Archery

Archery

– a match in shooting for accuracy and range from a bow – a hand weapon for throwing arrows. The onion appeared even in the Stone Age (according to archaeologists, the Neanderthals used bows many hundreds of thousands of years ago – this is evidenced by rock paintings in the caves near the village of Alpera (Spain)). This type of weapon was widely used in almost all tribes and peoples, beginning with the Mesolithic era (ie approximately 17,000 years ago) and until the 17th century AD.

As a sport, archery has been positioned since the 15th century. It was then that archers competed in Switzerland to commemorate the legendary Wilhelm Tell, a skilful archer, a national hero, an independence fighter who lived at the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries. For a long time, neither the inventory nor the rules of the competitions were strictly regulated. The first rules of the competition for this sport appeared only in the XIX century.

Today, for competitions (both indoors and outdoors) I use bows of two types:
• Olympic or Recurve bow. The tension of the bow string is 15-20 kg, the speed of the arrow is about 240 km / h;
• Compound bow, invented in 1982 and equipped with a mechanism that can provide somewhat greater tension force (25-30 kg) and increase the boom speed up to 320 km / h. In this case, the athlete spends less effort than when shooting from the classic bow.

Competitors shoot at standard FITA targets, which are a 20 cm paper circle fixed on the shield (at a distance of 18 and 25 m), 80 cm (for firing from a distance of 30 and 50 m) or 122 cm (for firing from a distance 60, 70 and 90 m).

On the target with different colors are marked the zones that bring the shooters this or that number of points (in the center there is a yellow “bull’s eye” or “ten”, around which there are zones of red, blue, black and white colors). The shooting is conducted in series of 3 (6) arrows, which must be released in 2 (4) minutes. The team that scored the most points wins.

Archery is considered an Olympic sport since 1900. Every year the World Cup is held for this sport. World championships in archery are held every 2 years (for odd years) since 1931.

Complex bows are a modern invention.

Absolutely mistaken opinion. A simple bow (representing a stick of flexible wood, bent into an arc, its ends connected by a string) of course, appeared much earlier than the complex one, and was widely used by the ancient Germans, Anglo-Saxons, Normans, Romans, Egyptians. But complex onions, consisting of a wooden base, reinforced on the inside with horny plates, and with the external – tendons, sometimes with bone pads on the handle (middle part) and ends – is also not a modern invention. According to researchers, complex bows, consisting of horns and wood, first appeared in 2,500 years BC. in ancient Egypt. In addition, such bows were in the course of the Mongols, Chinese, Arabs, Turks, and also used in Siberia and Ancient Rus.

Nowadays bows are used only for hunting and sports competitions.

No, there are also bows used for fishing, equipped with a fishing line reel (or strong thread) fixed on the handle of the bow (the other end of the line is tied to the tail of the boom). In a set with such bows are arrows without plumage (aluminum or carbon fiber) with special removable tips or harpoons. Also a very necessary accessory in this type of fishing are contrasting glasses with yellow polarizing lenses, neutralizing the glare effect, which is usually a serious obstacle in tracking down the production that is under water.

Archery is included in the list of Olympic sports on the initiative of FITA and the European Union of archery.

This is not true.Archery competitions were included in the program of the II Olympiad (1900, Paris (France)) on the initiative of the organizers of the games. And the international federation of archery (Federation Internationale de Tir a l’Arc, FITA), which now unites 140 national federations, was formed only in 1939. The European and Mediterranean archery union (European and Mediterranean Archery Union, EMAU) was founded even later – in 1988.

Archery is included in the program of all the Olympics, starting in 1900.

No, archery competitions were included in program II (1900, Paris (France)), III (1904, Chicago, St. Louis (USA)), IV (1908, Rome (Italy), London ( Great Britain)) and VII (1920, Antwerp (Belgium)) Olympiad. Then this sport was excluded from the program of the Olympic Games, as the general rules for the competition were absent. Archery competitions were again included in the number of Olympic sports only from 1972 – just then at the XX Olympic Games in Munich (Germany) the athletes competed in the personal championship with the M2 discipline, an exercise that developed in the 50s of the last century. The shooting was conducted at 90.70,50.30 m (for male athletes) and 70, 60.50.30 m (for women); arrows shot 36 arrows, and had the opportunity to score 1440 points in exercise M-1, and 2880 points in M-2. Team competitions in archery were introduced into the program of the Olympic Games in 1988.

All competitions in archery were conducted according to a single regulation.

