makes “bear nests”.
These are the creases of the branches that remain after the climbing of these bears through the trees. Here they find fruit. In the food are acorns, pine nuts, cherry fruits, as well as stems of plants. Sometimes he adds to his diet various insects.
Himalayan bears have a lot to do with trees.
In addition to eating their fruits, they arrange in the hollows of shelters, use the crown of trees to protect the cubs. In case of danger, the female pushes her cubs up, and she moves the enemy’s attention a little farther away from them.
The Malay Bear has the same white spot on the chest as the Himalayan bear.
The Malay Bear lives in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. He has smooth hair, on his chest – a bright spot. This bear is omnivorous: its diet includes both plant foods (fruits and leaves), and animal (insects, reptiles, and also small-sized mammals and birds).
Bear-sponge almost 2 times larger than Malay.
Yes, and it is covered with a thicker and longer coat. Dwells in the tropics of India and Ceylon. His most favorite food is insects ants and termites. He does not refuse from the carrion, he eats vegetarian food. In this bear, lips have the ability to stretch out a tube – so it is more convenient for them to “hunt” for ants. It is because of this peculiarity that the bear got its name – the sponge. A dipper with cubs (usually a baby one or two) live together for two or three years. The Spectacled Bear is the only representative of the family that lives in South America.
The name came from white circles around the eyes. This is a very shaggy bear. Body weight of the male can reach up to 140 kilograms. There is a spectacled bear mostly in mountain forests. The main food is vegetable.