There is no doubt that Ancient Greece is an important part of the history of human civilization, which has given much to future generations. After all, it was there and then lay the foundations of modern knowledge about mathematics, politics, culture, medicine, philosophy.
Ancient Greece itself left us many myths about gods and heroes. But even around the history and culture of that civilization there are many misconceptions. But we believe in this truth, which in fact has no basis. In the history of Ancient Greece, there are some misconceptions that have come time to debunk.
This story is sung by the famous Homer. Who has not heard about the famous war of the Greeks with the Trojans, in which Achilles and Hector showed themselves. Even the gods took part in that epic, sharing sympathy. The very concept of “Trojan horse” became a famous aphorism, meaning a gift with a hidden secret meaning. And the legend of the Achilles’ heel appeared precisely from here. Only here is who said that such a war in general was? Scientists for a long time could not find Troy at all. When the remnants of the supposedly ancient city were found, it became clear that at some point it was really attacked and looted. But were they Greeks with their huge army? Historical evidence of this whole story and the myths born of it simply do not exist. Troy, probably, was besieged by someone, only this and you can say for sure.
Battle of Thermopylae.
The feat of the three hundred Spartans, we all studied at school. And thanks to the recent creation of Hollywood, people were able to see how it was approximately. But this movie has further strengthened the historical untruth. A mistake will be that a handful of Spartans defended the passage and thereby saved the whole of Greece. The troops of Xerxes as a result of the battle were indeed stopped for a while. Nevertheless, the invaders inflicted great damage on Greece, having withdrawn only after the defeat in the naval battle. A mistake will be that it was three hundred Spartans who fought against the whole army. In fact, at the beginning of the battle, the defending forces consisted of seven thousand men. On the last day of the battle, there were one thousand four hundred men, three hundred were truly Spartans, but after all four hundred warriors represented Thebes, there were eighty Mykene and seven hundred Fezpians. Nobody denies the fighting valor of the Spartans, just do not exaggerate their merits and importance.
Today we know that the Spartan warriors were some kind of super soldiers. This myth was born, including the aforementioned story. It seems to us that all the men in Sparta did nothing, except how they trained, preparing for the battles. Home these warriors returned with either a shield or a shield. About any other life in his youth, love for women and speech could not be. In fact, this is a myth. Young Spartans really gave part of their time to military affairs, but spent the rest of the time together with peers and peers. Soldiers-Spartans not only trained, but also acted in plays, sang and danced. And when the soldiers became so old that they could no longer fight, they began to train the younger generation. So do not think that in Sparta, men only did that they were at war.
Against the backdrop of the previous myth, it seems that women should have been almost a slave position for such strong warlike men. But in Sparta things were quite different. While men were at war, women did almost all the work. Therefore, this work was very much appreciated in the Spartan society. Even Aristotle spoke of the high places of women in Sparta and even of their right to own land. “Weak sex” was almost entirely responsible for the upbringing of children, society encouraged mental exercises and exercises in art. And yes, it was women who owned most of the land.There is even a legend that one day women in Athens asked the Spartan queen why she is allowed to rule by men. To which the ruler of Sparta replied that it was in this city that women give birth to real men.
Greece and homosexuality.
It is believed that Greece is not only the birthplace of the arts, but also various forms of love. Greeks and especially the Athenians were accused of actively cultivating homosexuality, having sex with boys and boys. Men of the Ancient Athenians became firmly associated for many with pedophiles. In fact, this is a rather complicated question, you can not try to clearly determine whether it was or not. In those days, pederasty or intimate relationships between an experienced man and a young teenager were of an intellectual nature. So the teacher more frankly and deeply could establish relations with his pupil. Adult men eventually helped young people find their place in society. It is not necessary to talk about mass and encouraged pederasty. Some particularly zealous fans of close communication with the students were even tried.
Ancient Greek theater.
It seems to us that the ancient Greek theater was a place where large groups of people came to celebrate a holiday. About what really were the ancient dramas, few people have any idea. Theatrical performances in Ancient Greece were very symbolic. To understand the play, it was necessary to have a certain knowledge about which myths are at the heart of every part of the dialogue, to understand all the symbols used. Often the audience took part in the production, as is customary in the modern stand-up. And theatrical productions in general were originally part of religious rites.
The tradition to hold the Olympic Games originated in Greece. These large-scale competitions were so popular that they are held today, simply changing their format to a modern one. But regarding the history of the Olympic Games, people have different misconceptions. First of all, it is a mistake to think that the Olympics were held only in antiquity. This tradition persisted for many years, even during the reign of the Romans. Only Theodosius finished the Olympics, with a view to the final confirmation of Christianity, as the official religion throughout the Roman Empire. It is known that women were strictly forbidden to attend the Olympic Games. But there were exceptions – the priestesses of Demeter. And that women did not enter the arena in men’s outfits, the Olympians eventually competed completely naked. In addition, the athletes smeared themselves with olive oil, which helped them improve the quality of the skin and make it shiny, attractive purely visually.
Today in many museums we admire the brilliant marble ancient statues. At one time, the British took a lot of valuable exhibits to their museums, simply taking them from the Greeks. This happened during the XIX century. Inadvertent transportation, military actions or just time spoiled many masterpieces of ancient art. Let’s recollect even Venus of Milos with absent hands. But even here there is a myth – it seems to us that the samples of Greek architecture and statues in those days shone with marble in the sun. In fact, both temples and statues were not snow-white at that time – they were covered with paint. Over time, it simply erased. One can only imagine how vivid and colorful were the statues centuries ago. In addition, many of them also had bronze applications. In the statues often inlaid black stone, which allowed to effectively look the eyes of the heroes.
We know that the ancient Greeks were well versed in art, mathematics, philosophy and other life spheres. But in how much they were technically advanced, it is often forgotten. At the beginning of the 20th century, a diver who studied the bottom near the island of Andikitir found several green stone blocks.It turned out that they were part of a certain mechanical device. The scientists called it the “Antikytyk mechanism”. It turned out that this amazing device could do pretty interesting things. The device could predict solar eclipses and follow the cycles of the Olympics. The mechanism had a complex dial, which was synchronized with the Moon and the Sun. In fact, it was the first computer in history. According to some information, the creator of this device could well be Archimedes, whose mathematical genius is not questioned.
Today, modern democracy is called the heir of the Greek system of society. In fact, this opinion is mistaken – not the Greeks came up with modern democracy, as many believe. And the Athenian democracy differs markedly from any modern democratic institution. That ancient form of government was one of the few examples of direct democracy in history. All political issues were to be voted on, in which all citizens of Athens took part. True, we should not rush to consider such a form of society reasonable, because women and slaves were deprived of the right to vote. Also those citizens who were born outside the city could not vote. Although formally the poor had the right to vote, in fact few of them could leave their affairs to influence political affairs. So in fact only adult and free Athenians took part in the voting, relatively rich. Of course, they could not imagine the interests of the whole population. Yes, this form of government had its pluses, especially given the tyranny that was in many cities of Greece. But the very fact that the adoption of the most important decisions for the city was not without ordinary people, has become an important political innovation. Now the destiny of Athens was determined not only by rich people or aristocrats.