Modern rules of competitions began to be formed in the XIX century, but until the middle of the last century, there was no uniform regulation of competitions for this sport. The M-1 and M-2 exercises that were formed in the 1950s became the basis for international competitions: according to the M-1 regulations, European Championships were held, in M-2, awards were given at the World Championships (until 1986) and the Olympic Games. For the competitions in the premises, the exercises M-3, M-4 (60 shots at the 18 and 25 m distances, respectively) and the “FITA circle” (representing the preliminary selection according to the formula M-1, further – the determination of the winner by the Olympic system) are introduced.

Any athlete-archer can participate in the Olympics.

Yes, but in order to get into the team (in which there can be no more than 64 male shooters and the same number of women), the athlete must obtain a license in the national federation of the sport, according to the results of the archer’s performances in various competitions for 4 pre-Olympic years.

Archery competitions are held from standard ranges along FITA targets.

In the case of the Olympic Games, the European and World Championships, only paper targets of strictly defined shape and size, attached to shields installed at an angle of 10-15 °, are used for competitions.

But there are also other types of competitions in which shooting is conducted against targets of a different kind.

For example, Claut shooting is performed on a horizontally placed target (diameter – 15 meters, the width of each zone is 1.5 meters, the diameter of the central zone (denoted by a triangular flag of 80 cm in height) is 3 meters) from a distance of 165 meters (for men) and 125 m (for women). For vertical archery also uses a very special kind of target – a column with a wheel (“palm”), on which are fixed wooden balls (“parrots”). The task of the shooter standing under the “palm tree” is not only to get into the “parrot”, but also to bring him to the ground – only in this case the shot is counted. A field shooting is conducted from 3 types of onions (Olympic, classical and compound) on targets (both 2D and 3D (sometimes with marked zones of damage) that mimic different animals. They are located at different distances from the distance, which the archers overcome, carefully looking around – after all, sometimes the target may be hidden behind a small bush or tree, located in the lowland or on a hillock.In this kind of competition, the task of the shooter is to determine “by eye” (the use of goniometers or range finders is forbidden), the distance to the target and the altitude excess. The speed of the distance is not taken into account, but a certain time limit does take place. But at the competitions on skiark (lunar biathlon or archeri biathlon), which are held in winter, time is crucial (as in the usual biathlon). Arrows use an Olympic bow without a stabilizer, which is carried in a bag behind the back, in order to hit the falling targets at different sections of the ring road. Traditional archery championships (Japanese, Korean, Buryat, Mongolian) are also held. They are distinguished by the original type of bows and targets, the composition of participants, the types of overcoming the distance (for example, on horseback or swimming), etc.

The size of the “bull’s eye” of the target depends only on the distance to it.

This is not quite true. In addition to the distance, according to which a target of a certain size is selected, the type of onion is also taken into account. For example, if you use the Olympic bow – the diameter of the “apple” – 4 cm, and if the block – only 2 cm.

Athletes keep the bow only with their hands.

No, in range shooting (“flight shooting” or “flight shooting” from English flight-shooting) with the use of so-called foot bows (almost exactly repeating Turkish bows for long range shooting, equipped with a supporting boom for the boom and an exhaust ring, putting on the thumb arrow) the athlete is forced to use his legs. Lying on his back, he rests his feet in the shaft of the bow, and pulls the bowstring with both hands.

These days, bows are equipped with stabilizers and an aiming system.

There are many types of bows partially or completely devoid of the above-mentioned devices. For example, the so-called “bare bows” in construction are similar to the Olympic, but are not equipped with an aiming system, stabilizer and clicker. In “instinctive” bows, in addition, weighting agents, limbusavers (rubber inserts placed in the shoulders of the bow and reducing vibration) and dampers (special devices that are built into the handle of the bow for damping the harmonic vibrations) are prohibited.

The best archers are the Swiss.

Wrong opinion. Although Switzerland is considered the birthplace of the sport, between 1950 and 1980, the best results in the competition were demonstrated by athletes from the United States, who today shared the palm of the championship with archers from Italy, China and South Korea.

During the competition, it is strictly forbidden to direct charged bow to people.

According to the rules of the competition, athletes should not send even unloaded bow to people, and also shoot vertically upwards or start shooting without a team of judges.

Participants in firing on 3-D targets are prohibited from drinking alcohol or doping under the threat of disqualification and non-admission to the competition.

Yes, it is. In addition, the participants who litter the territory on which the competitions are held, or who conduct an independent warm-up (adjustment) in unsuitable places (for example, in a parking lot) are punished with disqualification, get a repeated prompt from any of the participants or spectators (for the first hint of the shooter receives a severe warning) or verbally abuses anyone present. Athletes who have not been trained in safety techniques or who shoot shooting are not allowed to compete. It is also not allowed to visit the lines on which athletes have to compete or have devices to determine the distance to the target. If the shooter breaks the rule, he automatically counts 0 points for each line he has visited and for the entire stage of the competition, if he is caught in using prohibited devices. Even for viewers on the border, it is forbidden to have any instruments for determining distances.

If one of the competitors has an arrow in the shooting line, he can raise it.

Maybe, but with the condition – lifting the arrow, the athlete must touch the flag set at the shooting position.

In the event of a breakdown of the equipment, the arrow is allocated time to solve the problem and to shoot the missed target.

Only if this is the first breakdown of equipment during the tournament. The participant is given 20 minutes to repair (replace) the inventory. The second breakdown is also allowed to be eliminated, but the athlete will not receive the right to target the targets – he will be awarded a zero result on missed targets.

If the arrow bounces off the arrows in the target – it brings the athlete the same number of points as the one she hit.

Yes, if the arrow can be identified, and if after the bounce it does not hit the target or is stuck in the shaft of the arrow in the target (“Robin Hood”). If, by bouncing off, the arrow hits the target – as a result, its last location is taken into account.

The arrow that strikes the target at the end, brings the athlete the maximum number of points.

This is not quite true. The team will have to notify the official that the arrow of one of the athletes has penetrated the target through and did not remain on the back side (if the arrow remains, it is simply removed from the target by pushing back). Only in this case the arrow will be counted hit, and it will be estimated not more than 10 points (out of 12 possible). And in the event that the arrow simply slides on the target (even leaving a noticeable trace), the athlete is credited with a mistake.

3-D targets are set at a height of 0.5 m above the ground.

Not always. For example, targets such as “lynx”, designed to test the skills of shooting at an angle, are set to a slightly higher altitude.

Targets during competitions held in the open air are oriented so that the sun does not shine in the face of the shooters.

Having the targets, the organizers of the competitions in the first place try to place them so that the sun does not shine in the eyes of the arrow-right-handers. But athletes left-handed in competitions (lasting 2 days for men and women at the Olympics and 3 days in archery championships) are forced to choose either morning or evening hours for performances.

Producing a shot is best for delaying breathing after exhalation.

Yes, holding the breath during the shot is really important, as it helps to achieve complete immobility of the chest, which greatly improves the accuracy of the aiming. This delay lasts 10-15 seconds – such a break is not difficult even for a beginner (only in rare cases, inexperienced archers experience the state of hypoxia), and it’s quite easy for trained athletes. An experienced shooter begins to breathe more superficially while pulling onions, which makes it easier to extend the natural breathing delay somewhat. But it should be noted that the delay in breathing is not done after inhaling or exhaling, but at the moment of half-exhalation – in this case the respiratory muscles are in a small tonus corresponding to the tone of the whole organism and the oxygen level in the lungs does not fall too low.

During the aiming of the shooter, the target most clearly sees.

The bowstring at this point should be located to the left of the fly. When shooting from a classic bow, from three different objects, which are in front of the archer’s eyes while aiming (bow string, fly (rectangular, round, trapezoid, ring, etc.) and the target), the sight should most clearly be visible. The target (with the center of which the fly should coincide) is less clearly visible, even less clearly – the bowstring, which can be located both to the right and to the left of the fly (the main thing is always on the one hand and at the same distance). And aiming from the blockbow, the shooter achieves a location on the same straight line (the so-called aiming line) diopter (or peep-site (English peep sight), which is a small device equipped with an aperture, fixed on the string at eye level shooting) flies and aiming points.However, the aforementioned devices are not available in historical bows, even aiming at the projection of the bowstring (as in the peripheral bow) is impossible, since it is drawn stronger – to the level of the ear arrow. Because the archer can use only “intuitive aiming”, similar to that used, for example, when throwing a stone at the target.

The arrow can pierce metal armor.

Yes, but only if it hits strictly perpendicular to the surface of the armor or to the gap between the plates. Otherwise, the arrows slide over the surface of the metal, most often without harming the warrior.

The main goal of a beginner archer is to learn to get into the “top ten”, and in the subsequent trainings to develop the acquired skill.

Experts believe that at the initial stages the main thing is not accuracy, but the correct position of all parts of the body during the guidance and shot. When the position is worked out – it remains only to adjust the sight.

Prolonged aiming is the key to a hit.

No, if the athlete takes aim too long – the hand holding the bow becomes tired and begins to tremble, which greatly reduces the chances of getting into the “top ten”. A prerequisite for an accurate hit, experienced archers consider the correct position of the body and the confident grip of the handle of the bow. At the same time, it is very important to weaken grip in time to avoid negative impact on the spine (especially if the shot is made from English longbow, whose height is sometimes about 2 meters and, accordingly, the recoil at the shot is quite strong).

For the training of a beginner, the classic bow is perfect.

Much depends on what the person is trying to achieve. If he seriously decided to get into a big sport – indeed, it is worth giving preference to the classic bow, since this type of weapon is used in the Olympics and other international competitions. If the target arrow is hunting or fishing, the best choice is the compound. Although it is heavier than the classic bow, but differs in compactness and considerable power (that is why it is not used for entertainment), without requiring an overhead force to stretch the bowstring.

For beginners, it’s best to choose the lightest arrows.

Selecting arrows, one should take into account the fact that the lightest of them (as well as simply “empty” shots) contribute to the rapid wear of the bow.

The best arrows are carbon.

Yes, during outdoor sports such arrows are simply irreplaceable, because they have a small diameter, are light, do not lend themselves to deformation, are almost not carried by the wind, have a high level of rigidity. But if such an arrow broke – it is almost impossible to fix it. When firing at short distances in enclosed spaces, athletes prefer aluminum arrows, which differ in the large diameter of the tube. But such arrows (especially the cheapest ones) are quickly deformed, and after each shot they need straightening, which without special equipment can not be made. Therefore, for entertainment (for example, for archery at the dacha), it is best to use wooden or plastic arrows – they can be easily repaired in case of breakage.

The length of the arrows is always adjusted to the specific athlete.

This is indeed so. In order to determine the length of the boom, you should stretch the bow with an arrow of the maximum length and ask the assistant to mark on the tube a place that is 2.5 cm from the shelf. The remaining arrows of the set are cut off by this mark with the help of a special typewriter or nadfile, after which a tip and a tail with plumage are fastened to them. However, it is better for beginners to not cut off arrows at all – in case of a miss, an arrow can get into any solid object (for example, a stone), as a result either the tip is driven into the beginning of the tube, or the end of the arrow is bent. In this case, it is quite easy to repair it – just cut the deformed part and fit the tip. Repair of the cropped arrows will be much more difficult to produce.

The thicker the bowstring – the longer it will last.

Choosing a string for bow, it should be remembered that for each weapon model only a certain type of string is suitable. For example, a too-thick bowstring, mounted on a small crossbow, reduces the speed of the boom. If the length of the bowstring is too large, it will often have to be tightened. Inelastic bowstring can lead to breakage of the weapon (especially wooden), since all the load in this case is transferred to the shoulders of the bow. And if the string has nodes – this helps reduce its strength.

Selecting the string, you must always consider how far it is able to stretch.

For example, a string Fast-flite consisting of Spectra fibers constantly changes length (depending on the degree of humidity, temperature regime) and can be stretched up to a full break even on a bow that is not used. Almost the same behavior in the process of TS1 – the fastest string to date. But the string “8125”, created from dyneema (which is the same Spectra, reinforced with polyethylene fibers) requires pre-stretching. Bowstring “450+” (in addition to dyneema includes vectran, which prevents excessive stretching), thicker, does not require stretching, however it is slower than described above, and also wears out quickly. The thinner and quicker string “452” is somewhat stronger, but at the same time, more expensive. The Ultracam bowstring, similar in composition to the above, presupposes stretching, but without it stretches no more than 4-5 mm.

From a light bow the shot is more accurate.

Not necessary. In the opinion of experts, the accuracy of heavy bows is much less affected by the microvibration of the needle than by the accuracy of lighter structures.

You can manually straighten the lost wooden bow.

It is really possible to restore the shape of a wooden bow yourself, but physical efforts for this purpose are not necessary. You just need to steam up the onion, after removing the bowstring from it, and do not use it for a while.

The arrow and the bullet fly along the same trajectory, only at different speeds.

Wrong opinion. A bullet fired from a classic rifled weapon, at a distance of up to 100 meters, flies almost in a straight line, its deflection will be negligible, while the flight path of the arrow is arcuate.

Snap and grip – the words denoting the ways of holding the bow of the bow.

This is not quite true. A certain position of the hand holding the bow is called a grip. In this case, the high (characterized by the smallest contact area of ​​the hand lowered below the forearm, with the handle of the weapon), the middle (the average area of ​​contact of the hand with the handle, the angle between the forearm and the brush is 180 °) and a low grip (the maximum area of ​​contact of the palm with the handle, is located at an angle of 120 ° with respect to the forearm). Capture is also called the ways to hold the bowstring.

For archery, athletes use a fingertip or a glove.

If you shoot with your fingers without these devices, you can not do it, and the hunter uses the glove, and the fingertip is mostly athletes who shoot from the classic bow. However, when shooting from the compound, experts recommend using only releases (ie special devices for string tension, equipped with a trigger), since shooting with fingers does not contribute to accuracy of hit. The most popular suspension (carpal) release, attached by a belt to the wrist arrow, and T-shaped, held by the fingers.

A shelf in a bow is the guarantee of accuracy of shooting.

Yes, the aforementioned device, which is absent in ancient and modern traditional bows (in which the role of the shelf is performed by the finger arrow) and representing a fixed place on the handle of the bow for the position of the boom, really contributes to an increase in the accuracy of the hit.When choosing a shelf, you should pay attention not to the external appeal of the product, but to the matching of the chosen type of string pulling, since the shelf suitable for the bow, in which the string is stretched by the fingers, is quite different from the one used when pulling the bowstring with a release. And different types of shelves are not interchangeable, as they provide different ways of interaction of the arrow with the bow.

Quiver is usually worn on the waist.

Athletes do wear a quiver with arrows on their belts. But the hunters prefer to use the invention of Fred Bear (USA) – quivers, fastened directly to the bow. Choosing this quiver, it is best to give preference to the product of the manufacturer of the onion – in this case, the exact alignment of the fastening holes and details on the bow and quiver is guaranteed.

The more arrows the quiver will intervene, the better.

In sports competitions, the capacity of the quiver really plays an important role. But on the hunt more value is small weight and compactness. Quite a long time, the most popular quivers at least 8 arrows, today hunters prefer quivers of lower weight and volume, containing only 4 arrows.

Soft bow cover is much more convenient than hard.

For bow transport in public transport or a car, such a cover is really more convenient, and it does not take much space in an apartment. However, if you have to transport sports equipment on the train or in the plane – it is better to buy a hard case for both bow and arrow.

Archery develops attention, concentration, endurance and is generally useful for health.

Unfortunately, this is not entirely true. Classes this sport really contributes to the development of these qualities, but we should not forget that prolonged training has a specific effect on the athlete’s body, and not always positive. The reason is that in the process of competition and preparation for them, the archer is forced to take a special pose, ensuring maximum stability and the most comfortable grip. Keeping such a position of the body (rather asymmetric) within several hours requires a lot of muscle effort, which eventually leads to curvature of the spine, asymmetry of the pelvic bones, shoulders, and shoulder blades and causes other posture disorders. Also, flat feet, arthritis, osteochondrosis, deforming arthrosis, myositis, etc. can occur. Especially often the above changes in the locomotor apparatus are observed in young athletes. The archers suffer also from vegetative-vascular dystonia caused by high emotional tension during the competition and training, as well as from concomitant diseases (bronchitis, rhinitis, pneumonia, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis). In order to minimize the risk of the mentioned problems, it is necessary, firstly, to build a schedule of trainings correctly, including various measures aimed at the prevention of diseases and injuries (a set of corrective exercises performed during and after training, and in parallel with other sports, for example, swimming, football, tennis, etc.). Secondly, the trainer and the athletes themselves must take into account the impact of negative environmental factors (rain, snow, strong wind) and adjust the schedule of training on the street and indoors.

Modern bows contribute to the creation of a greenhouse effect.

Yes, if the onion is made using glue and fiberglass (wood and metal structures of the mentioned effect do not exert any effect on the environment). The fact is that epoxy adhesives that fasten wooden and fiberglass parts of onions easily heat up under the sun’s rays (after all, transparent glass fiber reinforced plastic does not constitute a serious obstacle for the penetration of visible light, and at the same time helps to keep heat rays) and begin to evaporate. To avoid this, a light pigment (for example, titanium dioxide) is added to the fiberglass binders.

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